Adipose tissue is an ideal source of mesenchymal stem cells for bone tissue engineering, but the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue is a heterogeneous cell population, which leads to unreliable bone formation. Human perivascular stem cells (PSCs) were prospectively purified from adipose tissue, and their bone-forming capacity was compared with that of traditionally derived SVF. It was found that PSCs underwent osteogenic differentiation in vitro and formed bone after intramuscular implantation without the need for predifferentiation. These studies suggest that adipose-derived human PSCs are a new cell source for future efforts in skeletal regenerative medicine.
Adipose tissue is an ideal source of mesenchymal stem cells for bone tissue engineering: it is largely dispensable and readily accessible with minimal morbidity. However, the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue is a heterogeneous cell population, which leads to unreliable bone formation. In the present study, we prospectively purified human perivascular stem cells (PSCs) from adipose tissue and compared their bone-forming capacity with that of traditionally derived SVF. PSCs are a population (sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting) of pericytes (CD146+CD34−CD45−) and adventitial cells (CD146−CD34+CD45−), each of which we have previously reported to have properties of mesenchymal stem cells. Here, we found that PSCs underwent osteogenic differentiation in vitro and formed bone after intramuscular implantation without the need for predifferentiation. We next sought to optimize PSCs for in vivo bone formation, adopting a demineralized bone matrix for osteoinduction and tricalcium phosphate particle formulation for protein release. Patient-matched, purified PSCs formed significantly more bone in comparison with traditionally derived SVF by all parameters. Recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 2 increased in vivo bone formation but with a massive adipogenic response. In contrast, recombinant Nel-like molecule 1 (NELL-1; a novel osteoinductive growth factor) selectively enhanced bone formation. These studies suggest that adipose-derived human PSCs are a new cell source for future efforts in skeletal regenerative medicine. Moreover, PSCs are a stem cell-based therapeutic that is readily approvable by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, with potentially increased safety, purity, identity, potency, and efficacy. Finally, NELL-1 is a candidate growth factor able to induce human PSC osteogenesis.
Adult stem cells; Pericytes; Mesenchymal stem cells; Osteoblast
Control of blood vessel tone is central to vascular homeostasis. Here, we show that metabolism of tryptophan to kynurenine by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) expressed in endothelial cells contributes to arterial vessel relaxation and the control of blood pressure. Infection of mice with malarial parasites (Plasmodium berghei), and experimental induction of endotoxemia, caused endothelial expression of IDO, resulting in decreased plasma tryptophan, increased kynurenine, and hypotension. Pharmacological inhibition of IDO increased blood pressure in systemically inflamed mice, but not in mice deficient for IDO or interferon-γ, which is required for IDO induction. Tryptophan dilated pre-constricted porcine coronary arteries only if active IDO and an intact endothelium were both present. Kynurenine dose-dependently decreased blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats, inhibited contraction of arteries, and relaxed pre-constricted rings endothelium-independently. Arterial relaxation by kynurenine was mediated by activation of the adenylate and soluble guanylate cyclase pathways.
It is recognized that endogenous cannabinoids, which signal through CB1 receptors in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), exert a profibrotic effect on chronic liver diseases. In this study, we suppressed CB1 expression by lentivirus mediated small interfering RNA (CB1-RNAi-LV) and investigated its effect on hepatic fibrosis in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrated that CB1-RNAi-LV significantly inhibited CB1 expression, and suppressed proliferation and extracellular matrix production in HSCs. Furthermore, CB1-RNAi-LV ameliorated dimethylnitrosamine induced hepatic fibrosis markedly, which was associated with the decreased expression of mesenchymal cell markers smooth muscle α-actin, vimentin and snail, and the increased expression of epithelial cell marker E-cadherin. The mechanism lies on the blockage of Smad signaling transduction induced by transforming growth factor β1 and its receptor TGF-β RII. Our study firstly provides the evidence that CB1-RNAi-LV might ameliorate hepatic fibrosis through the reversal of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), while the CB1 antagonists AM251 had no effect on epithelial-mesenchymal transitions of HSCs. This suggests that CB1 is implicated in hepatic fibrosis and selective suppression of CB1 by small interfering RNA may present a powerful tool for hepatic fibrosis treatment.
The search for novel sources of stem cells other than bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for bone regeneration and repair has been a critical endeavor. We previously established an effective protocol to homogeneously purify human pericytes from multiple fetal and adult tissues, including adipose, bone marrow, skeletal muscle, and pancreas, and identified pericytes as a primitive origin of human MSCs. In the present study, we further characterized the osteogenic potential of purified human pericytes combined with a novel osteoinductive growth factor, Nell-1. Purified pericytes grown on either standard culture ware or human cancellous bone chip (hCBC) scaffolds exhibited robust osteogenic differentiation in vitro. Using a nude mouse muscle pouch model, pericytes formed significant new bone in vivo as compared to scaffold alone (hCBC). Moreover, Nell-1 significantly increased pericyte osteogenic differentiation, both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, Nell-1 significantly induced pericyte proliferation and was observed to have pro-angiogenic effects, both in vitro and in vivo. These studies suggest that pericytes are a potential new cell source for future efforts in skeletal regenerative medicine, and that Nell-1 is a candidate growth factor able to induce pericyte osteogenic differentiation.
Grapes are a major fruit crop around the world. Heat stress can significantly reduce grape yield and quality. Changes at the molecular level in response to heat stress and subsequent recovery are poorly understood. To elucidate the effect of heat stress and subsequent recovery on expression of genes by grape leaves representing the classic heat stress response and thermotolerance mechanisms, transcript abundance of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves was quantified using the Affymetrix Grape Genome oligonucleotide microarray (15,700 transcripts), followed by quantitative Real-Time PCR validation for some transcript profiles.
We found that about 8% of the total probe sets were responsive to heat stress and/or to subsequent recovery in grape leaves. The heat stress and recovery responses were characterized by different transcriptional changes. The number of heat stress-regulated genes was almost twice the number of recovery-regulated genes. The responsive genes identified in this study belong to a large number of important traits and biological pathways, including cell rescue (i.e., antioxidant enzymes), protein fate (i.e., HSPs), primary and secondary metabolism, transcription factors, signal transduction, and development. We have identified some common genes and heat shock factors (HSFs) that were modulated differentially by heat stress and recovery. Most HSP genes were upregulated by heat stress but were downregulated by the recovery. On the other hand, some specific HSP genes or HSFs were uniquely responsive to heat stress or recovery.
The effect of heat stress and recovery on grape appears to be associated with multiple processes and mechanisms including stress-related genes, transcription factors, and metabolism. Heat stress and recovery elicited common up- or downregulated genes as well as unique sets of responsive genes. Moreover, some genes were regulated in opposite directions by heat stress and recovery. The results indicated HSPs, especially small HSPs, antioxidant enzymes (i.e., ascorbate peroxidase), and galactinol synthase may be important to thermotolerance of grape. HSF30 may be a key regulator for heat stress and recovery, while HSF7 and HSF1 may only be specific to recovery. The identification of heat stress or recovery responsive genes in this study provides novel insights into the molecular basis for heat tolerance in grape leaves.
AIM: To investigate the potential mechanism of Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide-labeled liposome loading oxymatrine (OM) therapy in CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats.
METHODS: We constructed a rat model of CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis and treated the rats with different formulations of OM. To evaluate the antifibrotic effect of OM, we detected levels of alkaline phosphatase, hepatic histopathology (hematoxylin and eosin stain and Masson staining) and fibrosis-related gene expression of matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-2, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 as well as type I procollagen via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. To detect cell viability and apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), we performed 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo(-z-y1)-3,5-diphenytetrazoliumromide assay and flow cytometry. To reinforce the combination of oxymatrine with HSCs, we constructed fluorescein-isothiocyanate-conjugated Arg-Gly-Asp peptide-labeled liposomes loading OM, and its targeting of HSCs was examined by fluorescent microscopy.
RESULTS: OM attenuated CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis, as defined by reducing serum alkaline phosphatase (344.47 ± 27.52 U/L vs 550.69 ± 43.78 U/L, P < 0.05), attenuating liver injury and improving collagen deposits (2.36% ± 0.09% vs 7.70% ± 0.60%, P < 0.05) and downregulating fibrosis-related gene expression, that is, MMP-2, TIMP-1 and type I procollagen (P < 0.05). OM inhibited cell viability and induced apoptosis of HSCs in vitro. RGD promoted OM targeting of HSCs and enhanced the therapeutic effect of OM in terms of serum alkaline phosphatase (272.51 ± 19.55 U/L vs 344.47 ± 27.52 U/L, P < 0.05), liver injury, collagen deposits (0.26% ± 0.09% vs 2.36% ± 0.09%, P < 0.05) and downregulating fibrosis-related gene expression, that is, MMP-2, TIMP-1 and type I procollagen (P < 0.05). Moreover, in vitro assay demonstrated that RGD enhanced the effect of OM on HSC viability and apoptosis.
CONCLUSION: OM attenuated hepatic fibrosis by inhibiting viability and inducing apoptosis of HSCs. The RGD-labeled formulation enhanced the targeting efficiency for HSCs and the therapeutic effect.
Oxymatrine; Arg-Gly-Asp peptide; Hepatic stellate cell; Hepatic fibrosis; Target therapy
This article presents the fabrication of size-controllable and shape-flexible microcellular high-density polyethylene-stabilized palladium nanoparticles (Pd/m-HDPE) using supercritical foaming, followed by supercritical impregnation. These nanomaterials are investigated for use as heterogeneous hydrogenation catalysts of biphenyls in supercritical carbon dioxide with no significant surface and inner mass transfer resistance. The morphology of the Pd/m-HDPE is examined using scanning electron microscopy images of the pores inside Pd/m-HDPE catalysts and transmission electron microscopy images of the Pd particles confined in an HDPE structure. This nanocomposite simplifies industrial design and operation. These Pd/m-HDPE catalysts can be recycled easily and reused without complex recovery and cleaning procedures.
Nanoparticle; Heterogeneous catalysis; Supercritical fluids; Foaming; Impregnation
Any prognosis of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer is closely related to the stage of the disease at diagnosis. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) and en bloc endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) have been performed as curative treatments for many early-stage GI lesions in recent years. The technologies have been widely accepted in many Asian countries because they are minimally invasive and supply thorough histopathologic evaluation of the specimens. However, before engaging in endoscopic therapy, an accurate diagnosis is a precondition to effecting the complete cure of the underlying malignancy or carcinoma in situ. For the past few years, many new types of endoscopic techniques, including magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging (ME-NBI), have emerged in many countries because these methods provide a strong indication of early lesions and are very useful in determining treatment options before ESD or EMR. However, to date, there is no comparable classification equivalent to “Kudo’s Pit Pattern Classification in the colon”, for the upper GI, there is still no clear internationally accepted classification system of magnifying endoscopy. Therefore, in order to help unify some viewpoints, here we will review the defining optical imaging characteristics and the current representative classifications of microvascular and microsurface patterns in the upper GI tract under ME-NBI, describe the accurate relationship between them and the pathological diagnosis, and their clinical applications prior to ESD or en bloc EMR. We will also discuss assessing the differentiation and depth of invasion, defying the lateral spread of involvement and targeting biopsy in real time.
Magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging; Upper gastroenterology; Assessment; Endoscopic submucosal dissection; Endoscopic mucosal resection
Finding unique peptides to target specific biological surfaces is crucial to basic research and technology development, though methods based on biological arrays or large libraries limit the speed and ease with which these necessary compounds can be found. We reasoned that because biological surfaces, such as cell surfaces, mineralized tissues, and various extracellular matrices have unique molecular compositions, they present unique physicochemical signatures to the surrounding medium which could be probed by peptides with appropriately corresponding physicochemical properties. To test this hypothesis, a naïve pilot library of 36 peptides, varying in their hydrophobicity and charge, was arranged in a two-dimensional matrix and screened against various biological surfaces. While the number of peptides in the matrix library was very small, we obtained “hits” against all biological surfaces probed. Sequence refinement of the “hits” led to peptides with markedly higher specificity and binding activity against screened biological surfaces. Genetic studies revealed that peptide binding to bacteria was mediated, at least in some cases, by specific cell-surface molecules, while examination of human tooth sections showed that this method can be used to derive peptides with highly specific binding to human tissue.
In the distorted W-shaped molecule of the title compound, C17H12N6O3S2, a twofold axis passes through the carbonyl group. The molecules stack in the crystal through π–π interactions [centroid—centroid distance = 3.883 Å] and weak C—H⋯N hydrogen-bonding interactions, forming a three-dimensional architecture.
In the title complex, [Zn(C10H6N3O4)2(H2O)2], the ZnII atom is located on a twofold rotation axis and is coordinated by two trans-positioned N,O-bidentate and zwitterionic 5-carboxy-4-carboxylato-2-(4-pyridinio)-1H-imidazol-1-ide (H2PIDC−) ligands and two water molecules, defining a distorted octahedral environment. The complete solid-state structure can be described as a three-dimensional supramolecular framework, stabilized by extensive hydrogen-bonding interactions involving the coordinated water molecules, uncoordinated imidazole N atom, protonated pyridine N and carboxylate O atoms of the H2PIDC− ligands.
Human adipose stem cells were cultured in smooth muscle inductive media and seeded into synthetic bladder composites to tissue engineer bladder smooth muscle. 85:15 poly-lactic-glycolic acid bladder dome composites were cast using an electropulled microfiber luminal surface combined with an outer porous sponge. Cell seeded bladders expressed smooth muscle actin, myosin heavy chain, calponinin, and caldesmon via RT-PCR and immunoflourescence. Nude rats (n=45) underwent removal of half their bladder and repair using: (i) augmentation with the adipose stem cell seeded composites, (ii) augmentation with a matched acellular composite, or (iii) suture closure. Animals were followed for 12 weeks post-implantation and bladders were explanted serially. Results showed that bladder capacity and compliance were maintained in the cell seeded group throughout the 12 weeks, but deteriorated in the acellular scaffold group sequentially with time. Control animals repaired with sutures regained their baseline bladder capacities by week 12, demonstrating a long term limitation of this model. Histological analysis of explanted materials demonstrated viable adipose stem cells and increasing smooth muscle mass in the cell seeded scaffolds with time. Tissue bath stimulation demonstrated smooth muscle contraction of the seeded implants but not the acellular implants after 12 weeks in vivo. Our study demonstrates the feasibility and short term physical properties of bladder tissue engineered from adipose stem cells.
stem cell; smooth muscle cell; urinary tract; organ culture; bladder tissue engineering
Chronic reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by mitochondria may contribute to the development of insulin resistance, a primary feature of type 2 diabetes. In recent years it has become apparent that ROS generation in response to physiological stimuli such as insulin may also facilitate signaling by reversibly oxidizing and inhibiting protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). Here we report that mice lacking one of the key enzymes involved in the elimination of physiological ROS, glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1), were protected from high fat diet-induced insulin resistance. The increased insulin sensitivity in Gpx1−/− mice was attributed to insulin-induced phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt signaling and glucose uptake in muscle and could be reversed by the anti-oxidant N-acetylcysteine. Increased insulin signaling correlated with enhanced oxidation of the PTP family member PTEN, which terminates signals generated by phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase. These studies provide causal evidence for the enhancement of insulin signaling by ROS in vivo.
Several small (<25aa) peptides have been designed based on the sequence of the dentin phosphoprotein, one of the major noncollagenous proteins thought to be involved in the mineralization of the dentin extracellular matrix during tooth development. These peptides, consisting of multiple repeats of the tripeptide aspartate-serine-serine (DSS), bind with high affinity to calcium phosphate compounds and, when immobilized, can recruit calcium phosphate to peptide-derivatized polystyrene beads or to demineralized human dentin surfaces. The affinity of binding to hydroxyapatite surfaces increases with the number of (DSS)n repeats, and though similar repeated sequences—(NTT)n, (DTT)n, (ETT)n, (NSS)n, (ESS)n, (DAA)n, (ASS)n, and (NAA)n—also showed HA binding activity, it was generally not at the same level as the natural sequence. Binding of the (DSS)n peptides to sectioned human teeth was shown to be tissue-specific, with high levels of binding to the mantle dentin, lower levels of binding to the circumpulpal dentin, and little or no binding to healthy enamel. Phosphorylation of the serines of these peptides was found to affect the avidity, but not the affinity, of binding. The potential utility of these peptides in the detection of carious lesions, the delivery of therapeutic compounds to mineralized tissues, and the modulation of remineralization is discussed.
Dentin phosphoprotein; Peptide; Mineralization
In the title complex, [Fe(C10H6N3O4)2(H2O)2], the FeII atom is located on an inversion centre and is trans-coordinated by two N,O-bidentate 5-carboxy-2-(3-pyridyl)-1H-imidazole-4-carboxylate ligands and two water molecules, defining a distorted octahedral environment. A two-dimensional network of N—H⋯O and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds extending parallel to (110) helps to stabilize the crystal packing.
In the title complex, [Fe(C10H6N3O4)2(H2O)2], the FeII atom is located on a twofold rotation axis and is coordinated by two trans-positioned N,O-bidentate and zwitterionic 5-carboxy-2-(pyridinium-4-yl)-1H-imidazol-1-ide-4-carboxylate H2PIDC− ligands and two water molecules in a distorted environment. In the crystal packing, a three-dimensional network is constructed via hydrogen-bonding involving the water molecules, uncoordinated imidazole N atom, protonated pyridine N and carboxylate O atoms.
AIM: To analyze the expression profiles of a human gastric-cancer-related gene, GCRG123, in human gastric signet-ring cell carcinoma tissues, and to perform bioinformatics analysis on GCRG123.
METHODS: In situ hybridization was used to explore the GCRG123 expression pattern in paraffin-embedded gastric tissues, including 15 cases of signet-ring cell carcinoma, 15 of intestinal-type adenocarcinoma, and 15 of normal gastric mucosa. Northern blotting was used to analyze the differences in GCRG123 expression between stomach signet-ring cell carcinoma and intestinal-type adenocarcinoma tissues. Online software, including BLAST, Multalin and BLAT, were applied for bioinformatics analysis. National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and the University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC) databases were used for the analyses.
RESULTS: The in situ hybridization signal appeared as blue precipitates restricted to the cytoplasm. Ten out of 15 cases of gastric signet ring cell carcinoma, normal gastric mucosal epithelium and pyloric glands showed high GCRG123 expression. Low GCRG123 expression was observed in gastric intestinal-type adenocarcinoma and normal gastric glands. Northern blotting revealed that GCRG123 was up-regulated in signet-ring cell carcinoma tissue but down-regulated in intestinal-type adenocarcinoma tissue. BLAST and Multalin analyses revealed that the GCRG123 sequence had 92% similarity with the ORF2 sequence of human long interspersed nuclear element retrotransposons (LINE-1, L1). BLAT analysis indicated that GCRG123 mapped to all chromosomes. GCRG123 was found to integrate in the intron-17 and -23 of Rb, 5’ flanking region of IL-2 and clotting factor IX genes.
CONCLUSION: GCRG123, an active member of the L1 family, was up-regulated in human gastric signet-ring cell carcinoma.
Stomach; Signet-ring cell carcinoma; GCRG123; LINE-1; In situ hybridization; Bioinformatics
Oxidative stress is implicated in atherogenesis, yet most clinical trials with antioxidants, particularly vitamin E, have failed to protect against atherosclerotic diseases. A striking exception is probucol, which retards atherosclerosis in carotid arteries and restenosis of coronary arteries after angioplasty. Because probucol has in vitro cellular-protective effects independent of inhibiting lipid oxidation, we investigated the mode of action of probucol in vivo. We used three models of vascular disease: apolipoprotein E–deficient mice, a model of atherosclerosis; rabbit aortic balloon injury, a model of restenosis; and carotid injury in obese Zucker rats, a model of type 2 diabetes. Unexpectedly, we observed that the phenol moieties of probucol were insufficient, whereas its sulphur atoms were required for protection. Probucol and its sulphur-containing metabolite, but not a sulphur-free phenolic analogue, protected via cell-specific effects on inhibiting macrophage accumulation, stimulating reendothelialization, and inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. These processes were mediated via induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an activity not shared by vitamin E. Our findings identify HO-1 as the molecular target of probucol. They indicate 2-electron rather than radical (1-electron) oxidants as important contributors to atherogenesis, and point to novel lead compounds for therapeutic intervention against atherosclerotic diseases.