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author:("Wu, chengyang")
1.  Revaccination of non- and low- responders after a standard three dose hepatitis B vaccine schedule 
Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics  2012;8(12):1845-1849.
Guangdong province of China is HBV high endemicity and 1.6 million neonates are administrated 5 μg yeast recombinant anti-HBV vaccine each year. But few studies are performed to evaluate the immunogenicity and revaccination effect on non- and low- responders.
2,199 children were administered intramuscularly with 5 μg vaccine at 0, 1 and 6 mo after birth. A 3 ml blood sample was drawn from each infant 1 mo after the third dose for determination of anti-HBs level. Three additional doses (10 μg each) were given to non- and low- responders.
Of 1,814 subjects, 3.1% were non-responders (anti-HBs titer < 10 mIUml−1) and 28.9% were low-responders (anti-HBs ≥ 10 mIUml−1 and < 100 mIUml−1). Low birth weight (LBW) was a risk factor for non- and low- responders (RR = 1.6, 95%CI = 1.2–2.0). After revaccination, of the 34 non-responders, 14.7% became low-responders and 85.3% became responders. Of the 74 low-responders, 21.6% remained at the same level and 78.4% shifted into responder category.
Based on the lower responding rate after the primary immunization cycle and the higher responding rate after the additional cycle, measurement of anti-HBs level should be considered for people who had been immunized with three-dose 5 μg HB vaccine in Guangdong, especially for specific populations including LBW infants, healthcare workers, and patients with immunodeficiency disorders. An amount of 10 μg vaccine should be revaccinated to any non- and low- responders to provide adequate seroprotection.
PMCID: PMC3656074  PMID: 22906933
hepatitis B vaccine; non-responder; low-responder; influence factors; revaccination
2.  Structural Determinants of Actinomyces sortase SrtC2 Required for Membrane Localization and Assembly of Type 2 Fimbriae for Interbacterial Coaggregation and Oral Biofilm Formation 
Journal of Bacteriology  2012;194(10):2531-2539.
As a pioneer colonizer of the oral cavity, Actinomyces oris expresses proteinaceous pili (also called fimbriae) to mediate the following two key events in biofilm formation: adherence to saliva deposits on enamel and interbacterial associations. Assembly of type 2 fimbriae that directly facilitate coaggregation with oral streptococci and Actinomyces biofilm development requires the class C sortase SrtC2. Although the general sortase-associated mechanisms have been elucidated, several structural attributes unique to the class C sortases require functional investigation. Mutational studies reported here suggest that the N-terminal transmembrane (TM) region of SrtC2, predicted to contain a signal peptide sequence, is cleaved off the mature protein and that this processing is critical for the proper integration of the enzyme at the cytoplasmic membrane, which is mediated by the extended hydrophobic C terminus containing a TM domain and a cytoplasmic tail. Deletion of this putative TM or the entire cytoplasmic domain abolished the enzyme localization and functionality. Alanine substitution of the conserved catalytic Cys-His dyad abrogated the SrtC2 enzymatic activity. In contrast, mutations designed to alter a “lid” domain that covers the catalytic pocket of a class C sortase showed no effect on enzyme activity. Finally, each of the deleterious mutations that affected SrtC2 activity or membrane localization also eliminated Actinomyces species biofilm development and bacterial coaggregation with streptococci. We conclude that the N terminus of SrtC2, which contains the signal sequence, is required for proper protein translocation and maturation, while the extended C-terminal hydrophobic region serves as a stable membrane anchor for proper enzyme functionality.
PMCID: PMC3347213  PMID: 22447896
3.  Differential response of Streptococcus mutans towards friend and foe in mixed-species cultures 
Microbiology  2011;157(Pt 9):2433-2444.
In the oral biofilm, the ‘mitis’ streptococci are among the first group of organisms to colonize the tooth surface. Their proliferation is thought to be an important factor required for antagonizing the growth of cariogenic species such as Streptococcus mutans. In this study, we used a three-species mixed culture to demonstrate that another ubiquitous early colonizing species, Veillonella parvula, can greatly affect the outcome of the competition between a pair of antagonists such as S. mutans and Streptococcus gordonii. Transcriptome analysis further revealed that S. mutans responds differentially to its friend (V. parvula) and foe (S. gordonii). In the mixed culture with S. gordonii, all but one of the S. mutans sugar uptake and metabolic genes were downregulated, while genes for alternative energy source utilization and H2O2 tolerance were upregulated, resulting in a slower but persistent growth. In contrast, when cultured with V. parvula, S. mutans grew equally well or better than in monoculture and exhibited relatively few changes within its transcriptome. When V. parvula was introduced into the mixed culture of S. mutans and S. gordonii, it rescued the growth inhibition of S. mutans. In this three-species environment, S. mutans increased the expression of genes required for the uptake and metabolism of minor sugars, while genes required for oxidative stress tolerance were downregulated. We conclude that the major factors that affect the competition between S. mutans and S. gordonii are carbohydrate utilization and H2O2 resistance. The presence of V. parvula in the tri-species culture mitigates these two major factors and allows S. mutans to proliferate, despite the presence of S. gordonii.
PMCID: PMC3352174  PMID: 21565931
4.  The seroepidemiology of Immunoglobulin G antibodies against pertussis toxin in China: a cross sectional study 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2012;12:138.
Pertussis is a reported vaccine-preventable respiratory disease in China. Because the routine laboratory methods for diagnosis are not in use, the reported cases are mainly in infants with classical paroxysmal cough and the true incidence related to pertussis is most likely under estimated. In China, however, few studies have attempted to address this issue. The purpose of this cross sectional study was to estimate the incidence rates using the method of sero-epidemiology of immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies against pertussis toxin (PT) among healthy populations in China.
Blood samples were obtained from 1313 healthy individuals aged 0 to 95 years in Guangdong province of China throughout September 2010. Serum IgG antibodies against PT were determined by commercial ELISA kits. Subjects with concentration of anti-PT IgG higher than 30 IU/mL were indicated to have recent Bordetella pertussis infection, if they have not received a booster dose of pertussis vaccine within one year.
Of the 1313 study subjects, 117 (8.91%) were found to have anti-PT antibodies higher than 30 IU/mL. The estimated incidence of recent infection was thus 9395 per 100,000 for individuals older than 7 years. Peaks of the estimated incidence rate of recent infection were found to be 11561 per 100,000 in age group of 41–50 years and 11428 per 100,000 in the group aged 13–19 years.
Our study indicated that B.pertussis infections are considerablely common, particularly in adolescents and adults in China. The study also stresses the importance of laboratory diagnosis for pertussis and employment of booster dose of pertussis vaccine in adolescents and adults in this country.
PMCID: PMC3447642  PMID: 22892100
Pertussis; Cross-sectional study; Sero-epidemiology; Anti-PT IgG; China
5.  Dual Function of a Tip Fimbrillin of Actinomyces in Fimbrial Assembly and Receptor Binding▿ 
Journal of Bacteriology  2011;193(13):3197-3206.
Interaction of Actinomyces oris with salivary proline-rich proteins (PRPs), which serve as fimbrial receptors, involves type 1 fimbriae. Encoded by the gene locus fimQ-fimP-srtC1, the type 1 fimbria is comprised of the fimbrial shaft FimP and the tip fimbrillin FimQ. Fimbrial polymerization requires the fimbria-specific sortase SrtC1, which catalyzes covalent linkage of fimbrial subunits. Using genetics, biochemical methods, and electron microscopy, we provide evidence that the tip fimbrillin, FimQ, is involved in fimbrial assembly and interaction with PRPs. Specifically, while deletion of fimP completely abolished the type 1 fimbrial structures, surface display of monomeric FimQ was not affected by this mutation. Surprisingly, deletion of fimQ significantly reduced surface assembly of the type 1 fimbriae. This defect was rescued by recombinant FimQ ectopically expressed from a plasmid. In agreement with the role of type 1 fimbriae in binding to PRPs, aggregation of A. oris with PRP-coated beads was abrogated in cells lacking srtC1 or fimP. This aggregation defect of the ΔfimP mutant was mainly due to significant reduction of FimQ on the bacterial surface, as the aggregation was not observed in a strain lacking fimQ. Increasing expression of FimQ in the ΔfimP mutant enhanced aggregation, while overexpression of FimP in the ΔfimQ mutant did not. Furthermore, recombinant FimQ, not FimP, bound surface-associated PRPs in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, not only does FimQ function as the major adhesin of the type 1 fimbriae, it also plays an important role in fimbrial assembly.
PMCID: PMC3133261  PMID: 21531799
6.  The Actinomyces oris Type 2 Fimbrial Shaft FimA Mediates Coaggregation with Oral Streptococci, Adherence to RBC and Biofilm Development 
Molecular microbiology  2010;10.1111/j.1365-2958.2010.07252.x.
Interbacterial interactions between oral streptococci and actinomyces and their adherence to tooth surface and the associated host cells are key early events that promote development of the complex oral biofilm referred to as dental plaque. These interactions depend largely on a lectin-like activity associated with the Actinomyces oris type 2 fimbria, a surface structure assembled by sortase (SrtC2)-dependent polymerization of the shaft and tip fimbrillins, FimA and FimB, respectively. To dissect the function of specific fimbrillins in various adherence processes, we have developed a convenient new technology for generating unmarked deletion mutants of A. oris. Here, we show that the fimB mutant, which produced type 2 fimbriae composed only of FimA, like the wild type coaggregated strongly with receptor-bearing streptococci, agglutinated with sialidase-treated RBC, and formed monospecies biofilm. In contrast, the fimA and srtC2 mutants lacked type 2 fimbriae and were non-adherent in each of these assays. Plasmidbased expression of the deleted gene in respective mutants restored adherence to wild-type levels. These findings uncover the importance of the lectin-like activity of the polymeric FimA shaft rather than the tip. The multivalent adhesive function of FimA makes it an ideal molecule for exploring novel intervention strategies to control plaque biofilm formation.
PMCID: PMC2946971  PMID: 20545853
7.  Allelic Exchange in Actinomyces oris with mCherry Fluorescence Counterselection ▿  
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2010;76(17):5987-5989.
Described here is a method for facile generation of markerless gene deletion mutants of Actinomyces oris. Homologous integration of a nonreplicative vector carrying a gene exchange cassette into the bacterial chromosome was selected for by using mCherry fluorescence and resistance to kanamycin. Completion of allelic replacement was counterselected for by using loss of fluorescence.
PMCID: PMC2935053  PMID: 20601506
8.  Genomic Island TnSmu2 of Streptococcus mutans Harbors a Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase-Polyketide Synthase Gene Cluster Responsible for the Biosynthesis of Pigments Involved in Oxygen and H2O2 Tolerance ▿ †  
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2010;76(17):5815-5826.
The oral biofilm community consists of >800 microbial species, among which Streptococcus mutans is considered a primary pathogen for dental caries. The genomic island TnSmu2 of S. mutans comprises >2% of the genome. In this study, we demonstrate that TnSmu2 harbors a gene cluster encoding nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS), polyketide synthases (PKS), and accessory proteins and regulators involved in nonribosomal peptide (NRP) and polyketide (PK) biosynthesis. Interestingly, the sequences of these genes and their genomic organizations and locations are highly divergent among different S. mutans strains, yet each TnSmu2 region encodes NRPS/PKS and accessory proteins. Mutagenesis of the structural genes and putative regulatory genes in strains UA159, UA140, and MT4653 resulted in colonies that were devoid of their yellow pigmentation (for strains UA140 and MT4653). In addition, these mutant strains also displayed retarded growth under aerobic conditions and in the presence of H2O2. High-performance liquid chromatography profiling of cell surface extracts identified unique peaks that were missing in the mutant strains, and partial characterization of the purified product from UA159 demonstrated that it is indeed a hybrid NRP/PK, as predicted. A genomic survey of 94 clinical S. mutans isolates suggests that the TnSmu2 gene cluster may be more prevalent than previously recognized.
PMCID: PMC2935078  PMID: 20639370
9.  Regulation of ciaXRH Operon Expression and Identification of the CiaR Regulon in Streptococcus mutans▿  
Journal of Bacteriology  2010;192(18):4669-4679.
The ciaRH operon in Streptococcus mutans contains 3 contiguous genes, ciaXRH. Unlike the CiaRH system in other streptococci, only the ciaH-null mutant displays defective phenotypes, while the ciaR-null mutant behaves like the wild type. The objective of this study was to determine the mechanism of this unusual property. We demonstrate that the ciaH mutation caused a >20-fold increase in ciaR transcript synthesis. A ciaRH double deletion reversed the ciaH phenotype, suggesting that overexpressed ciaR might be responsible for the observed ciaH phenotypes. When ciaR was forced to be overexpressed by a transcriptional fusion to the ldh promoter in the wild-type background, the same ciaH phenotypes were restored, confirming the involvement of overexpressed ciaR in the ciaH phenotypes. The ciaH mutation and ciaR overexpression also caused transcriptional alterations in 100 genes, with 15 genes upregulated >5-fold. Bioinformatics analysis identified a putative CiaR regulon consisting of 8 genes/operons, including the ciaXRH operon itself, all of which were upregulated. In vitro footprinting on 4 of the 8 promoters revealed a protected region of 26 to 28 bp encompassing two direct repeats, NTTAAG-n5-WTTAAG, 10 bp upstream of the −10 region, indicating direct binding of the CiaR protein to these promoters. Taken together, we conclude that overexpressed CiaR, as a result of either ciaH deletion or forced expression from a constitutive promoter, is a mediator in the CiaH-regulated phenotypes.
PMCID: PMC2937423  PMID: 20639331
10.  The cia Operon of Streptococcus mutans Encodes a Unique Component Required for Calcium-Mediated Autoregulation 
Molecular microbiology  2008;70(1):112-126.
Streptococcus mutans is a primary pathogen for dental caries in humans. CiaR and CiaH of S. mutans comprise a two-component signal transduction system (TCS) involved in regulating various virulent factors. However, the signal that triggers the CiaRH response remains unknown. In this study, we show that calcium is a signal for regulation of the ciaRH operon, and that a double-glycine-containing small peptide encoded within the ciaRH operon (renamed ciaX) mediates this regulation. CiaX contains a serine-aspartate (SD) domain that is shared by calcium-binding proteins. A markerless in-frame deletion of ciaX reduced ciaRH operon expression and diminished the calcium repression of operon transcription. Point mutations of the SD-domain resulted in the same phenotype as the in-frame deletion, indicating that the SD-domain is required for CiaX function. Further characterization of ciaX demonstrated that it is involved in calcium mediated biofilm formation. Furthermore, inactivation of ciaR or ciaH led to the same phenotype as the in-frame deletion of ciaX, suggesting that all three genes are involved in the same regulatory pathway. Sequence analysis and real-time RT-PCR identified a putative CiaR binding site upstream of ciaX. We conclude that the ciaXRH operon is a three-component, self-regulatory system modulating cellular functions in response to calcium.
PMCID: PMC2955730  PMID: 18681938
11.  Genes Involved in the Repression of Mutacin I Production in Streptococcus mutans 
Microbiology (Reading, England)  2009;155(Pt 2):551-556.
Streptococcus mutans is considered a primary pathogen for human dental caries. Its ability to produce a variety of peptide antibiotics called mutacins may play an important role in its invasion and establishment in the dental biofilm. S. mutans strain UA140 produces two types of mutacins, the lantibiotic mutacin I and the non-lantibitoc mutacin IV. In a previous study, we constructed a random insertional-mutation library to screen for genes involved in regulating mutacin I production, and found 25 genes/operons that have a positive effect on mutacin I production. In this study, we continued our previous work to identify genes that are negatively involved in mutacin I production. By using a high phosphate BHI plate that inhibited mutacin I production of the wild-type, we isolated 77 clones that consistently produced mutacin I under repressive conditions. From the 34 clones that we were able to obtain a sequence, 17 unique genes were identified. These genes encompass a variety of functional groups including the central metabolism, surface binding, sugar transport, and unknown functions. Some of the 17 mutations were further characterized and shown to increase mutacin gene expression during growth when it is usually not expressed in the wild-type. These results further demonstrate an intimate and intricate connection between mutacin production and the overall cellular homeostasis.
PMCID: PMC2946218  PMID: 19202103
12.  Numb regulates cell–cell adhesion and polarity in response to tyrosine kinase signalling 
The EMBO Journal  2009;28(16):2360-2373.
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which can be caused by aberrant tyrosine kinase signalling, marks epithelial tumour progression and metastasis, yet the underlying molecular mechanism is not fully understood. Here, we report that Numb interacts with E-cadherin (E-cad) through its phosphotyrosine-binding domain (PTB) and thereby regulates the localization of E-cad to the lateral domain of epithelial cell–cell junction. Moreover, Numb engages the polarity complex Par3–aPKC–Par6 by binding to Par3 in polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Intriguingly, after Src activation or hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) treatment, Numb decouples from E-cad and Par3 and associates preferably with aPKC–Par6. Binding of Numb to aPKC is necessary for sequestering the latter in the cytosol during HGF-induced EMT. Knockdown of Numb by small hairpin RNA caused a basolateral-to-apicolateral translocation of E-cad and β-catenin accompanied by elevated actin polymerization, accumulation of Par3 and aPKC in the nucleus, an enhanced sensitivity to HGF-induced cell scattering, a decrease in cell–cell adhesion, and an increase in cell migration. Our work identifies Numb as an important regulator of epithelial polarity and cell–cell adhesion and a sensor of HGF signalling or Src activity during EMT.
PMCID: PMC2712596  PMID: 19609305
cell polarity; E-cadherin; EMT; Numb; tyrosine kinase
13.  Prediction of phosphotyrosine signaling networks using a scoring matrix-assisted ligand identification approach 
Nucleic Acids Research  2008;36(10):3263-3273.
Systematic identification of binding partners for modular domains such as Src homology 2 (SH2) is important for understanding the biological function of the corresponding SH2 proteins. We have developed a worldwide web-accessible computer program dubbed SMALI for scoring matrix-assisted ligand identification for SH2 domains and other signaling modules. The current version of SMALI harbors 76 unique scoring matrices for SH2 domains derived from screening oriented peptide array libraries. These scoring matrices are used to search a protein database for short peptides preferred by an SH2 domain. An experimentally determined cut-off value is used to normalize an SMALI score, therefore allowing for direct comparison in peptide-binding potential for different SH2 domains. SMALI employs distinct scoring matrices from Scansite, a popular motif-scanning program. Moreover, SMALI contains built-in filters for phosphoproteins, Gene Ontology (GO) correlation and colocalization of subject and query proteins. Compared to Scansite, SMALI exhibited improved accuracy in identifying binding peptides for SH2 domains. Applying SMALI to a group of SH2 domains identified hundreds of interactions that overlap significantly with known networks mediated by the corresponding SH2 proteins, suggesting SMALI is a useful tool for facile identification of signaling networks mediated by modular domains that recognize short linear peptide motifs.
PMCID: PMC2425477  PMID: 18424801

Results 1-13 (13)