Increasing evidence demonstrates that commensal microorganisms in the human skin microbiome help fight pathogens and maintain homeostasis of the microbiome. However, it is unclear how these microorganisms maintain biological balance when one of them overgrows. The overgrowth of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), a commensal skin bacterium, has been associated with the progression of acne vulgaris. Our results demonstrate that skin microorganisms can mediate fermentation of glycerol, which is naturally produced in skin, to enhance their inhibitory effects on P. acnes growth. The skin microorganisms, most of which have been identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), in the microbiome of human fingerprints can ferment glycerol and create inhibition zones to repel a colony of overgrown P. acnes. Succinic acid, one of four short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) detected in fermented media by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, effectively inhibits the growth of P. acnes in vitro and in vivo. Both intralesional injection and topical application of succinic acid to P. acnes-induced lesions markedly suppress the P. acnes-induced inflammation in mice. We demonstrate for the first time that bacterial members in the skin microbiome can undergo fermentation to rein in the overgrowth of P. acnes. The concept of bacterial interference between P. acnes and S. epidermidis via fermentation can be applied to develop probiotics against acne vulgaris and other skin diseases. In addition, it will open up an entirely new area of study for the biological function of the skin microbiome in promoting human health.
Acne; Fermentation; P. acnes; Probiotic; S. epidermidis; Skin Microbiome
Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) bacteria play a key role in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. Although our previous studies have demonstrated that vaccines targeting a surface sialidase or bacterial particles exhibit a preventive effect against P. acnes, the lack of therapeutic activities and incapability of neutralizing secretory virulence factors motivate us to generate novel immunotherapeutics. In this study, we develop an immunotherapeutic antibody to secretory Christie-Atkins-Munch-Peterson (CAMP) factor of P. acnes. Via agroinfiltration, P. acnes CAMP factor was encapsulated into the leaves of radishes. ICR mice intranasally immunized with whole leaves expressing CAMP factor successfully produced neutralizing antibodies that efficiently attenuated P. acnes-induced ear swelling and production of macrophage-inflammatory protein-2. Passive neutralization of CAMP factor enhanced immunity to eradicate P. acnes at the infection site without influencing bacterial growth elsewhere. We propose that CAMP factor is a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of various P. acnes-associated diseases and highlight the concept of neutralizing P. acnes virulence without disturbing the bacterial commensalism in human micorbiome.
Acne vulgaris; Agroinfiltration; Passive immunization; Propionibacterium acnes; Radish leaves
A novel strain of influenza A H1N1 emerged in the spring of 2009 and has spread rapidly throughout the world. Although vaccines have recently been developed that are expected to be protective, their availability was delayed until well into the influenza season. While anti-influenza drugs such as neuraminidase inhibitors can be effective, resistance to these drugs has already been reported. Although human saliva was known to inhibit viral infection and may thus prevent viral transmission, the components responsible for this activity on influenza virus, in particular, influenza A swine origin influenza A virus (S-OIV), have not yet been defined. By using a proteomics approach in conjunction with beads that bind alpha 2,6-sialylated glycoprotein, we determined that an alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M) and a A2M-like protein are essential components in salivary innate immunity against hemagglutination mediated by a clinical isolate of S-OIV [San Diego/01/09 (SD/H1N1-S-OIV)]. A model of an A2M-based “double-edged sword” on competition of alpha 2,6-sialylated glycoprotein receptors and inactivation of host proteases is proposed. We emphasize that endogenous A2M in human innate immunity functions as a natural inhibitor against S-OIV.
Proteomics; alpha 2,6-sialylated glycoproteins; alpha-2-macroglobulin; Salivary innate immunity; H1N1 swine origin influenza A virus
Tumor secreted substances (secretome), including extracellular matrix (ECM) components, act as mediators of tumor–host communication in the breast tumor microenvironment. Proteomic analysis has emphasized the value of the secretome as a source of prospective markers and drug targets for the treatment of breast cancers. Utilizing bioinformatics, our recent studies revealed global changes in protein expression after the activation of ECM-mediated signaling in breast cancer cells. A newly designed technique integrating a capillary ultrafiltration (CUF) probe with mass spectrometry was demonstrated to dynamically sample and identify in vivo and pure secretome from the tumor microenvironment. Such in vivo profiling of breast cancer secretomes may facilitate the development of novel drugs specifically targeting secretome.
tumor microenvironment; breast cancer; secretome; extracellular matrix
Proteomics is a powerful tool for the identification of proteins, which provides a basis for rational vaccine design. However, it is still a highly technical and time-consuming task to examine a protein’s immunogenicity utilizing traditional approaches. Here, we present a platform for effectively evaluating protein immunogenicity and antibody detection. A tetanus toxin C fragment (Tet-c) was used as a representative antigen to establish this platform. A cell wall-anchoring sialidase-like protein (SLP) of Propionibacterium acnes was utilized to assess the efficacy of this platform. We constructed an Escherichia coli vector-based vaccine by overexpressing Tet-c or SLP in E. coli and utilized an intact particle of E. coli itself as a vaccine (E. coli Tet-c or SLP vector). After ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, the E. coli vector-based vaccines were administered intranasally into imprinting control region mice without adding exogenous adjuvants. For antibody detection, we fabricated antigen microarrays by printing with purified recombinant proteins including Tet-c and SLP. Our results demonstrated that detectable antibodies were elicited in mice 6 weeks after intranasal administration of UV-irradiated E. coli vector-based vaccines. The antibody production of Tet-c and SLP was significantly elevated after boosting. Notably, the platform with main benefits of using E. coli itself as a vaccine carrier provides a critical template for applied proteomics aimed at screening novel vaccine targets. In addition, the novel immunogenic SLP potentially serves as an antigen candidate for the development of vaccines targeting P. acnes-associated diseases.
Antigen microarray; Immunogenicity; Propionibacterium acnes; Sialidase-like protein; Vector-based vaccine
Propionibacterium acnes is a key pathogen involved in the progression of inflammation in acne vulgaris. We examined whether vaccination against P. acnes suppressed P. acnes-induced skin inflammation. Inactivation of P. acnes with heat was employed to create a P. acnes-based vaccine. Intranasal immunization in mice with this inactivated vaccine provoked specific antibodies against P. acnes. Most notably, immunization with inactivated vaccines generated in vivo protective immunity against P. acnes challenge and facilitated the resolution of ear inflammation in mice. In addition, antibodies elicited by inactivated vaccines effectively neutralized the cytotoxicity of P. acnes and attenuated the production of proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 in human sebocyte SZ95 cells. Intranasal immunization using heat-inactivated P. acnes-based vaccines provided a simple modality to develop acne vaccines. These observations highlight the concept that development of vaccines targeting microbial products may represent an alternative strategy to conventional antibiotic therapy.
The need for a new anti-Staphylococcus aureus therapy that can effectively cripple bacterial infection, neutralize secretory virulence factors, and lower the risk of creating bacterial resistance is undisputed. Here, we propose what is, to our knowledge, a previously unreported infectious mechanism by which S. aureus may commandeer Propionibacterium acnes, a key member of the human skin microbiome, to spread its invasion and highlight two secretory virulence factors (S. aureus β-hemolysin and P. acnes CAMP (Christie, Atkins, Munch-Peterson) factor) as potential molecular targets for immunotherapy against S. aureus infection. Our data demonstrate that the hemolysis and cytolysis by S. aureus were noticeably augmented when S. aureus was grown with P. acnes. The augmentation was significantly abrogated when the P. acnes CAMP factor was neutralized or β-hemolysin of S. aureus was mutated. In addition, the hemolysis and cytolysis of recombinant β-hemolysin were markedly enhanced by recombinant CAMP factor. Furthermore, P. acnes exacerbated S. aureus-induced skin lesions in vivo. The combination of CAMP factor neutralization and β-hemolysin immunization cooperatively suppressed the skin lesions caused by coinfection of P. acnes and S. aureus. These observations suggest a previously unreported immunotherapy targeting the interaction of S. aureus with a skin commensal.
Various sebum free fatty acids (FFAs) have shown antibacterial activity against a broad range of Gram-positive bacteria, resulting in the suggestion that they are accountable, at least partially, for the direct antimicrobial activity of the skin surface. In this study, we examined the effects of sebum FFAs on the antimicrobial peptide (AMP)-mediated innate immune defense of human sebocytes. Incubation of lauric acid, palmitic acid, or oleic acid (OA) with human sebocytes dramatically enhanced their expression of human β-defensin (hBD)-2, one of the predominant AMPs found in the skin, whereas remarkable increases in hBD-1, hBD-3, and human cathelicidin LL-37 were not observed. Secreted hBD-2 was detectable by western blotting in the supernatant of sebocyte culture incubated with each FFA, but not with a vehicle control. The supernatant of FFA-incubated sebocyte culture showed antimicrobial activity against Propionibacterium acnes, whereas the enhanced antimicrobial activity of human sebocytes was neutralized by anti-hBD-2 IgG. In addition, the FFA-induced hBD-2 expression was suppressed by blocking the cluster of differentiation (CD)36 fatty acid translocase on the surface of sebocytes with anti-human CD36 IgG or blocking the NF-κB signaling pathway with BMS-345541, a highly selective inhibitor of inhibitory κB kinase. These data suggest that sebum FFAs upregulate the expression of hBD-2 in human sebocytes, which may enhance the disinfecting activity of the human sebaceous gland. The FFA-induced upregulation of hBD-2 is facilitated by CD36-mediated FFA uptake and NF-κB-mediated transactivation. The upregulation of mouse β-defensin 4, a mouse ortholog for hBD-2, was also observed in the hair follicle sebaceous glands of mouse ear skin after an epicutaneous application of OA, the most hBD-2-inducible FFA tested. This report highlights the potential of using FFAs as a multifunctional antimicrobial therapy agent for acne vulgaris treatment; FFAs may provide direct antibacterial activities against P. acnes and enhance the skin’s innate antibacterial defense by inducing the expression of hBD-2 in sebocytes as well.
We created an anti-tumor vaccine by using adenovirus as a vector which contains a cytomegalovirus early promoter-directed human carcinoembryonic antigen gene (AdCMV-hCEA). In an attempt to develop the skin patch vaccine, we epicutaneously vaccinated Balb/c mice with AdCMV-hCPA. After nine weeks post-immunization, vaccinated mice evoked a robust antibody titer to CEA and demonstrated the capability of suppressing in vivo growth of implanted murine mammay adenocarioma cell line (JC-hCEA) tumor cells derived from a female Balb/c mouse. Proteomic analysis of the tumor masses in the non-vaccinated naïve and vaccinated mice reveal that six proteins change their abundance in the tumor mass. The levels of adenylate kinase 1, β-enolase, creatine kinase M chain, hemoglobin beta chain and prohibitin were statistically increased whereas the level of a creatine kinase fragment, which is undocumented, was decreased in the tumor of vaccinated mice. These proteins may provide a vital link between early-stage tumor suppression and immune response of skin patch vaccination.
Adenovirus; Carcinoembryonic antigen; Proteome; Tumors; Vaccine
In order to study the differential protein expression in complex biological samples, strategies for rapid, highly reproducible and accurate quantification are necessary. Isotope labeling and fluorescent labeling techniques have been widely used in quantitative proteomics research. However, researchers are increasingly turning to label-free shotgun proteomics techniques for faster, cleaner, and simpler results. Mass spectrometry-based label-free quantitative proteomics falls into two general categories. In the first are the measurements of changes in chromatographic ion intensity such as peptide peak areas or peak heights. The second is based on the spectral counting of identified proteins. In this paper, we will discuss the technologies of these label-free quantitative methods, statistics, available computational software, and their applications in complex proteomics studies.
The strong bactericidal properties of lauric acid (C12:0), a middle chain-free fatty acid commonly found in natural products, have been shown in a number of studies. However, it has not been demonstrated whether lauric acid can be used for acne treatment as a natural antibiotic against Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), which promotes follicular inflammation (inflammatory acne). This study evaluated the antimicrobial property of lauric acid against P. acnes both in vitro and in vivo. Incubation of the skin bacteria P. acnes, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) with lauric acid yielded minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values against the bacterial growth over 15 times lower than those of benzoyl peroxide (BPO). The lower MIC values of lauric acid indicate stronger antimicrobial properties than that of BPO. The detected values of half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of lauric acid on P. acnes, S. aureus, and S. epidermidis growth indicate that P. acnes is the most sensitive to lauric acid among these bacteria. In addition, lauric acid did not induce cytotoxicity to human sebocytes. Notably, both intradermal injection and epicutaneous application of lauric acid effectively decreased the number of P. acnes colonized with mouse ears, thereby relieving P. acnes-induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. The obtained data highlight the potential of using lauric acid as an alternative treatment for antibiotic therapy of acne vulgaris.
Acne is a human disease of the sebaceous hair follicle. Unlike humans, most animals produce little or no triglycerides in hair follicles to harbor Propionibacterium acnes a fact that has encumbered the development of novel treatments for acne lesions. Although genetic mutant mice with acne-like skins have been used for screening anti-acne drugs, the mice generally have deficits in immune system that turns out to be inappropriate to generate antibodies for developing acne vaccines. Here, we employed a bioengineering approach using a tissue chamber integrated with a dermis-based cell-trapped system (DBCTS) to mimic the in vivo microenvironment of acne lesions. Human sebocyte cell lines were grown in DBCTS as a scaffold and inserted into a perforated tissue chamber. After implantation of a tissue chamber bearing human sebocytes into ICR mice, P. acnes or PBS was injected into a tissue chamber to induce host immune response. Infiltrated cells such as neutrophils and macrophages were detectable in tissue chamber fluids. In addition, a proinflammatory cytokine macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) was elevated after P. acnes injection. In tissue chamber fluids, 13 proteins including secreted proteins and cell matrix derived from mouse, human cells or P. acnes were identified by proteomics using isotope-coded protein label (ICPL) coupled to nano-LC-MS analysis. After P. acnes infection, four proteins including fibrinogen, α polypeptide, fibrinogen β chain, S100A9, and serine protease inhibitor A3K showed altered concentrations in the mimicked acne microenvironment. The bioengineered acne model thus provides an in vivo microenvironment to study the interaction of host with P. acnes and offers a unique set-up for screening novel anti-acne drugs and vaccines.
Acne; Bioengineering; Dermis-based cell-trapped system; Microenvironment; Propionibacterium acnes
New generation anthrax vaccines have been actively explored with the aim of enhancing efficacies and decreasing undesirable side effects that could be caused by licensed vaccines. Targeting novel antigens and/or eliminating the requirements for multiple needle injections and adjuvants are major objectives in the development of new anthrax vaccines. Using proteomics approaches, we identified a spore coat-associated protein (SCAP) in Bacillus anthracis. An E. coli vector-based vaccine system was used to determine the immunogenicity of SCAP. Mice generated detectable SCAP antibodies three weeks after intranasal immunization with an intact particle of ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated E. coli vector overproducing SCAP. The production of SCAP antibodies was detected via western blotting and SCAP-spotted antigen-arrays. The adjuvant effect of a UV-irradiated E. coli vector eliminates the necessity of boosting and the use of other immunomodulators which will foster the screening and manufacturing of new generation anthrax vaccines. More importantly, the immunogenic SCAP may potentially be a new candidate for the development of anthrax vaccines.
immunogenic; spore coat; Bacillus anthracis; proteomics; vector; vaccine
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a defined set of chaperones for maintaining proper functions of proteins. The HSP70 family, one of the most inducible families in response to stress, protects cells from stress-induced cell death. It has been documented that HSP70s are highly expressed in various types of cancer cells and make the cells resistant to adverse microenvironments, such as hypoxia and glucose starvation, which are common features in malignant progression. Over-expression of HSP70s is thus associated with tumor transformation and eventually results in a decrease of chemotherapy efficacy. Notably, the distribution of HSP70s is deregulated in cancer cells. It has been reported that HSP70s localize distinct organelles or are exported to humoral circulation during cancer development. Either surface or exported HSP70s play danger signals and trigger immune response to destroy the tumor cells. In this review, we lay out recent advances in the HSP70s-mediated cancer diagnosis and therapy. This review would be enlightening for clinical cancer medicine.
Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is a Gram-positive bacterium strongly associated with acne infection. While many antimicrobial agents have been used in clinic to treat acne infection by targeting P. acnes, these existing anti-acne agents usually produce considerable side effects. Herein, we report the development and evaluation of liposomal lauric acids (LipoLA) as a new, effective and safe therapeutic agent for the treatment of acne infection. By incorporating lauric acids into the lipid bilayer of liposomes, we observed that the resulting LipoLA readily fused with bacterial membranes, causing effective killing of P. acnes by disrupting bacterial membrane structures. Using a mouse ear model, we demonstrated that the bactericidal property of LipoLA against P. acne was well preserved at physiological conditions. Topically applying LipoLA in a gel form onto the infectious sites led to eradication of P. acnes bacteria in vivo. Further skin toxicity studies showed that LipoLA did not induce acute toxicity to normal mouse skin tissues, while benzoyl peroxide and salicylic acid, the two most popular over-the-counter acne medications, generated moderate to severe skin irritation within 24 h. These results suggest that LipoLA hold a high therapeutic potential for the treatment of acne infection and other P. acnes related diseases.
Bacterial infection; Propionibacterium acnes; Antimicrobial delivery; Nanoparticle; Free fatty acid
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of helical tomotherapy plus capecitabine as a preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Thirty-six LARC patients receiving preoperative CRT were analyzed. Radiotherapy (RT) consisted of 45 Gy to the regional lymph nodes and simultaneous-integrated boost (SIB) 50.4 Gy to the tumor, 5 days/week for 5 weeks. Chemotherapy consisted of capecitabine 850 mg/m2, twice daily, during the RT days. Patients underwent surgery 6–8 weeks after completion of CRT. Information was collected for patient characteristics, treatment response, and acute and late toxicities. Grade 3/4 (G3+) toxicities occurred in 11.1% of patients (4/36). Sphincter preservation rate was 85.2% (23/27). Five patients (14.3%) achieved pathological complete response. Tumor, nodal, and ypT0-2N0 downstaging were noted in 60% (21/35), 69.6% (16/23), and 57.1% (20/35). Tumor regression grade 2~4 was achieved in 28 patients (80%). After a median follow-up time of 35 months, the most common G3+ late morbidity was ileus and fistula (5.7%, 2/35). The study showed that capecitabine plus helical tomotherapy with an SIB is feasible in treatment of LARC. The treatment modality can achieve a very encouraging sphincter preservation rate and a favorable ypT0-2N0 downstaging rate without excessive toxicity.
This study is to investigate multiple chemotherapeutic agent- and radiation-related genetic biomarkers in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) patients following fluoropyrimidine-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for response prediction. We initially selected 6 fluoropyrimidine metabolism-related genes (DPYD, ORPT, TYMS, TYMP, TK1, and TK2) and 3 radiotherapy response-related genes (GLUT1, HIF-1α, and HIF-2α) as targets for gene expression identification in 60 LARC cancer specimens. Subsequently, a high-sensitivity weighted enzymatic chip array was designed and constructed to predict responses following CCRT. After CCRT, 39 of 60 (65%) LARC patients were classified as responders (pathological tumor regression grade 2 ~ 4). Using a panel of multiple genetic biomarkers (chip), including DPYD, TYMS, TYMP, TK1, and TK2, at a cutoff value for 3 positive genes, a sensitivity of 89.7% and a specificity of 81% were obtained (AUC: 0.915; 95% CI: 0.840–0.991). Negative chip results were significantly correlated to poor CCRT responses (TRG 0-1) (P = 0.014, hazard ratio: 22.704, 95% CI: 3.055–235.448 in multivariate analysis). Disease-free survival analysis showed significantly better survival rate in patients with positive chip results (P = 0.0001). We suggest that a chip including DPYD, TYMS, TYMP, TK1, and TK2 genes is a potential tool to predict response in LARC following fluoropyrimidine-based CCRT.
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/RAS/RAF/MEK/MAPK pathway is an important pathway in the carcinogenesis, invasion and metastasis of colorectal cancers (CRCs). We conducted a retrospective study to determine the prognostic values of EGFR expression and KRAS mutation in patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC) based on synchronous or metachronous status.
From October 2002 to March 2012, 205 patients with mCRC were retrospectively analyzed; 98 were found to have metachronous mCRC while 107 were found to have synchronous mCRC. The EGFR expressions were determinate by IHC (immunohistochemistry) analysis and categorized 1+ (weak intensity), 2+ (moderate intensity), and 3+ (strong intensity). Genomic DNA was isolated from frozen primary CRC tissues and direct sequencing of KRAS was performed. The clinicopathological features of these mCRC patients were retrospectively investigated according to EGFR expression and KRAS mutation status. Moreover, we analyzed the prognostic values of EGFR expression and KRAS mutation among these patients.
Of the 205 patients with mCRC, EGFR expression was analyzed in 167 patients, and positive EGFR expression was noted in 140 of those patients (83.8%). KRAS mutation was investigated in 205 patients and mutations were noted in 88 of those patients (42.9%). In patients with metachronous mCRC, positive EGFR expression was significantly correlated with well-and moderately-differentiated tumors (P = 0.028), poorer disease-free survival (DFS) (P < 0.001), and overall survival (OS) (P < 0.001). Furthermore, positive EGFR expression was a significant independent prognostic factor of DFS (P = 0.006, HR: 4.012, 95% CI: 1.130–8.445) and OS (P = 0.028, HR: 3.090, 95% CI: 1.477–10.900) in metachronous mCRC patients. KRAS mutation status was not significantly related to DFS and OS of patients with metachronous mCRC; likewise, KRAS mutation status was not significantly different in the progression-free survival (PFS) and OS of patients with synchronous mCRC (all P > 0.05).
The present study demonstrated that EGFR expression has prognostic value only for patients with metachronous mCRC. However, KRAS mutation did not have prognostic value in patients with metachronous or synchronous mCRC.
Epidermal growth factor receptor; KRAS; Prognostic value; Metachronous; Synchronous; Metastatic colorectal cancer
Proteomic analysis of murine skin has shown that a variety of heat shock proteins (HSPs) are constitutively expressed in the skin. Using murine allergic contact hypersensitivity as a model, we investigated the role of two heat shock proteins – HSP27 and HSP70 – in the induction of cutaneous cell-mediated immune responses. Immunohistochemical examination of skin specimens showed that HSP27 was present in the epidermis and HSP70 was present in both the epidermis and dermis. Inhibition of HSP27 and HSP70 produced a reduction in the DNFB contact hypersensitivity response and resulted in the induction of antigen specific unresponsiveness. Treatment of dendritic cell cultures with recombinant HSP27 caused in the upregulation of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12p70 and IL-12p40 but not IL-23p19, which was inhibited when antibodies to HSP27 were added. DNFB conjugated dendritic cells that had been treated with HSP27 had an increased capacity to initiate contact hypersensitivity responses compared to control dendritic cells. This augmented capacity required TLR4 signaling because neither cytokine production by dendritic cells nor the increased induction of contact hypersensitivity responses occurred in TLR4 deficient C3H/HeJ mice. Our findings indicate that a cascade of events occurs following initial interaction of hapten with the skin that includes increased activity of heat shock proteins, their interaction with TLR4 and, in turn, increased production of cytokines that are known to enhance antigen presentation by T-cells. The results suggest that heat shock proteins form a link between adaptive and innate immunity during the early stages of contact hypersensitivity.
HSP27; HSP70; Contact Hypersensitivity; 1-Fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNFB); Toll-like receptor (TLR)
Bacterial interference creates an ecological competition between commensal and pathogenic bacteria. Through fermentation of milk with gut-friendly bacteria, yogurt is an excellent aid to balance the bacteriological ecosystem in the human intestine. Here, we demonstrate that fermentation of glycerol with Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), a skin commensal bacterium, can function as a skin probiotic for in vitro and in vivo growth suppression of USA300, the most prevalent community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA). We also promote the notion that inappropriate use of antibiotics may eliminate the skin commensals, making it more difficult to fight pathogen infection. This study warrants further investigation to better understand the role of fermentation of skin commensals in infectious disease and the importance of the human skin microbiome in skin health.
Recent global radiation fears reflect the urgent need for a new modality that can simply determine if people are in a radiation risk of developing cancer and other illnesses. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been thought to be the major risk factor for most skin cancers. Although various biomarkers derived from the responses of human cells have been revealed, detection of these biomarkers is cumbersome, probably requires taking live human tissues, and varies significantly depending on human immune status. Here we hypothesize that the reaction of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), a human resident skin commensal, to UV radiation can serve as early surrogate markers for radiation risk because the bacteria are immediately responsive to radiation. In addition, the bacteria can be readily accessible and exposed to the same field of radiation as human body. To test our hypothesis, P. acnes was exposed to UV-B radiation. The production of porphyrins in P. acnes was significantly reduced with increasing doses of UV-B. The porphyrin reduction can be detected in both P. acnes and human skin bacterial isolates. Exposure of UV-B to P. acnes- inoculated mice led to a significant decrease in porphyrin production in a single colony of P. acnes and simultaneously induced the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) in the epidermal layers of mouse skin. Mass spectrometric analysis via a linear trap quadrupole (LTQ)-Orbitrap XL showed that five peptides including an internal peptide (THLPTGIVVSCQNER) of a peptide chain release factor 2 (RF2) were oxidized by UV-B. Seven peptides including three internal peptides of 60 kDa chaperonin 1 were de-oxidized by UV-B. When compared to UV-B, gamma radiation also decreased the porphyrin production of P. acnes in a dose-dependent manner, but induced a different signature of protein oxidation/de-oxidation. We highlight that uncovering response of skin microbiome to radiation will facilitate the development of pre-symptomatic diagnosis of radiation risk in a battlefield exposure, nuclear accidents, terrorist attacks, or cancer imaging/therapy.
We report a new approach to selectively delivering antimicrobials to the sites of bacterial infections by utilizing bacterial toxins to activate drug release from gold nanoparticle-stabilized phospholipid liposomes. The binding of chitosan modified gold nanoparticles to the surface of liposomes can effectively prevent them from fusing with one another and from undesirable payload release in regular storage or physiological environments. However, once these protected liposomes “see” bacteria that secrete toxins, the toxins will insert into the liposome membranes and form pores, through which the encapsulated therapeutic agents are released. The released drugs subsequently impose antimicrobial effects on the toxin-secreting bacteria. Using methicillin-resistant Staphycoccus aureus (MRSA) as a model bacterium and vacomycin as a model anti-MRSA antibiotic, we demonstrate that the synthesized gold nanoparticle-stabilized liposomes can completely release the encapsulated vacomycin within 24 h in the presence of MRSA bacteria and lead to inhibition of MRSA growth as effective as an equal amount of vacomycin loaded liposomes (without nanoparticle stabilizers) and free vacomycin. This bacterial toxin enabled drug release from nanoparticle-stabilized liposomes provides a new, safe and effective approach for the treatment of bacterial infections. This technique can be broadly applied to treat a variety of infections caused by bacteria that secrete pore-forming toxins.
Nanoparticle-stabilized liposome; Pore-forming protein; Passive targeting; Drug delivery; Controlled release; Methicillin-resistant Staphycoccus aureus
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) represents a major threat to a broad range of healthcare and community associated infections. This bacterium has rapidly evolved resistance to multiple drugs throughout its antibiotic history and thus it is imperative to develop novel antimicrobial strategies to enrich the currently shrinking therapeutic options against S. aureus. This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity and therapeutic efficacy of oleic acid (OA) in a liposomal formulation as an innate bactericide against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). In vitro studies showed that these OA-loaded liposomes (LipoOA) could rapidly fuse into the bacterial membranes, thereby significantly improving the potency of OA to kill MRSA compared with the use of free OA. Further in vivo tests demonstrated that LipoOA were highly effective in curing skin infections caused by MRSA bacteria and preserving the integrity of the infected skin using a mouse skin model. Moreover, a preliminary skin toxicity study proved high biocompatibility of LipoOA to normal skin tissues. These findings suggest that LipoOA hold great potential to become a new, effective, and safe antimicrobial agent for the treatment of MRSA infections.
MRSA infection; Antimicrobial drug delivery; Free fatty acid; Oleic acid; Liposome
We report a new approach to control the fusion activity of liposomes by adsorbing carboxyl-modified gold nanoparticles to the outer surface of phospholipid liposomes. The bound gold nanoparticles can effectively prevent liposomes from fusing with one another at neutral pH value, while at acidic environments (e.g. pH<5), the gold particle stabilizers will detach from the liposomes, with liposome fusion activity resuming. The binding of carboxyl-modified gold nanoparticles to cationic phospholipid liposomes at neutral pH and detaching at acidic pH values are evaluated and confirmed by dynamic light scattering, electron microscopy, fluorescence and UV-vis absorption experiments. The relative fusion efficiency of gold nanoparticle-stabilized cationic liposomes with anionic liposomes is ~25% at pH=7 in contrast to ~80% at pH=4. Since liposomes have been extensively used as drug nanocarriers and the infectious lesions on human skin are typically acidic with a pH<5, these acid-responsive liposomes with tunable fusion ability hold great promise for dermal drug delivery to treat a variety of skin diseases such as acne vulgaris and staph infections.
Phospholipid liposome; Nanoparticle; Vesicle fusion; Acid responsive; Drug delivery