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1.  T-cell metabolism in autoimmune disease 
Cancer cells have long been known to fuel their pathogenic growth habits by sustaining a high glycolytic flux, first described almost 90 years ago as the so-called Warburg effect. Immune cells utilize a similar strategy to generate the energy carriers and metabolic intermediates they need to produce biomass and inflammatory mediators. Resting lymphocytes generate energy through oxidative phosphorylation and breakdown of fatty acids, and upon activation rapidly switch to aerobic glycolysis and low tricarboxylic acid flux. T cells in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have a disease-specific metabolic signature that may explain, at least in part, why they are dysfunctional. RA T cells are characterized by low adenosine triphosphate and lactate levels and increased availability of the cellular reductant NADPH. This anti-Warburg effect results from insufficient activity of the glycolytic enzyme phosphofructokinase and differentiates the metabolic status in RA T cells from those in cancer cells. Excess production of reactive oxygen species and a defect in lipid metabolism characterizes metabolic conditions in SLE T cells. Owing to increased production of the glycosphingolipids lactosylceramide, globotriaosylceramide and monosialotetrahexosylganglioside, SLE T cells change membrane raft formation and fail to phosphorylate pERK, yet hyperproliferate. Borrowing from cancer metabolomics, the metabolic modifications occurring in autoimmune disease are probably heterogeneous and context dependent. Variations of glucose, amino acid and lipid metabolism in different disease states may provide opportunities to develop biomarkers and exploit metabolic pathways as therapeutic targets.
doi:10.1186/s13075-015-0542-4
PMCID: PMC4324046
2.  IL-7– and IL-15–mediated TCR sensitization enables T cell responses to self-antigens 
Regulation of the ERK pathway is intimately involved in determining whether TCR stimulation is productive or induces anergy. T cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have increased ERK responsiveness which may be relevant for disease pathogenesis. Inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α did not reproduce the TCR hypersensitivity typical for RA in T cells from healthy individuals. In contrast, priming with the homeostatic cytokines IL-7 and IL-15 amplified ERK phosphorylation to TCR stimulation twofold to threefold. The underlying mechanism involved a priming of the SOS-dependent amplification loop of RAS activation. The sensitization of the TCR signaling pathway has downstream consequences, such as increased proliferation and preferential Th1 differentiation. Importantly, priming with IL-7 or IL-15 enabled T cell responses to autoantigens associated with RA. Production of homeostatic cytokines is induced in lymphopenic conditions, which have been shown to predispose for autoimmunity and which appear to be present in the preclinical stages of RA. We propose that homeostatic cytokines, possibly induced by lymphopenia, decrease the signaling threshold for TCR activation and are thereby partly responsible for autoimmunity in RA.
doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1201620
PMCID: PMC3574821  PMID: 23325887
3.  T Cell Aging in Rheumatoid Arthritis 
Current opinion in rheumatology  2014;26(1):93-100.
Purpose of review
With progressive age, the immune system and the propensity for abnormal immunity change fundamentally. Individuals >50 years of age are more susceptible to infection and cancer, but also at higher risk for chronic inflammation and immune-mediated tissue damage. The process of immunosenescence is accelerated in rheumatoid arthritis.
Recent findings
Premature T cell senescence occurs not only in RA, it has also been involved in morbidity and mortality of chronic HIV infection. Senescent cells acquire the “senescence associated secretory phenotype (SASP)”, which promotes and sustains tissue inflammation. Molecular mechanisms underlying T cell aging are beginning to be understood. Besides the contraction of T cell diversity due to uneven clonal expansion, senescent T cells have defects in balancing cytoplasmic kinase and phosphatase activities, changing their activation thresholds. Also, leakiness in repairing DNA lesions and uncapped telomeres imposes genomic stress. Age-induced changes in the tissue microenvironment may alter T cell responses.
Summary
Gain- and loss-of-function in senescent T cells undermine protective immunity and create the conditions for chronic tissue inflammation, a combination typically encountered in RA. Genetic programs involved in T cell signaling and DNA repair are of high interest in the search for underlying molecular defects.
doi:10.1097/BOR.0000000000000011
PMCID: PMC3984035  PMID: 24296720
immune aging; DNA damage; telomere; T cell signaling; SASP
4.  The Immunopathology of Giant Cell Arteritis: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Implications 
Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is an important cause of preventable blindness, most commonly due to anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Ischemic tissue injury is the end result of a process that begins within the walls of susceptible arteries in which local dendritic cells (DCs) recruit and activate CD4 T cells that, in turn, direct the activity of effector macrophages. In response to the granulomatous inflammation, the blood vessel forms lumen- stenosing intima. Multiple cascades of excessive T-cell reactivity contribute to the autoimmune features of giant cell arteritis with TH1 and TH17 immunity responsible for the early phase and TH1 immunity promoting chronic-smoldering inflammation. These cascades are only partially overlapping, supporting the concept that a multitude of instigators jeopardize the immune privilege of the vessel wall. The artery actively participates in the abnormal immune response through endogenous immune sentinels, so-called vascular DCs embedded in the adventitia. Advancing age, the strongest of all risk factors for GCA, likely contributes to the dysfunction of the immune system and the vascular system. Expansion of the therapeutic armamentarium for GCA needs to focus on approaches that mitigate the impact of the aging artery and adapt to the needs of the immunosenescent host.
doi:10.1097/WNO.0b013e318268aa9b
PMCID: PMC4278656  PMID: 22914691
5.  Signaling pathways in aged T cells – a reflection of T cell differentiation, cell senescence and host environment 
Seminars in immunology  2012;24(5):365-372.
With increasing age, the ability of the immune system to protect against new antigenic challenges or to control chronic infections erodes. Decline in thymic function and cumulating antigenic experiences of acute and chronic infections threaten T cell homeostasis, but insufficiently explain the failing immune competence and the increased susceptibility for autoimmunity. Alterations in signaling pathways in the aging T cells account for many of the age-related defects. Signaling threshold calibrations seen with aging frequently built on mechanisms that are operational in T cell development and T cell differentiation or are adaptations to the changing environment in the aging host. Age-related changes in transcription of receptors and signaling molecules shift the balance towards inhibitory pathways, most dominantly seen in CD8 T cells and to a lesser degree in CD4 T cells. Prominent examples are the expression of negative regulatory receptors of the CD28 and the TNF receptor superfamilies as well the expression of various cytoplasmic and nuclear dual-specific phosphatases.
doi:10.1016/j.smim.2012.04.003
PMCID: PMC3435478  PMID: 22560928
Aging; signaling; T cell receptor; JAK STAT pathway; dual-specific phosphatase
6.  Immune Mechanisms in Medium and Large Vessel Vasculitis 
Nature reviews. Rheumatology  2013;9(12):731-740.
Summary
Vasculitis of the medium and large arteries, most often presenting as giant cell arteritis (GCA), is an infrequent, but potentially fatal type of immune-mediated vascular disease. The site of the aberrant immune reaction, the mural layers of the artery, is strictly defined by vascular dendritic cells, endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts which engage in an interaction with T cells and macrophages to ultimately cause luminal stenosis or aneurysmal wall damage of the vessel. A multitude of effector cytokines, all known as critical mediators in host-protective immunity, has been identified in the vasculitic lesions. Two dominant cytokine clusters, one centering on the IL-6/IL-17 axis, the other on the IL-12/IFN-γ axis, have been connected with disease activity. These two clusters appear to serve different roles in the vasculitic process. The IL-6/IL-17 cluster is highly responsive to standard corticosteroid therapy, whereas the IL-12/IFN-γ cluster is resistant to steroid-mediated immunosuppression. The information exchange between vascular and immune cells and stabilization of the vasculitic process involves members of the NOTCH receptor and ligand family. Focusing on elements in the tissue context of GCA, instead of broadly suppressing host immunity, may allow for a more tailored therapeutic approach and spare patients the unwanted side-effects of aggressive immunosuppression.
doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2013.161
PMCID: PMC4277683  PMID: 24189842
7.  Giant-Cell Arteritis and Polymyalgia Rheumatica 
A 79-year-old woman presents with new-onset pain in her neck and both shoulders. She takes 7.5 mg of prednisone per day for giant-cell arteritis. Occipital tenderness and diplopia developed 11 months before presentation. At that time, her erythrocyte sedimentation rate was elevated, at 78 mm per hour, and a temporal-artery biopsy revealed granulomatous arteritis. The diplopia resolved after 6 days of treatment with 60 mg of prednisone daily. Neither headache nor visual symptoms developed when the glucocorticoids were tapered. How should this patient’s care be managed?
doi:10.1056/NEJMcp1214825
PMCID: PMC4277693  PMID: 24988557
8.  Immune aging and autoimmunity 
Age is an important risk for autoimmunity, and many autoimmune diseases preferentially occur in the second half of adulthood when immune competence has declined and thymic T cell generation has ceased. Many tolerance checkpoints have to fail for an autoimmune disease to develop, and several of those are susceptible to the immune aging process. Homeostatic T cell proliferation which is mainly responsible for T cell replenishment during adulthood can lead to the selection of T cells with increased affinity to self- or neoantigens and enhanced growth and survival properties. These cells can acquire a memory-like phenotype, in particular under lymphopenic conditions. Accumulation of end-differentiated effector T cells, either specific for self-antigen or for latent viruses, have a low activation threshold due to the expression of signaling and regulatory molecules and generate an inflammatory environment with their ability to be cytotoxic and to produce excessive amounts of cytokines and thereby inducing or amplifying autoimmune responses.
doi:10.1007/s00018-012-0970-0
PMCID: PMC4277694  PMID: 22466672
Age; Autoimmunity; T cell memory; T cell homeostasis; CD45RA T effector cells
9.  Magnetic Resonance Angiography in Extracranial Giant Cell Arteritis 
Background
Noninvasive diagnosis of giant cell arteritis (GCA) remains challenging, particularly with regard to evaluation of extracranial arterial disease.
Objectives
The objective of the study was to retrospectively review extracranial involvement in patients with GCA and/or polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR), evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), especially 3-dimensional contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography images of the aortic arch and its branches.
Methods
Clinical information, biopsy status, and MRI examinations of 28 patients with GCA/PMR were reviewed. Patient images were mixed randomly with 20 normal control images and were independently reviewed by 2 radiologists. Interobserver agreement for detection of arterial stenosis was determined by the k coefficient.
Results
Both readers described vascular alterations in keeping with extracranial GCA in 19 of 28 patients (67%) with good interobserver agreement (k = 0.73) and with even higher agreement on diagnosing nonocclusive versus occlusive disease (k = 1.00). The most common lesions were bilateral axillary stenosis or obstructions, observed by both readers in 8 patients (28%). Among the 19 patients with magnetic resonance angiography lesions in the subclavian/axillary arteries, 12 (75%) had biopsy-proven GCA, but only 5 (41%) of these patients had clinical features of large artery disease.
Conclusions
In our series review, MRI could provide accurate information on involvement of the aortic arch and its branches in extracranial GCA, depicting different degrees of stenosis. Our analysis also illustrates that occult large artery vasculitis should be considered in patients without biopsy-proven GCA, patients with classic GCA but without clinical signs of large artery disease, and in patients initially diagnosed as having PMR.
doi:10.1097/RHU.0b013e31822acec6
PMCID: PMC4271838  PMID: 21869711
large artery vasculitis; giant cell arteritis; MRI; MRA
10.  Chronic inflammation and aging: DNA damage tips the balance 
Current opinion in immunology  2012;24(4):488-493.
The aged immune system, typically hyporesponsive to infection and vaccination, can be hyperresponsive in the context of inflammatory pathology. Here we review current work examining the mechanisms behind the amplified inflammatory profile of aged adaptive immunity, and the reciprocal relationship between chronic inflammation and immune aging. Aged hematopoietic stem cells are driven to differentiate following accumulated DNA damage, thus depleting the stem cell pool and increasing the number of damaged effector cells in the circulation. Chronic DNA damage responses in lymphocytes as well as senescent cells of other lineages initiate the production of inflammatory mediators. In addition, aged lymphocytes become less reliant on specific antigen for stimulation and more prone to activation through innate receptors. When these lymphocytes are exposed to inflammatory signals produced by senescent tissues, the bias toward inflammation exacerbates destruction without necessarily improving immunity.
doi:10.1016/j.coi.2012.04.003
PMCID: PMC3423478  PMID: 22565047
11.  Decline in miR-181a expression with age impairs T cell receptor sensitivity by increasing DUSP6 activity 
Nature medicine  2012;18(10):1518-1524.
The ability of the human immune system to respond to vaccination declines with age. We identified an age-associated defect in T cell receptor (TCR)-induced ERK phosphorylation in naïve CD4+ T cells (P<0.0001) while other signals, such as ZAP70 and PLC-γ1 phosphorylation were not impaired. The defective ERK signaling was caused by the dual specific phosphatase (DUSP) 6 whose protein levels increased with age (r = 0.68, P < 0.0001) due to a decline in repression by miR-181a (r = −0.59, P < 0.0001). Reconstitution of miR-181a lowered DUSP6 levels in naïve CD4+ T cells in elderly individuals. DUSP6 repression with miR-181a or specific siRNA, and DUSP6 inhibition with the allosteric inhibitor (E)-2-benzylidene-3-(cyclohexylamino)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one improved CD4+ T cell responses as seen by increased expression of activation markers, improved proliferation and supported preferential TH1 differentiation. DUSP6 is a potential intervention target for restoring T cell responses in the elderly, which may augment the effectiveness of vaccination.
doi:10.1038/nm.2963
PMCID: PMC3466346  PMID: 23023500
12.  The Janus Head of T Cell Aging – Autoimmunity and Immunodeficiency 
Immune aging is best known for its immune defects that increase susceptibility to infections and reduce adaptive immune responses to vaccination. In parallel, the aged immune system is prone to autoimmune responses and many autoimmune diseases increase in incidence with age or are even preferentially encountered in the elderly. Why an immune system that suboptimally responds to exogenous antigen fails to maintain tolerance to self-antigens appears to be perplexing. In this review, we will discuss age-associated deviations in the immune repertoire and the regulation of signaling pathways that may shed light on this conundrum.
doi:10.3389/fimmu.2013.00131
PMCID: PMC3671290  PMID: 23761790
immunosenescence; autoimmunity; inflammation; pathogenesis; DNA damage response; T cell receptor signaling; rheumatoid arthritis; giant cell arteritis
13.  Understanding immune senescence to improve vaccine responses 
Nature immunology  2013;14(5):428-436.
In the older adult the benefits of vaccination to prevent infectious disease are limited, mainly due to the adaptive immune system’s inability to generate protective immunity. Age-dependent decline in immune competence, often referred to as immunosenescence, results from progressive deterioration of innate and adaptive immune responses and most of the insights into mechanisms of immune aging have derived from studies in murine models. In this Review, we explore how well these models are applicable to understand the aging process throughout the 80–100 years of human life and discuss recent advances in uncovering and characterizing the mechanisms underlying age-associated defective adaptive immunity in humans.
doi:10.1038/ni.2588
PMCID: PMC4183346  PMID: 23598398
14.  Regulation of T cell receptor signaling by activation-induced zinc influx 
Zinc enhances TCR signaling in part by inhibiting Shp-1 recruitment to the TCR synapse.
Zinc is a trace element that is essential for innate and adaptive immune responses. In addition to being a structural element of many proteins, zinc also functions as a neurotransmitter and an intracellular messenger. Temporal or spatial changes in bioavailable zinc may influence the activity of several enzymes, including kinases and phosphatases. We provide evidence that zinc functions as an ionic signaling molecule after T cell activation. Cytoplasmic zinc concentrations increased within 1 min after T cell receptor (TCR) triggering, in particular in the subsynaptic compartment. The increase depended on the extracellular zinc concentrations and was inhibited by silencing zinc transporter Zip6. Increased zinc influx reduced the recruitment of SHP-1 to the TCR activation complex, augmented ZAP70 phosphorylation and sustained calcium influx. By calibrating TCR activation thresholds, increased extracellular zinc bioavailability facilitated the induction of T cell proliferative responses to suboptimal stimuli.
doi:10.1084/jem.20100031
PMCID: PMC3135340  PMID: 21422171
15.  Immune Aging and Rheumatoid Arthritis 
doi:10.1016/j.rdc.2010.03.001
PMCID: PMC2914095  PMID: 20510235
Immunosenescence; aging; autoimmunity; rheumatoid arthritis; telomere
16.  Age-Dependent Signature of Metallothionein Expression in Primary CD4 T Cell Responses Is Due to Sustained Zinc Signaling 
Rejuvenation research  2008;11(6):1001-1011.
The ability to mount adaptive immune responses to vaccinations and viral infections declines with increasing age. To identify mechanisms leading to immunosenescence, primary CD4 T cell responses were examined in 60- to 75-year-old individuals lacking overt functional defects. Transcriptome analysis indicated a selective defect in zinc homeostasis. CD4 T cell activation was associated with zinc influx via the zinc transporter Zip6, leading to increased free cytoplasmic zinc and activation of negative feedback loops, including the induction of zinc-binding metallothioneins. In young adults, activation-induced cytoplasmic zinc concentrations declined after 2 days to below prestimulation levels. In contrast, activated naïve CD4 T cells from older individuals failed to downregulate cytoplasmic zinc, resulting in excessive induction of metallothioneins. Activation-induced metallothioneins regulated the redox state in activated T cells and accounted for an increased proliferation of old CD4 T cells, suggesting that regulation of T cell zinc homeostasis functions as a compensatory mechanism to preserve the replicative potential of naïve CD4 T cells with age.
doi:10.1089/rej.2008.0747
PMCID: PMC2848531  PMID: 19072254
17.  Unchecked CD70 expression on T cells lowers threshold for T-cell activation in rheumatoid arthritis1 
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by premature immune aging with accumulation of degenerate T cells deficient for CD28. Gene expression profiling of CD4+CD28− and CD4+CD28+ T cells to discover disease-promoting activities of CD28− T cells identified expression of CD70 as a most striking difference. Hence, CD70 was significantly more expressed in CD4 T cells from RA patients compared to age-matched controls (P<0.006). The underlying mechanism was a failure to repress CD70 expression after activation-dependent induction. This defect in RA was not related to differential promoter demethylation. CD70 on bystander CD4+CD28− T cells functioned by lowering the threshold for T-cell activation; admixture of CD4+CD28− T cells augmented TCR-induced responses of autologous naïve CD4+CD28+ T cells, particularly of low avidity T cells. The data support a model where CD70 expressed on T cells causes degeneracy in T-cell responses and undermines tolerance mechanisms that normally control T-cell autoreactivity.
PMCID: PMC2832914  PMID: 17675524
T cells; Rheumatoid Arthritis; Costimulation; Gene Regulation; Tolerance/Suppression/Anergy
18.  Age-Dependent Signature of Metallothionein Expression in Primary CD4 T Cell Responses Is Due to Sustained Zinc Signaling 
Rejuvenation Research  2008;11(6):1001-1011.
Abstract
The ability to mount adaptive immune responses to vaccinations and viral infections declines with increasing age. To identify mechanisms leading to immunosenescence, primary CD4 T cell responses were examined in 60- to 75-year-old individuals lacking overt functional defects. Transcriptome analysis indicated a selective defect in zinc homeostasis. CD4 T cell activation was associated with zinc influx via the zinc transporter Zip6, leading to increased free cytoplasmic zinc and activation of negative feedback loops, including the induction of zinc-binding metallothioneins. In young adults, activation-induced cytoplasmic zinc concentrations declined after 2 days to below prestimulation levels. In contrast, activated naïve CD4 T cells from older individuals failed to downregulate cytoplasmic zinc, resulting in excessive induction of metallothioneins. Activation-induced metallothioneins regulated the redox state in activated T cells and accounted for an increased proliferation of old CD4 T cells, suggesting that regulation of T cell zinc homeostasis functions as a compensatory mechanism to preserve the replicative potential of naïve CD4 T cells with age.
doi:10.1089/rej.2008.0747
PMCID: PMC2848531  PMID: 19072254
19.  Treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases with biologic agents: Opportunities and risks for the elderly 
Experimental gerontology  2006;41(12):1250-1255.
The treatment armamentarium in rheumatic inflammatory diseases has drastically increased in the last years. Earlier uses of conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), along with the arrival of newer therapies including the so-called “biologic” agents, have provided better long-term outcomes for patients suffering from these illnesses. Biologic agents have shown efficacy for several diseases and failed in others. Due to a high prevalence of some of these diseases in the elderly population, this age group may also benefit, although treatment will have to be tailored to its special needs. In this mini review, we will discuss the use of these medications in rheumatic diseases with a significant prevalence in the elderly, their proven and potential uses, and the considerations that need to be taken into account when using them in this population.
doi:10.1016/j.exger.2006.10.010
PMCID: PMC2705938  PMID: 17125948
Biologic agents; autoimmune rheumatic disease; B cells; T cells; elderly
20.  T cell subset-specific susceptibility to aging 
Clinical immunology (Orlando, Fla.)  2008;127(1):107-118.
With increasing age, the competence of the immune system to fight infections and tumors declines. Age-dependent changes have been mostly described for human CD8 T cells, raising the question of whether the response patterns for CD4 T cells are different. Gene expression arrays of memory CD4 T cells yielded a similar age-induced fingerprint as has been described for CD8 T cells. In cross-sectional studies, the phenotypic changes were not qualitatively different for CD4 and CD8 T cells, but occurred much more frequently in CD8 T cells. Homeostatic stability partially explained this lesser age sensitivity of CD4 T cells. With aging, naïve and central memory CD8 T cells were lost at the expense of phenotypically distinct CD8 effector T cells, while effector CD4 T cells did not accumulate. However, phenotypic shifts on central memory T cells were also more pronounced in CD8 T cells. This distinct stability in cell surface marker expression can be reproduced in vitro. The data show that CD8 T cells are age sensitive by at least two partially independent mechanisms: fragile homeostatic control and gene expression instability in a large set of regulatory cell surface molecules.
doi:10.1016/j.clim.2007.12.002
PMCID: PMC2435295  PMID: 18222733
immunosenescence; aging; T-cell subset; T-cell homeostasis; CD4; CD8; killer immunoglobulin-like receptors; CD85
21.  T-cell co-stimulatory pathways in autoimmunity 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2008;10(Suppl 1):S3.
T-cell activation and differentiation depend on the signal strength received by the T-cell receptor and on signals provided by co-stimulatory molecules. The most prominent co-stimulatory molecule is CD28, which controls the activation of naïve and memory T cells by antigen presented on professional antigen-presenting cells. Blocking of the CD28-CD80/86 pathway has been an appealing strategy for inducing tolerance in autoimmune diseases where the disease-inducing autoantigens are not known. Although CD28 has maintained its unique position, the past decade has witnessed the recognition that a large number of regulatory molecules on T cells must be stimulated to generate a fully protective immune response. These regulatory receptors differ in their preferential expression on T-cell subsets, in the ligands that they recognize, and in the signaling pathways that they trigger. They have in common the fact that they provide information on the cellular environment in which the T-cell response occurs. By intercepting these signals, we may be able to influence disease-relevant T-cell responses in autoimmune diseases while potentially minimizing broad immunosuppression.
doi:10.1186/ar2414
PMCID: PMC2582810  PMID: 19007423
22.  Selective Activation of the c-Jun NH2-terminal Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway by Stimulatory KIR in the Absence of KARAP/DAP12 in CD4+ T Cells 
Activation of CD4+ T cells is governed by interplay between stimulatory and inhibitory receptors; predominance of stimulatory signals favors autoimmune reactions. In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, expression of the critical costimulatory molecule, CD28, is frequently lost. Instead, CD4+CD28null T cells express killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) with a preferential expression of the stimulatory receptor, CD158j. The frequency of CD4+CD28null T cells in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) correlates with the risk for more severe disease. Moreover, the KIR2DS2 gene, which encodes for CD158j, is a genetic risk factor for rheumatoid vasculitis. CD158j signals through the adaptor molecule, KARAP/DAP12, to positively regulate cytotoxic activity in NK cells. However, the majority of CD4+CD28null T cell clones lacked the expression of KARAP/DAP12. Despite the absence of KARAP/DAP12, CD158j was functional and augmented interferon-γ production after T cell receptor stimulation. Cross-linking of CD158j resulted in selective phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and its upstream kinase, MKK4 that led to the expression of ATF-2 and c-Jun, all in the absence of extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 phosphorylation. Mutation of the lysine residue within the transmembrane domain of CD158j abolished JNK activation, suggesting that an alternate adaptor molecule was being used. CD4+CD28null T cells expressed DAP10 and inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, which acts downstream of DAP10, inhibited JNK activation; however, no interaction of DAP10 with CD158j could be detected. Our data suggest that CD158j in T cells functions as a costimulatory molecule through the JNK pathway independent of KARAP/DAP12 and DAP10. Costimulation by CD158j may contribute to the autoreactivity of CD4+CD28null T cells in RA.
doi:10.1084/jem.20020383
PMCID: PMC2193867  PMID: 12591902
autoimmunity; pathogenesis; rheumatoid arthritis; costimulation; killer immunoglobulin-like
23.  T Cell–Macrophage Interactions and Granuloma Formation in Vasculitis 
Granuloma formation, bringing into close proximity highly activated macrophages and T cells, is a typical event in inflammatory blood vessel diseases, and is noted in the name of several of the vasculitides. It is not known whether specific properties of the microenvironment in the blood vessel wall or the immediate surroundings of blood vessels contribute to granuloma formation and, in some cases, generation of multinucleated giant cells. Granulomas provide a specialized niche to optimize macrophage–T cell interactions, strongly activating both cell types. This is mirrored by the intensity of the systemic inflammation encountered in patients with vasculitis, often presenting with malaise, weight loss, fever, and strongly upregulated acute phase responses. As a sophisticated and highly organized structure, granulomas can serve as an ideal site to induce differentiation and maturation of T cells. The granulomas possibly seed aberrant Th1 and Th17 cells into the circulation, which are known to be the main pathogenic cells in vasculitis. Through the induction of memory T cells, aberrant innate immune responses can imprint the host immune system for decades to come and promote chronicity of the disease process. Improved understanding of T cell–macrophage interactions will redefine pathogenic models in the vasculitides and provide new avenues for immunomodulatory therapy.
doi:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00432
PMCID: PMC4162471  PMID: 25309534
macrophage; dendritic cell; T cell; granuloma; vasculitis
24.  Finding Balance: T cell Regulatory Receptor Expression during Aging 
Aging and Disease  2011;2(5):398-413.
Aging is associated with a variety of changes to immune responsiveness. Reduced protection against infection, reduced responses to vaccination and increased risk of autoimmunity are all hallmarks of advanced age. Here we consider how changes in the expression of regulatory receptors on the T cell surface contribute to altered immunity during aging.
PMCID: PMC3295076  PMID: 22396890
Aging; T cell costimulation; inhibitory receptors; T cell regulation; NK receptors
25.  CD8+CD45RA+CCR7+FOXP3+ T cells with immunosuppressive properties: a novel subset of inducible human regulatory T cells 
CD8 T cells stimulated with a suboptimal dose of anti-CD3 antibodies (100 pg/ml) in the presence of IL-15 retain a naïve phenotype with expression of CD45RA, CD28, CD27 and CCR7 but acquire new functions and differentiate into immunosuppressive T cells. CD8+CCR7+ Tregs express FOXP3 and prevent CD4 T cells from responding to T-cell receptor stimulation and entering the cell cycle. Naïve CD4 T cells are more susceptible to inhibition than memory cells. The suppressive activity of CD8+CCR7+ Tregs is not mediated by IL-10, TGF-β, CTLA-4, CCL4 or adenosine and relies on interference with very early steps of the TCR signaling cascade. Specifically, CD8+CCR7+ Tregs prevent TCR-induced phosphorylation of ZAP70 and dampen the rise of intracellular calcium in CD4 T cells. The inducibility of CD8+CCR7+ Tregs is correlated to the age of the individual with peripheral blood lymphocytes of donors older than 60 years yielding low numbers of FOXP3low CD8 Treg cells. Loss of CD8+CCR7+ Tregs in the elderly host may be of relevance in the aging immune system as immunosenescence is associated with a state of chronic smoldering inflammation.
doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1200122
PMCID: PMC3424334  PMID: 22821963

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