Effect of pre-harvest methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and post-harvest 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatments on broccoli floret glucosinolate (GS) concentrations and quinone reductase (QR, an in vitro anti-cancer biomarker) inducing activity were evaluated two days prior to harvest, at harvest and at 10, 20, and 30 days of post-harvest storage at 4 °C. MeJA treatments four days prior to harvest of broccoli heads was observed to significantly increase floret ethylene biosynthesis resulting in chlorophyll catabolism during post-harvest storage and reduced product quality. Post-harvest treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), which competitively binds to protein ethylene receptors, maintained post-harvest floret chlorophyll concentrations and product visual quality in both control and MeJA-treated broccoli. Transcript abundance of BoPPH, a gene which is responsible for the synthesis of pheophytinase, the primary enzyme associated with chlorophyll catabolism in broccoli, was reduced by 1-MCP treatment and showed a significant, negative correlation with floret chlorophyll concentrations. The GS, glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, and gluconasturtiin were significantly increased by MeJA treatments. The products of some of the GS from endogenous myrosinase hydrolysis [sulforaphane (SF), neoascorbigen (NeoASG), N-methoxyindole-3-carbinol (NI3C), and phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC)] were also quantified and found to be significantly correlated with QR. Sulforaphane, the isothiocyanate hydrolysis product of the GS glucoraphanin, was found to be the most potent QR induction agent. Increased sulforaphane formation from the hydrolysis of glucoraphanin was associated with up-regulated gene expression of myrosinase (BoMyo) and the myrosinase enzyme co-factor gene, epithiospecifier modifier1 (BoESM1). This study demonstrates the combined treatment of MeJA and 1-MCP increased QR activity without post-harvest quality loss.
Cancer stem-like cell (CSC; also known as tumor initiating cell) is defined as a small subpopulation of cancer cells within a tumor and isolated from various primary tumors and cancer cell lines. CSCs are highly tumorigenic and resistant to anticancer treatments. In this study, we found that prolonged exposure to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), a major proinflammatory cytokine, enhances CSC phenotype of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells, such as an increase in tumor sphere-forming ability, stem cell-associated genes expression, chemo-radioresistance, and tumorigenicity. Moreover, activation of Notch1 signaling was detected in the TNFα-exposed cells, and suppression of Notch1 signaling inhibited CSC phenotype. Furthermore, we demonstrated that inhibition of a Notch downstream target, Hes-1, led to suppression of CSC phenotype in the TNFα-exposed cells. We also found that Hes1 expression is commonly upregulated in OSCC lesions compared to precancerous dysplastic lesions, suggesting the possible involvement of Hes1 in OSCC progression and CSC in vivo. In conclusion, inflammatory cytokine exposure may enhance CSC phenotype of OSCC, in part by activating the Notch-Hes1 pathway.
TNFα; OSCC; cancer stem cells; Notch; Hes1
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells whose self-renewal, multipotency, and immunosuppressive functions have been investigated for therapeutic applications. Although initially isolated from systemic tissue sources, MSCs have also been isolated from dental and orofacial tissues yielding odontoblastic and cementoblastic differentiation capacities. These unique features facilitate their application for pulpal, periradicular, and mineralized dental tissue regeneration. MSCs have utilized for various systemic organ regenerative therapies, allowing rescue of tissue function in damaged or failing organs. MSCs also possess immunosuppressive functions that allow improved management and treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders. However, their propensity to undergo cellular senescence, as well as host-immune response mediated loss of potency of allogenicically transplanted MSCs, may limit their use in clinical setting. Here we review the regenerative and immunomodulatory functions of MSCs and their applications in dental, orofacial and systemic tissue regeneration and treatment of inflammatory disorders. We also address challenges to MSC-mediated therapeutics arising from tissue and MSC aging and host immune response against allogenic MSC transplantation, and discuss alternative sources of MSCs aimed at overcoming these limitations.
Mesenchymal Stem Cells; Tissue Engineering; Immunosuppression; Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition; Pulp Capping; Pulp Revitalization
Although efavirenz (EFV) is efficacious as an anti-retroviral therapy when combined with other antiretroviral drugs, it may cause adverse clinical effects, including skin and mucosal eruptions, central nervous system complications, hepatotoxicity, renal failure and pulmonary complications. The present study investigated the phenotypic alterations caused by EFV in normal human keratinocytes (NHKs) and determined the cell death pathways leading to the lack of epithelial proliferation and regeneration. Replication kinetics, cellular morphology, and protein and mRNA levels of cell cycle regulatory genes and cell death markers were compared between the EFV-exposed cells and the untreated control. EFV treatment led to cell proliferation arrest and cell death of the NHKs by inducing autophagy mediated by proteasome-dependent degradation of p53. EFV also reduced the levels of mTOR and active ERK signaling in NHKs. Chemical inhibition of p53 degradation with a proteasome inhibitor led to reduced autophagic response of NHKs to EFV. In addition, EFV triggered terminal differentiation of NHKs by inducing the expression of involucrin, filaggrin, loricrin and genes involved in cornified envelope formation. Inhibition of autophagy in the EFV-treated NHKs with 3-methylalanine reduced the levels of involucrin and the extent of cell death. Our data indicate that EFV elicits cytotoxic effects on NHKs in part through induction of autophagy and aberrant differentiation of cells.
efavirenz; autophagy; keratinocytes; differentiation; p53
Previous studies suggest that maternal characteristics may be associated with neonatal outcomes. However, the influence of maternal characteristics on birth weight (BW) has not been adequately determined in Korean populations. We investigated associations between maternal characteristics and BW in a sample of 813 Korean women living in the Seoul metropolitan area, Korea recruited using data from the prospective hospital-based COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA) between 2007 and 2011. The mean maternal age at delivery was 32.3 ± 3.5 yr and prepregnancy maternal body mass index (BMI) was 20.7 ± 2.5 kg/m2. The mean BW of infant was 3,196 ± 406 g. The overall prevalence of a maternal history of allergic disease was 32.9% and the overall prevalence of allergic symptoms was 65.1%. In multivariate regression models, prepregnancy maternal BMI and gestational age at delivery were positively and a maternal history of allergic disease and nulliparity were negatively associated with BW (all P < 0.05). Presence of allergic symptoms in the mother was not associated with BW. In conclusion, prepregnancy maternal BMI, gestational age at delivery, a maternal history of allergic disease, and nulliparity may be associated with BW, respectively.
Cohort Studies; Birth Weight; Infant, Newborn; Mothers; Family Characteristic; Body Mass Index; Allergy and Immunology
Identifying the impact of a patient's ethnicity on treatment responses in clinical practice may assist in providing individualized treatment regimens for chronic hepatitis C (CHC). The effectiveness of standard peginterferon plus ribavirin therapy and the need for triple combination therapy with protease inhibitors in Koreans remain matters of debate. These issues were investigated in the present study.
The clinical data of 272 treatment-naïve Korean CHC patients who were treated in a community-based clinical trial (Clinical Trial group; n=51) and in clinical practice (Cohort group; n=221), were analyzed and compared. All were treated with standard protocols of peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin therapy.
For patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1, the sustained virological response (SVR) rates in the Clinical Trial and Cohort groups were 81% (21/26) and 55% (58/106), respectively, by intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis (P=0.02), and 100% (13/13) and 80% (32/40), respectively, in treatment-adherent patients (P=0.18). For patients with HCV genotype 2, the SVR rates in these two groups were 96% (24/25) and 88% (101/115), respectively, by ITT analysis (P=0.31). Adherence and treatment duration were independent predictors of SVR for genotypes 1 and 2, respectively (P<0.01 for each). Korean patients with CHC achieved high SVR rates with peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin in both the clinical trial and clinical practice settings.
Measures to raise adherence to standard therapy in clinical practice may improve the SVR rates in these patients as effectively as adding protease inhibitors, thus obviating the need for the latter.
Medication adherence; Hepatitis C; Peginterferon alfa-2a; Ribavirin
A retropharyngeal abscess is a rare disease entity in young infants but can develop after nasopharyngeal viral infection. Group B Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus are the most common pathogens in young infants, however, Mycobacterium tuberculosis is very rare. We report the case of retropharyngeal abscess and coinfection with S. aureus and M. tuberculosis in a very young infant presenting with respiratory symptoms due to upper airway obstruction. Usually tuberculous retropharyngeal abscesses are caused by the direct invasion of the bacteria from the spine via anterior longitudinal ligament of the spine. However, in this case, no associated spinal disease was observed.
Retropharyngeal abscess; Staphylococcus aureus; Mycobacterium tuberculosis
We previously reported that wild type (wt) hnRNP G exhibited tumor suppressive activity in human oral squamous cell carcinoma (HOSCC) cell lines lacking hnRNP G. Wt hnRNP G markedly inhibited the proliferation capacity, anchorage independency and in vivo tumorigencity of HOSCC cells and notably enhanced the DNA repair capabilities of these cells. In the present study, we studied the genetic and expression states of hnRNP G in normal, premalignant and malignant human oral tissues to further understand the relationship between the hnRNP G alterations and the development of human oral cancer. To correlate the cancer development and the level of hnRNP G expression, we performed an immunohistochemistry staining of hnRNP G in normal, premalignant and malignant human oral tissues. Moreover, we examined the entire coding regions of hnRNP G from selected samples to understand the cause of the alterations of the gene expression. The expression of hnRNP G was notably decreased or completely abolished in 80% of premalignant-dysplastic and malignant oral epithelial tissues, whereas 100% of normal and 90% of hyperplastic non-dysplastic epithelium showed high level of hnRNP G in the nucleus of the basal cell layers. Approximately 80% of HOSCC lacking the expression of hnRNP G showed genetic alteration in hnRNP G, i.e., point mutation and exonic deletion. This study suggest that genetic alterations and aberrant expression of hnRNP G occurring during oral carcinogenesis might be useful markers for the early detection of human oral cancer.
hnRNP G; oral cancer; immunohistochemistry; genetic alteration
Since the risk of developing allergic disease increases in individuals exposed to allergens previously, even during the neonatal period, the immunologic status of a fetus may be important in the subsequent development of allergy. We evaluated the fetal factors to predict atopic dermatitis (AD) at 12 months in 412 infants of a COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and Allergic Diseases (COCOA) in the general Korean population. Cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs) were stimulated with ovalbumin and phytohemagglutinin and cellular proliferative response and concentrations of interleukin-13 and interferon-γ, were measured. The risk of developing AD was greater in boys than girls (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.26-3.09), infants delivered by cesarean section than vaginally (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.14-3.26) and infants with than without parental history of AD (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.29-4.24). The CBMC proliferative response to phytohemagglutinin stimulation was higher in infants with than without AD (P = 0.048), but no difference was observed in ovalbumin-stimulated cells (P = 0.771). Risk factors for the development of AD at 12 months include male gender, delivery by cesarean section and parental history of AD. Increased CBMC proliferative response to phytohemagglutinin stimulation may predict the development of AD at 12 months.
Atopic Dermatitis; Cohort; Cord Blood; Cellular Proliferative Response; Cytokine; Risk Factor
Little is known about the long-term outcome of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients who discontinued antiviral therapy. We intended to analyze the long-term outcome of CHB patients who discontinued lamivudine therapy and to evaluate predictors for post-treatment outcome.
From 2007 to 2008, 138 lamivudine off-treated CHB patients with alanine aminotransferase normalization were consecutively enrolled. Post-treatment virologic relapse, biochemical breakthrough, hepatitis flare, and retreatment results were retrospectively analyzed.
Among 138 patients, 102 were initially HBeAg-positive at the start of lamivudine treatment. Virologic relapse, biochemical breakthrough, and hepatitis flare were observed in 45.2, 52.9, and 12.7% of HBeAg-positive and 29.4, 30.6, and 8.3% of HBeAg-negative patients during the median follow-up of 28 and 30 months, respectively. The cumulative virologic relapse and biochemical breakthrough rates were significantly lower in patients with HBV DNA <50 copies/mL than 50-104 copies/mL at lamivudine cessation. Hepatitis flare was observed in 4.8 and 11.8% of HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative patients with HBV DNA <50copies/mL, respectively. Thirty-eight among 138 patients received retreatment and most of them achieved biochemical (37/38) and virologic response (35/38) within 1 year of retreatment. Undetectable serum HBV DNA (<50 copies/mL) and young age at lamivudine cessation were inversely associated with virologic relapse. Undetectable HBV DNA at cessation, female, and initial HBeAg-negative were inversely associated with biochemical breakthrough.
Post-treatment virologic relapse and biochemical breakthrough incidence were low in patients who achieved undetectable viral titer at lamivudine cessation. Retreatment after biochemical breakthrough or virologic relapse was safe and effective. Intermittent antiviral therapy might be cautiously considered in appropriately selected CHB patients.
Chronic hepatitis B; Lamivudine cessation; Virologic relapse; Biochemical breakthrough; Hepatitis flare
This study investigated the bacterial communities residing in the apical portion of human teeth with apical periodontitis in primary and secondary infections using a culture-independent molecular biology approach.
Root canal samples from the apical root segments of extracted teeth were collected from 18 teeth with necrotic pulp and 8 teeth with previous endodontic treatment. Samples were processed for amplification via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and separated with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Selected bands were excised from the gel and sequenced for identification.
Comparable to previous studies of entire root canals, the apical bacterial communities in primary infections were significantly more diverse than in secondary infections (p=0.0003). Inter- and intra-patient comparisons exhibited similar variations in profiles. Different roots of the same teeth with secondary infections displayed low similarity in bacterial composition, while an equivalent sample collected from primary infection contained almost identical populations. Sequencing revealed a high prevalence of fusobacteria, Actinomyces sp. and oral Anaeroglobus geminatus in both types of infection. Many secondary infections contained Burkholderiales or Pseudomonas sp. both of which represent opportunistic environmental pathogens.
Certain microorganisms exhibit similar prevalence in primary and secondary infection indicating that they are likely not eradicated during endodontic treatment. The presence of Burkholderiales and Pseudomonas sp. underscores the problem of environmental contamination. Treatment appears to affect the various root canals of multi-rooted teeth differently, resulting in local changes of the microbiota.
Apical periodontitis; endodontic infections; community profiling; polymerase chain reaction; denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis
Aberrantly activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling is important in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. Downstream gene expressions involving the Wnt/β-catenin cascade occur through T-cell factor (TCF) proteins. Here, we show the oncogenic potential of human TCF-4 isoforms based on the expression of a single conserved SxxSS motif.
We investigated the TCF-4J and K isoform pair characterized by the presence (K) or absence (J) of the SxxSS motif. The mRNA expression profiles were examined in 47 pairs of human HCCs and adjacent non-cancerous liver tissues by RT-PCR. Proliferation, sphere assays and immunoblot analysis were performed under normoxia and hypoxia conditions. The ability of HCC cells overexpressing TCF-4J (J cells) and K (K cells) to grow as solid tumors in nude mice was explored.
TCF-4J expression was significantly upregulated in HCC tumors compared to corresponding peritumor and normal liver and was preferentially expressed in poorly differentiated HCCs. In contrast, TCF-4K was downregulated in those same HCC tumors. TCF-4J-overexpressing HCC cells (J cells) revealed a survival advantage under hypoxic conditions, high proliferation rate and formation of aggregates/spheres compared to overexpression of TCF-4K (K cells). The hypoxic J cells had high expression levels of HIF-2α and EGFR as possible mechanisms to promote tumorigenesis. Increased stability of HIF-2α under hypoxia in J cells was associated with a decreased level of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) protein, a known E3 ligase for HIF-αs. In a xenograft model, the J cells rapidly developed tumors compared to K cells. Tumor tissues derived from J cells exhibited high expression levels of HIF-2α and EGFR compared to the slow developing and small K cell derived tumors.
Our results suggest that the specific TCF-4J isoform, which lacks a regulatory SxxSS motif, has robust tumor-initiating potential under hypoxic conditions.
Dental mesenchymal stem cells (dMSCs) may differentiate into odontoblast-like cells and form mineralized nodules. In the current study, we investigated the effects of senescence on odontogenic differentiation of dMSCs.
dMSCs were serially subcultured until senescence. Telomere lengths and telomerase activities were determined by quantitative PCR. Expression of genes involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, e.g., Bmi-1, p16INK4A, osteocalcin (OC), dentin sialoprotein (DSP), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP-1) were assayed by Western blotting and quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Exogenous Bmi-1 was expressed in dMSC using retroviral vectors. Odontogenic differentiation was assayed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity.
Subculture-induced replicative senescence of dMSCs led to reduced expression of Bmi-1, OC, DSPP, and BSP compared with rapidly proliferating cells, while p16INK4A level increased. The cells exhibited progressive loss of telomeric DNA during subculture, presumably due to lack of telomerase activity. Bmi-1 transduction did not affect proliferation of cells, but enhanced the expression of OC and DSPP in the late passage cultures. Bmi-1-transduced cells also demonstrated enhanced ALP activity and mineralized nodule formation.
These results indicate that dMSCs lose their odontogenic differentiation potential during senescence, in part, by reduced Bmi-1 expression.
Dental pulp stem cell; senescence; cellular aging; odontogenic differentiation; Bmi-1
We previously demonstrated that Bmi-1 extended the in vitro life span of normal human oral keratinocytes (NHOK). We now report that the prolonged life span of NHOK by Bmi-1 is, in part, due to inhibition of the TGF-β signaling pathway. Serial subculture of NHOK resulted in replicative senescence and terminal differentiation, and activation of TGF-β signaling pathway. This was accompanied with enhanced intracellular and secreted TGF-β1 levels, phosphorylation of Smad2/3, and increased expression of p15INK4B and p57KIP2. An ectopic expression of Bmi-1 in NHOK (HOK/Bmi-1) decreased intracellular and secreted TGF-β1 level, induced dephosphorylation of Smad2/3, and diminished the level of p15INK4B and p57KIP2. Moreover, Bmi-1 expression led to inhibition of TGF-β-responsive promoter activity in dose-specific manner. Knockdown of Bmi-1 in rapidly proliferating HOK/Bmi-1 and cancer cells increased the level of phosphorylated Smad2/3, p15INK4B and p57KIP2. In addition, an exposure of senescent NHOK to TGF-β receptor I kinase inhibitor or anti-TGF-β antibody resulted in enhanced replicative potential of cells. Taken together, these data suggest that Bmi-1 suppresses senescence of cells by inhibiting the TGF-β signaling pathway in NHOK.
Bmi-1; TGF-β; senescence; lifespan extension
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common hereditary disorders among Caucasians. The most common mutations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene have been well established among Caucasian populations. In Koreans, however, there are very few cases of genetically confirmed CF thus far, and the spectrum of mutations seems quite different from that observed in Caucasians.
In the present study, we describe the cases of 2 Korean CF patients, present sequencing results identifying mutations in their CFTR gene, and summarize the results of CFTR mutational spectrum from previously reported Korean CF patients. The mutations described were identified by performing direct sequencing analysis of the complete coding regions and flanking intronic sequences of the CFTR gene, followed by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis in order to detect gene deletions or duplications that could not be identified by a direct sequencing method.
Three CFTR mutations were identified in the 2 patients, including p.Q98R, c.2052delA, and c.579+5G>A. In an analysis of 9 Korean CF patients that included the 2 patients presented in this study, p.Q98R mutation was the only recurrently observed mutation with a frequency of 18.8% (3/16 alleles). Furthermore, only one of the mutations (c.3272-26A>G) was found among the 32 common mutations in the screening panel for Caucasians from the Cystic Fibrosis Mutation Database.
Sequencing of the entire CFTR gene followed by MLPA analysis, rather than using the targeted sequencing-based screening panel for mutations commonly found in Caucasian populations, is recommended for genetic analysis of Korean CF patients.
CFTR; Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator; Cystic fibrosis; Mutations; Koreans; Sequencing; MLPA
The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system is logical for the staging and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) because it was based on survival data. This study evaluated the applicability of the BCLC staging system and reasons for divergence from BCLC-recommended treatments in Korean HCC patients.
One hundred and sixty consecutive HCC patients were prospectively enrolled. Treatments were generally recommended according to the guideline of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, but patients were also informed about alternative treatments. The final decision was made with patient agreement, and was based on the doctor's preferences when a patient was unable to reach a decision.
There were 2 (1%), 101 (64%), 20 (12.5%), 34 (21.5%), and 3 (1%) patients with very early-, early-, intermediate-, advanced-, and terminal-stage disease, respectively. Only 64 patients (40%) were treated according to BCLC recommendations. The treatment deviated from BCLC recommendations in 68% (69/101) and 79% (27/34) of patients with early and advanced stage, respectively. The main causes of deviation were refusal to undergo surgery, the presence of an indeterminate malignancy nodule, the absence of a suitable donor, or financial problems.
Donor shortage, financial problems, the relatively limited efficacy of molecular targeting agents, and the presence of an indeterminate nodule were the main causes of deviation from BCLC recommendations. Even after excluding cases in which decisions were made by patient preference, only 66% of the HCC patients were treated according to BCLC recommendations. Treatment guidelines that reflect the Korean situation are mandatory for HCC patients.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC); Neoplasm staging; Treatment; Korea
Hepatitis B virus X (HBx) protein has been known to play an important role in development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study is to find out whether HBx protein expression affects antiproliferative effect of an epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase (EGFR-TK) inhibitor and a MEK inhibitor in HepG2 and Huh-7 cell lines. We established HepG2 and Huh-7 cells transfected stably with HBx gene. HBx protein expression increased pERK and pAkt expression as well as β-catenin activity in both cells. Gefitinib (EGFR-TK inhibitor) inhibited pERK and pAkt expression and β-catenin activity in both cells. Selumetinib (MEK inhibitor) reduced pERK level and β-catenin activity but pAkt expression was rather elevated by selumetinib in these cells. Reduction of pERK levels was much stronger with selumetinib than gefitinib in both cells. The antiproliferative efficacy of selumetinib was more potent than that of gefitinib. However, the antiproliferative effect of gefitinib, as well as selumetinib, was not different between cell lines with or without HBx expression. Signal pathway activation by HBx might not be strong enough to attenuate the antiproliferative effect of EGFR-TK inhibitor. Future experiments are needed to understand the role of HBx protein expression in HCC treatment using molecular targeting agent.
Hepatocellular Carcinoma; HBx protein; Gefitinib; Selumetinib; EGFR; MEK
Many patients assume that allergic reactions against foods are responsible for triggering or worsening their allergic symptoms. Therefore, it is important to identify patients who would benefit from an elimination diet, while avoiding unnecessary dietary restrictions. The diagnosis of food allergy depends on the thorough review of the patients's medical history, results of supplemented trials of dietary elimination, and in vivo and in vitro tests for measuring specific IgE levels. However, in some cases the reliability of such procedures is suboptimal. Oral food challenges are procedures employed for making an accurate diagnosis of immediate and occasionally delayed adverse reactions to foods. The timing and type of the challenge, preparation of patients, foods to be tested, and dosing schedule should be determined on the basis of the patient's history, age, and experience. Although double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges(DBPCFC) are used to establish definitively if a food is the cause of adverse reactions, they are time-consuming, expensive and troublesome for physician and patients. In practice, An open challenge controlled by trained personnel is sufficient especially in infants and young children. The interpretation of the results and follow-up after a challenge are also important. Since theses challenges are relatively safe and informative, controlled oral food challenges could become the measure of choice in children.
Oral food challenge; Food allergy; Child
Higher expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and subsequent activation of telomerase occur during cellular immortalization and are maintained in cancer cells. To understand the mode of hTERT expression in cancer cells, we identified cancer-specific trans-regulatory proteins that interact with the hTERT promoter, using the promoter magnetic precipitation assay coupled to mass spectrometry (PMS-MS). The identified proteins include MutS homologue 2 (MSH2), heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) D, hnRNP K, and Grainyhead-like 2 (GRHL2). We noticed higher expression of these proteins in human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells than in normal cells, which do not exhibit telomerase activity. Knockdown of MSH2, hnRNP D and GRHL2 resulted in notable reduction of the hTERT promoter activity in tested cancer cells. Silencing of the above genes resulted in the significant reduction of telomerase activity in OSCC cells. Interestingly, among the four identified genes, silencing of GRHL2 was essential in reducing telomerase activity and viability of tested cancer cells. These results suggest a possible role of GRHL2 in telomerase activation during cellular immortalization.
hTERT; telomerase; GRHL2; hnRNPs; MSH2; oral cancer
Side Population (SP) cells, a subset of Hoechst-low cells, are enriched with stem cells. Originally, SP cells were isolated from bone marrow but recently have been found in various solid tumors and cancer cell lines that are clonogenic in vitro and tumorigenic in vivo. In this study, SP cells from lymph node metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines were examined using flow cytometry and Hoechst 3342 efflux assay. We found that highly metastatic HNSCC cell lines M3a2 and M4e contained more SP cells compared to the low metastatic parental HNSCC cell line 686LN. SP cells in HNSCC were highly invasive in vitro and tumorigenic in vivo compared to non-SP cells. Furthermore, SP cells highly expressed ABCG2 and were chemoresistant to Bortezomib and etoposide. Importantly, we found that SP cells in HNSCC had abnormal activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling as compared to non-SP cells. Together, these findings indicate that SP cells might be a major driving force of head and neck tumor formation and metastasis. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway may be an important target for eliminating cancer stem cells in HNSCC.
Enhanced expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) occurs frequently during cellular immortalization. The current study was undertaken to determine the mechanism regulating the hTERT promoter activity during cellular immortalization of human oral keratinocytes. Normal human oral keratinocytes (NHOKs) were immortalized with Bmi-1 and the E6 oncoprotein of human papillomavirus type 16 to establish the telomerase-positive HOK-Bmi-1/E6 cell line. Using DNA–protein-binding assay, we found that heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) physically interacts with the hTERT promoter in vitro. The hsp90 interaction with the promoter was detected more strongly in the telomerase-positive HOK-Bmi-1/E6 cells compared with that in senescing NHOK. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed the in vivo interaction between hsp90 and the hTERT promoter in SCC4 cells, a telomerase-positive oral cancer cell line, but not in the NHOK. To determine the physiological significance of this interaction, SCC4 cells were exposed to geldanamycin (GA), a competitive inhibitor of hsp90. GA exposure led to decrease in telomerase activity, hTERT promoter activity and hTERT messenger RNA expression in SCC4 cells, even in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. Also, it abolished the in vivo interaction of the hTERT promoter region with hsp90 but not with Sp1 or c-Myc. These results indicate that physical interaction between hsp90 and the hTERT promoter occurs in telomerase-positive cells but not in normal human cells and is necessary for the enhanced hTERT expression and telomerase activity in cancer cells.
Cigarette smoke and smokeless tobacco extracts contain multiple carcinogenic compounds, but little is known about the mechanisms by which tumors develop and progress upon chronic exposure to carcinogens such as those present in tobacco products. Here, we examine the effects of smokeless tobacco extracts on human oral fibroblasts. We show that smokeless tobacco extracts elevated the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen, oxidative DNA damage, and DNA double-strand breaks in a dose-dependent manner. Extended exposure to extracts induced fibroblasts to undergo a senescence-like growth arrest, with striking accompanying changes in the secretory phenotype. Using cocultures of smokeless tobacco extracts–exposed fibroblasts and immortalized but nontumorigenic keratinocytes, we further show that factors secreted by extracts-modified fibroblasts increase the proliferation and invasiveness of partially transformed epithelial cells, but not their normal counterparts. In addition, smokeless tobacco extracts–exposed fibroblasts caused partially transformed keratinocytes to lose the expression of E-cadherin and ZO-1, as well as involucrin, changes that are indicative of compromised epithelial function and commonly associated with malignant progression. Together, our results suggest that fibroblasts may contribute to tumorigenesis indirectly by increasing epithelial cell aggressiveness. Thus, tobacco may not only initiate mutagenic changes in epithelial cells but also promote the growth and invasion of mutant cells by creating a procarcinogenic stromal environment.
Many studies have suggested the involvement of wild-type (wt) p53 in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) via DNA end-joining (EJ) process. To investigate this possibility, we compared the capacity and fidelity of DNA EJ in RKO cells containing wt p53 and RKO cells containing no p53 (RKO cells with p53 knockdown). The p53 knockdown cells showed lower fidelity of DNA EJ compared to the control RKO cells. The DNA end-protection assay revealed the association of a protein complex including heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein G (hnRNP G) with the DNA ends in RKO cells containing wt p53, but not with the DNA ends in RKO cells with p53 knockdown. Depletion of endogenous hnRNP G notably diminished the fidelity of EJ in RKO cells expressing wt p53. Moreover, an ectopic expression of hnRNP G significantly enhanced the fidelity of DNA EJ and the protection of DNA ends in human cancer cells lacking hnRNP G protein or containing mutant hnRNP G. Finally, using recombinant hnRNP G proteins, we demonstrated the hnRNP G protein is able to bind to and protect DNA ends from degradation of nucleases. Our results suggest that wt p53 modulates DNA DSB repair by, in part, inducing hnRNP G, and the ability of hnRNP G to bind and protect DNA ends may contribute its ability to promote the fidelity of DNA EJ.
hnRNP G; DSBs repair; DNA end-joining; p53
Heterogeneous nuclear ribonuclearproteins (hnRNPs) are nucleic acid-binding proteins and have critical roles in DNA repair, telomere regulation, and transcriptional gene regulation. Previously, we showed that hnRNP G has tumor-suppressive activity in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. Therefore, the identification of hnRNP G target genes is important for understanding the function of hnRNP G and its tumor suppressive activity. In this study, we identify a known tumor suppressor gene, thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip) gene as a novel target of hnRNP G. Expression of Txnip is upregulated by wild-type (wt) hnRNP G but not by a suppression-defective mutant hnRNP G (K22R) in human squamous cell carcinoma. Wt hnRNP G binds and transactivates the Txnip promoter in vivo, whereas the K22R mutant does not. Furthermore, overexpression of Txnip alone in cancer cells leads to the inhibition of anchorage-independent growth and in vivo tumorigenicity in immunocompromised mice, suggesting a reversion of the transformation phenotype. These studies indicate that hnRNP G promotes the expression of Txnip and mediates its tumor suppressive effect.
hnRNP G; tumor suppression; transcriptional regulation; Txnip