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1.  Unusual ferromagnetic critical behavior owing to short-range antiferromagnetic correlations in antiperovskite Cu1-xNMn3+x (0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.4) 
Scientific Reports  2015;5:7933.
For ferromagnets, varying from simple metals to strongly correlated oxides,the critical behaviors near the Curie temperature (TC) can be grouped into several universal classes. In this paper, we report an unusual critical behavior in manganese nitrides Cu1-xNMn3+x (0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.4). Although the critical behavior below TC can be well described by mean field (MF) theory, robust critical fluctuations beyond the expectations of any universal classes are observed above TC in x = 0.1. The critical fluctuations become weaker when x increases, and the MF-like critical behavior is finally restored at x = 0.4. In addition, the paramagnetic susceptibility of all the samples deviates from the Curie-Weiss (CW) law just above TC. This deviation is gradually smeared as x increases. The short-range antiferromagnetic ordering above TC revealed by our electron spin resonance measurement explains both the unusual critical behavior and the breakdown of the CW law.
doi:10.1038/srep07933
PMCID: PMC4300457  PMID: 25604754
2.  Mechanistic Toxicokinetic Model for γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid: Inhibition of Active Renal Reabsorption as a Potential Therapeutic Strategy 
The AAPS Journal  2010;12(3):407-416.
γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), a drug of abuse, exhibits saturable renal clearance and capacity-limited metabolism. The objectives of this study were to construct a mechanistic toxicokinetic (TK) model describing saturable renal reabsorption and capacity-limited metabolism of GHB and to predict the effects of inhibition of renal reabsorption on GHB TK in the plasma and urine. GHB was administered by iv bolus (200–1,000 mg/kg) to male Sprague-Dawley rats and plasma and urine samples were collected for up to 6 h post-dose. GHB concentrations were determined by LC/MS/MS. GHB plasma concentration and urinary excretion were well-described by a TK model incorporating plasma and kidney compartments, along with two tissue and two ultrafiltrate compartments. The estimate of the Michaelis-Menten constant for renal reabsorption (Km,R) was 0.46 mg/ml which is consistent with in vitro estimates of monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)-mediated uptake of GHB (0.48 mg/ml). Simulation studies assessing inhibition of renal reabsorption of GHB demonstrated increased time-averaged renal clearance and GHB plasma AUC, independent of the inhibition mechanism assessed. Co-administration of GHB (600 mg/kg iv) and l-lactate (330 mg/kg iv bolus plus 121 mg/kg/h iv infusion), a known inhibitor of MCTs, resulted in a significant decrease in GHB plasma AUC and an increase in time-averaged renal clearance, consistent with the model simulations. These results suggest that inhibition of renal reabsorption of GHB is a viable therapeutic strategy for the treatment of GHB overdoses. Furthermore, the mechanistic TK model provides a useful in silico tool for the evaluation of potential therapeutic strategies.
doi:10.1208/s12248-010-9197-x
PMCID: PMC2895455  PMID: 20461486
gamma-hydroxybutyrate; kidney reabsorption; pharmacokinetic model; renal clearance; toxicokinetics
3.  Age-Dependent Signature of Metallothionein Expression in Primary CD4 T Cell Responses Is Due to Sustained Zinc Signaling 
Rejuvenation research  2008;11(6):1001-1011.
The ability to mount adaptive immune responses to vaccinations and viral infections declines with increasing age. To identify mechanisms leading to immunosenescence, primary CD4 T cell responses were examined in 60- to 75-year-old individuals lacking overt functional defects. Transcriptome analysis indicated a selective defect in zinc homeostasis. CD4 T cell activation was associated with zinc influx via the zinc transporter Zip6, leading to increased free cytoplasmic zinc and activation of negative feedback loops, including the induction of zinc-binding metallothioneins. In young adults, activation-induced cytoplasmic zinc concentrations declined after 2 days to below prestimulation levels. In contrast, activated naïve CD4 T cells from older individuals failed to downregulate cytoplasmic zinc, resulting in excessive induction of metallothioneins. Activation-induced metallothioneins regulated the redox state in activated T cells and accounted for an increased proliferation of old CD4 T cells, suggesting that regulation of T cell zinc homeostasis functions as a compensatory mechanism to preserve the replicative potential of naïve CD4 T cells with age.
doi:10.1089/rej.2008.0747
PMCID: PMC2848531  PMID: 19072254
4.  Age-Dependent Signature of Metallothionein Expression in Primary CD4 T Cell Responses Is Due to Sustained Zinc Signaling 
Rejuvenation Research  2008;11(6):1001-1011.
Abstract
The ability to mount adaptive immune responses to vaccinations and viral infections declines with increasing age. To identify mechanisms leading to immunosenescence, primary CD4 T cell responses were examined in 60- to 75-year-old individuals lacking overt functional defects. Transcriptome analysis indicated a selective defect in zinc homeostasis. CD4 T cell activation was associated with zinc influx via the zinc transporter Zip6, leading to increased free cytoplasmic zinc and activation of negative feedback loops, including the induction of zinc-binding metallothioneins. In young adults, activation-induced cytoplasmic zinc concentrations declined after 2 days to below prestimulation levels. In contrast, activated naïve CD4 T cells from older individuals failed to downregulate cytoplasmic zinc, resulting in excessive induction of metallothioneins. Activation-induced metallothioneins regulated the redox state in activated T cells and accounted for an increased proliferation of old CD4 T cells, suggesting that regulation of T cell zinc homeostasis functions as a compensatory mechanism to preserve the replicative potential of naïve CD4 T cells with age.
doi:10.1089/rej.2008.0747
PMCID: PMC2848531  PMID: 19072254
5.  Divergence between motoneurons: gene expression profiling provides a molecular characterization of functionally discrete somatic and autonomic motoneurons 
Physiological genomics  2005;24(3):276-289.
Studies in the developing spinal cord suggest that different motoneuron (MN) cell types express very different genetic programs, but the degree to which adult programs differ is unknown. To compare genetic programs between adult MN columnar cell types, we used laser capture micro-dissection (LCM) and Affymetrix microarrays to create expression profiles for three columnar cell types: lateral and medial MNs from lumbar segments and sympathetic preganglionic motoneurons located in the thoracic intermediolateral nucleus. A comparison of the three expression profiles indicated that ~7% (813/11,552) of the genes showed significant differences in their expression levels. The largest differences were observed between sympathetic preganglionic MNs and the lateral motor column, with 6% (706/11,552) of the genes being differentially expressed. Significant differences in expression were observed for 1.8% (207/11,552) of the genes when comparing sympathetic preganglionic MNs with the medial motor column. Lateral and medial MNs showed the least divergence, with 1.3% (150/11,552) of the genes being differentially expressed. These data indicate that the amount of divergence in expression profiles between identified columnar MNs does not strictly correlate with divergence of function as defined by innervation patterns (somatic/muscle vs. autonomic/viscera). Classification of the differentially expressed genes with regard to function showed that they underpin all fundamental cell systems and processes, although most differentially expressed genes encode proteins involved in signal transduction. Mining the expression profiles to examine transcription factors essential for MN development suggested that many of the same transcription factors participatein combinatorial codes in embryonic and adult neurons, but patterns of expression change significantly.
doi:10.1152/physiolgenomics.00109.2005
PMCID: PMC2724224  PMID: 16317082
transcriptome; identified motor neuron; combinatorial code; ion channel; transcription factor; fluorescent laser capture microscopy; spinal cord; lipid raft signaling complex
6.  T cell subset-specific susceptibility to aging 
Clinical immunology (Orlando, Fla.)  2008;127(1):107-118.
With increasing age, the competence of the immune system to fight infections and tumors declines. Age-dependent changes have been mostly described for human CD8 T cells, raising the question of whether the response patterns for CD4 T cells are different. Gene expression arrays of memory CD4 T cells yielded a similar age-induced fingerprint as has been described for CD8 T cells. In cross-sectional studies, the phenotypic changes were not qualitatively different for CD4 and CD8 T cells, but occurred much more frequently in CD8 T cells. Homeostatic stability partially explained this lesser age sensitivity of CD4 T cells. With aging, naïve and central memory CD8 T cells were lost at the expense of phenotypically distinct CD8 effector T cells, while effector CD4 T cells did not accumulate. However, phenotypic shifts on central memory T cells were also more pronounced in CD8 T cells. This distinct stability in cell surface marker expression can be reproduced in vitro. The data show that CD8 T cells are age sensitive by at least two partially independent mechanisms: fragile homeostatic control and gene expression instability in a large set of regulatory cell surface molecules.
doi:10.1016/j.clim.2007.12.002
PMCID: PMC2435295  PMID: 18222733
immunosenescence; aging; T-cell subset; T-cell homeostasis; CD4; CD8; killer immunoglobulin-like receptors; CD85

Results 1-6 (6)