We created an anti-tumor vaccine by using adenovirus as a vector which contains a cytomegalovirus early promoter-directed human carcinoembryonic antigen gene (AdCMV-hCEA). In an attempt to develop the skin patch vaccine, we epicutaneously vaccinated Balb/c mice with AdCMV-hCPA. After nine weeks post-immunization, vaccinated mice evoked a robust antibody titer to CEA and demonstrated the capability of suppressing in vivo growth of implanted murine mammay adenocarioma cell line (JC-hCEA) tumor cells derived from a female Balb/c mouse. Proteomic analysis of the tumor masses in the non-vaccinated naïve and vaccinated mice reveal that six proteins change their abundance in the tumor mass. The levels of adenylate kinase 1, β-enolase, creatine kinase M chain, hemoglobin beta chain and prohibitin were statistically increased whereas the level of a creatine kinase fragment, which is undocumented, was decreased in the tumor of vaccinated mice. These proteins may provide a vital link between early-stage tumor suppression and immune response of skin patch vaccination.
Adenovirus; Carcinoembryonic antigen; Proteome; Tumors; Vaccine
In order to study the differential protein expression in complex biological samples, strategies for rapid, highly reproducible and accurate quantification are necessary. Isotope labeling and fluorescent labeling techniques have been widely used in quantitative proteomics research. However, researchers are increasingly turning to label-free shotgun proteomics techniques for faster, cleaner, and simpler results. Mass spectrometry-based label-free quantitative proteomics falls into two general categories. In the first are the measurements of changes in chromatographic ion intensity such as peptide peak areas or peak heights. The second is based on the spectral counting of identified proteins. In this paper, we will discuss the technologies of these label-free quantitative methods, statistics, available computational software, and their applications in complex proteomics studies.
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a defined set of chaperones for maintaining proper functions of proteins. The HSP70 family, one of the most inducible families in response to stress, protects cells from stress-induced cell death. It has been documented that HSP70s are highly expressed in various types of cancer cells and make the cells resistant to adverse microenvironments, such as hypoxia and glucose starvation, which are common features in malignant progression. Over-expression of HSP70s is thus associated with tumor transformation and eventually results in a decrease of chemotherapy efficacy. Notably, the distribution of HSP70s is deregulated in cancer cells. It has been reported that HSP70s localize distinct organelles or are exported to humoral circulation during cancer development. Either surface or exported HSP70s play danger signals and trigger immune response to destroy the tumor cells. In this review, we lay out recent advances in the HSP70s-mediated cancer diagnosis and therapy. This review would be enlightening for clinical cancer medicine.
Proteomic analysis of murine skin has shown that a variety of heat shock proteins (HSPs) are constitutively expressed in the skin. Using murine allergic contact hypersensitivity as a model, we investigated the role of two heat shock proteins – HSP27 and HSP70 – in the induction of cutaneous cell-mediated immune responses. Immunohistochemical examination of skin specimens showed that HSP27 was present in the epidermis and HSP70 was present in both the epidermis and dermis. Inhibition of HSP27 and HSP70 produced a reduction in the DNFB contact hypersensitivity response and resulted in the induction of antigen specific unresponsiveness. Treatment of dendritic cell cultures with recombinant HSP27 caused in the upregulation of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12p70 and IL-12p40 but not IL-23p19, which was inhibited when antibodies to HSP27 were added. DNFB conjugated dendritic cells that had been treated with HSP27 had an increased capacity to initiate contact hypersensitivity responses compared to control dendritic cells. This augmented capacity required TLR4 signaling because neither cytokine production by dendritic cells nor the increased induction of contact hypersensitivity responses occurred in TLR4 deficient C3H/HeJ mice. Our findings indicate that a cascade of events occurs following initial interaction of hapten with the skin that includes increased activity of heat shock proteins, their interaction with TLR4 and, in turn, increased production of cytokines that are known to enhance antigen presentation by T-cells. The results suggest that heat shock proteins form a link between adaptive and innate immunity during the early stages of contact hypersensitivity.
HSP27; HSP70; Contact Hypersensitivity; 1-Fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNFB); Toll-like receptor (TLR)
Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) bacteria play a key role in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. Although our previous studies have demonstrated that vaccines targeting a surface sialidase or bacterial particles exhibit a preventive effect against P. acnes, the lack of therapeutic activities and incapability of neutralizing secretory virulence factors motivate us to generate novel immunotherapeutics. In this study, we develop an immunotherapeutic antibody to secretory Christie-Atkins-Munch-Peterson (CAMP) factor of P. acnes. Via agroinfiltration, P. acnes CAMP factor was encapsulated into the leaves of radishes. ICR mice intranasally immunized with whole leaves expressing CAMP factor successfully produced neutralizing antibodies that efficiently attenuated P. acnes-induced ear swelling and production of macrophage-inflammatory protein-2. Passive neutralization of CAMP factor enhanced immunity to eradicate P. acnes at the infection site without influencing bacterial growth elsewhere. We propose that CAMP factor is a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of various P. acnes-associated diseases and highlight the concept of neutralizing P. acnes virulence without disturbing the bacterial commensalism in human micorbiome.
Acne vulgaris; Agroinfiltration; Passive immunization; Propionibacterium acnes; Radish leaves
We report a new approach to selectively delivering antimicrobials to the sites of bacterial infections by utilizing bacterial toxins to activate drug release from gold nanoparticle-stabilized phospholipid liposomes. The binding of chitosan modified gold nanoparticles to the surface of liposomes can effectively prevent them from fusing with one another and from undesirable payload release in regular storage or physiological environments. However, once these protected liposomes “see” bacteria that secrete toxins, the toxins will insert into the liposome membranes and form pores, through which the encapsulated therapeutic agents are released. The released drugs subsequently impose antimicrobial effects on the toxin-secreting bacteria. Using methicillin-resistant Staphycoccus aureus (MRSA) as a model bacterium and vacomycin as a model anti-MRSA antibiotic, we demonstrate that the synthesized gold nanoparticle-stabilized liposomes can completely release the encapsulated vacomycin within 24 h in the presence of MRSA bacteria and lead to inhibition of MRSA growth as effective as an equal amount of vacomycin loaded liposomes (without nanoparticle stabilizers) and free vacomycin. This bacterial toxin enabled drug release from nanoparticle-stabilized liposomes provides a new, safe and effective approach for the treatment of bacterial infections. This technique can be broadly applied to treat a variety of infections caused by bacteria that secrete pore-forming toxins.
Nanoparticle-stabilized liposome; Pore-forming protein; Passive targeting; Drug delivery; Controlled release; Methicillin-resistant Staphycoccus aureus
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) represents a major threat to a broad range of healthcare and community associated infections. This bacterium has rapidly evolved resistance to multiple drugs throughout its antibiotic history and thus it is imperative to develop novel antimicrobial strategies to enrich the currently shrinking therapeutic options against S. aureus. This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity and therapeutic efficacy of oleic acid (OA) in a liposomal formulation as an innate bactericide against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). In vitro studies showed that these OA-loaded liposomes (LipoOA) could rapidly fuse into the bacterial membranes, thereby significantly improving the potency of OA to kill MRSA compared with the use of free OA. Further in vivo tests demonstrated that LipoOA were highly effective in curing skin infections caused by MRSA bacteria and preserving the integrity of the infected skin using a mouse skin model. Moreover, a preliminary skin toxicity study proved high biocompatibility of LipoOA to normal skin tissues. These findings suggest that LipoOA hold great potential to become a new, effective, and safe antimicrobial agent for the treatment of MRSA infections.
MRSA infection; Antimicrobial drug delivery; Free fatty acid; Oleic acid; Liposome
A novel strain of influenza A H1N1 emerged in the spring of 2009 and has spread rapidly throughout the world. Although vaccines have recently been developed that are expected to be protective, their availability was delayed until well into the influenza season. While anti-influenza drugs such as neuraminidase inhibitors can be effective, resistance to these drugs has already been reported. Although human saliva was known to inhibit viral infection and may thus prevent viral transmission, the components responsible for this activity on influenza virus, in particular, influenza A swine origin influenza A virus (S-OIV), have not yet been defined. By using a proteomics approach in conjunction with beads that bind alpha 2,6-sialylated glycoprotein, we determined that an alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M) and a A2M-like protein are essential components in salivary innate immunity against hemagglutination mediated by a clinical isolate of S-OIV [San Diego/01/09 (SD/H1N1-S-OIV)]. A model of an A2M-based “double-edged sword” on competition of alpha 2,6-sialylated glycoprotein receptors and inactivation of host proteases is proposed. We emphasize that endogenous A2M in human innate immunity functions as a natural inhibitor against S-OIV.
Proteomics; alpha 2,6-sialylated glycoproteins; alpha-2-macroglobulin; Salivary innate immunity; H1N1 swine origin influenza A virus
We report a new approach to control the fusion activity of liposomes by adsorbing carboxyl-modified gold nanoparticles to the outer surface of phospholipid liposomes. The bound gold nanoparticles can effectively prevent liposomes from fusing with one another at neutral pH value, while at acidic environments (e.g. pH<5), the gold particle stabilizers will detach from the liposomes, with liposome fusion activity resuming. The binding of carboxyl-modified gold nanoparticles to cationic phospholipid liposomes at neutral pH and detaching at acidic pH values are evaluated and confirmed by dynamic light scattering, electron microscopy, fluorescence and UV-vis absorption experiments. The relative fusion efficiency of gold nanoparticle-stabilized cationic liposomes with anionic liposomes is ~25% at pH=7 in contrast to ~80% at pH=4. Since liposomes have been extensively used as drug nanocarriers and the infectious lesions on human skin are typically acidic with a pH<5, these acid-responsive liposomes with tunable fusion ability hold great promise for dermal drug delivery to treat a variety of skin diseases such as acne vulgaris and staph infections.
Phospholipid liposome; Nanoparticle; Vesicle fusion; Acid responsive; Drug delivery
The mechanical therapy with multiple doses of antibiotics is one of modalities for treatment of periodontal diseases. However, treatments using multiple doses of antibiotics carry risks of generating resistant strains and misbalancing the resident body flora. We present an approach via immunization targeting an outer membrane protein FomA of Fusobacterium nucleatum, a central bridging organism in the architecture of oral biofilms. Neutralization of FomA considerably abrogated the enhancement of bacterial co-aggregation, biofilms and production of volatile sulfur compounds mediated by an interspecies interaction of F. nucleatum with Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis). Vaccination targeting FomA also conferred a protective effect against co-infection-induced gum inflammation. Here, we advance a novel infectious mechanism by which F. nucleatum co-opts P. gingivalis to exacerbate gum infections. FomA is highlighted as a potential target for development of new therapeutics against periodontal infection and halitosis in humans.
Co-aggregation; Fusobacterium nucleatum; FomA; Porphyromonas gingivalis; Vaccine; Abscesses; Halitosis
In the progression of acne vulgaris, the disruption of follicular epithelia by an over-growth of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) permits the bacteria to spread and become in contact with various skin and immune cells.
We have demonstrated in the present study that the Christie, Atkins, Munch-Peterson (CAMP) factor of P. acnes is a secretory protein with co-hemolytic activity with sphingomyelinase that can confer cytotoxicity to HaCaT keratinocytes and RAW264.7 macrophages. The CAMP factor from bacteria and acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) from the host cells were simultaneously present in the culture supernatant only when the cells were co-cultured with P. acnes. Either anti-CAMP factor serum or desipramine, a selective ASMase inhibitor, significantly abrogated the P. acnes-induced cell death of HaCaT and RAW264.7 cells. Intradermal injection of ICR mouse ears with live P. acnes induced considerable ear inflammation, macrophage infiltration, and an increase in cellular soluble ASMase. Suppression of ASMase by systemic treatment with desipramine significantly reduced inflammatory reaction induced by intradermal injection with P. acnes, suggesting the contribution of host ASMase in P. acnes-induced inflammatory reaction in vivo. Vaccination of mice with CAMP factor elicited a protective immunity against P. acnes-induced ear inflammation, indicating the involvement of CAMP factor in P. acnes-induced inflammation. Most notably, suppression of both bacterial CAMP factor and host ASMase using vaccination and specific antibody injection, respectively, cooperatively alleviated P. acnes-induced inflammation.
These findings envision a novel infectious mechanism by which P. acnes CAMP factor may hijack host ASMase to amplify bacterial virulence to degrade and invade host cells. This work has identified both CAMP factor and ASMase as potential molecular targets for the development of drugs and vaccines against acne vulgaris.
Tumor secreted substances (secretome), including extracellular matrix (ECM) components, act as mediators of tumor–host communication in the breast tumor microenvironment. Proteomic analysis has emphasized the value of the secretome as a source of prospective markers and drug targets for the treatment of breast cancers. Utilizing bioinformatics, our recent studies revealed global changes in protein expression after the activation of ECM-mediated signaling in breast cancer cells. A newly designed technique integrating a capillary ultrafiltration (CUF) probe with mass spectrometry was demonstrated to dynamically sample and identify in vivo and pure secretome from the tumor microenvironment. Such in vivo profiling of breast cancer secretomes may facilitate the development of novel drugs specifically targeting secretome.
tumor microenvironment; breast cancer; secretome; extracellular matrix
Proteomics is a powerful tool for the identification of proteins, which provides a basis for rational vaccine design. However, it is still a highly technical and time-consuming task to examine a protein’s immunogenicity utilizing traditional approaches. Here, we present a platform for effectively evaluating protein immunogenicity and antibody detection. A tetanus toxin C fragment (Tet-c) was used as a representative antigen to establish this platform. A cell wall-anchoring sialidase-like protein (SLP) of Propionibacterium acnes was utilized to assess the efficacy of this platform. We constructed an Escherichia coli vector-based vaccine by overexpressing Tet-c or SLP in E. coli and utilized an intact particle of E. coli itself as a vaccine (E. coli Tet-c or SLP vector). After ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, the E. coli vector-based vaccines were administered intranasally into imprinting control region mice without adding exogenous adjuvants. For antibody detection, we fabricated antigen microarrays by printing with purified recombinant proteins including Tet-c and SLP. Our results demonstrated that detectable antibodies were elicited in mice 6 weeks after intranasal administration of UV-irradiated E. coli vector-based vaccines. The antibody production of Tet-c and SLP was significantly elevated after boosting. Notably, the platform with main benefits of using E. coli itself as a vaccine carrier provides a critical template for applied proteomics aimed at screening novel vaccine targets. In addition, the novel immunogenic SLP potentially serves as an antigen candidate for the development of vaccines targeting P. acnes-associated diseases.
Antigen microarray; Immunogenicity; Propionibacterium acnes; Sialidase-like protein; Vector-based vaccine
Propionibacterium acnes is a key pathogen involved in the progression of inflammation in acne vulgaris. We examined whether vaccination against P. acnes suppressed P. acnes-induced skin inflammation. Inactivation of P. acnes with heat was employed to create a P. acnes-based vaccine. Intranasal immunization in mice with this inactivated vaccine provoked specific antibodies against P. acnes. Most notably, immunization with inactivated vaccines generated in vivo protective immunity against P. acnes challenge and facilitated the resolution of ear inflammation in mice. In addition, antibodies elicited by inactivated vaccines effectively neutralized the cytotoxicity of P. acnes and attenuated the production of proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 in human sebocyte SZ95 cells. Intranasal immunization using heat-inactivated P. acnes-based vaccines provided a simple modality to develop acne vaccines. These observations highlight the concept that development of vaccines targeting microbial products may represent an alternative strategy to conventional antibiotic therapy.
The need for a new anti-Staphylococcus aureus therapy that can effectively cripple bacterial infection, neutralize secretory virulence factors, and lower the risk of creating bacterial resistance is undisputed. Here, we propose what is, to our knowledge, a previously unreported infectious mechanism by which S. aureus may commandeer Propionibacterium acnes, a key member of the human skin microbiome, to spread its invasion and highlight two secretory virulence factors (S. aureus β-hemolysin and P. acnes CAMP (Christie, Atkins, Munch-Peterson) factor) as potential molecular targets for immunotherapy against S. aureus infection. Our data demonstrate that the hemolysis and cytolysis by S. aureus were noticeably augmented when S. aureus was grown with P. acnes. The augmentation was significantly abrogated when the P. acnes CAMP factor was neutralized or β-hemolysin of S. aureus was mutated. In addition, the hemolysis and cytolysis of recombinant β-hemolysin were markedly enhanced by recombinant CAMP factor. Furthermore, P. acnes exacerbated S. aureus-induced skin lesions in vivo. The combination of CAMP factor neutralization and β-hemolysin immunization cooperatively suppressed the skin lesions caused by coinfection of P. acnes and S. aureus. These observations suggest a previously unreported immunotherapy targeting the interaction of S. aureus with a skin commensal.
Various sebum free fatty acids (FFAs) have shown antibacterial activity against a broad range of Gram-positive bacteria, resulting in the suggestion that they are accountable, at least partially, for the direct antimicrobial activity of the skin surface. In this study, we examined the effects of sebum FFAs on the antimicrobial peptide (AMP)-mediated innate immune defense of human sebocytes. Incubation of lauric acid, palmitic acid, or oleic acid (OA) with human sebocytes dramatically enhanced their expression of human β-defensin (hBD)-2, one of the predominant AMPs found in the skin, whereas remarkable increases in hBD-1, hBD-3, and human cathelicidin LL-37 were not observed. Secreted hBD-2 was detectable by western blotting in the supernatant of sebocyte culture incubated with each FFA, but not with a vehicle control. The supernatant of FFA-incubated sebocyte culture showed antimicrobial activity against Propionibacterium acnes, whereas the enhanced antimicrobial activity of human sebocytes was neutralized by anti-hBD-2 IgG. In addition, the FFA-induced hBD-2 expression was suppressed by blocking the cluster of differentiation (CD)36 fatty acid translocase on the surface of sebocytes with anti-human CD36 IgG or blocking the NF-κB signaling pathway with BMS-345541, a highly selective inhibitor of inhibitory κB kinase. These data suggest that sebum FFAs upregulate the expression of hBD-2 in human sebocytes, which may enhance the disinfecting activity of the human sebaceous gland. The FFA-induced upregulation of hBD-2 is facilitated by CD36-mediated FFA uptake and NF-κB-mediated transactivation. The upregulation of mouse β-defensin 4, a mouse ortholog for hBD-2, was also observed in the hair follicle sebaceous glands of mouse ear skin after an epicutaneous application of OA, the most hBD-2-inducible FFA tested. This report highlights the potential of using FFAs as a multifunctional antimicrobial therapy agent for acne vulgaris treatment; FFAs may provide direct antibacterial activities against P. acnes and enhance the skin’s innate antibacterial defense by inducing the expression of hBD-2 in sebocytes as well.
An abscess in a gum pocket, resulting from bacterial infection, is a common source of chronic halitosis. Although antibiotics are generally prescribed for abscesses, they require multiple treatments with risks of creating resistant bacterial strains. Here we develop a novel vaccine using ultraviolet-inactivated Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum), a representative oral bacterium for halitosis. A gum pocket model, established by continuous inoculation of F. nucleatum, was employed to validate the vaccine potency. Mice immunized with inactivated F. nucleatum effectively minimized the progression of abscesses, measured by swollen tissues of gum pockets. Most notably, the immunized mice were capable of eliciting neutralizing antibodies against the production of volatile sulfur compounds of F. nucleatum. The novel vaccine inducing protective immunity provides an alternative option to conventional antibiotic treatments for chronic halitosis associated with abscesses.
Vaccine; F. nucleatum; Abscesses; Halitosis
This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of lauric acid (LA) and its liposomal derivatives against Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), the bacterium that promotes inflammatory acne. First, the antimicrobial study of three free fatty acids (lauric acid, palmitic acid and oleic acid) demonstrated that LA gives the strongest bactericidal activity against P. acnes. However, a setback of using LA as a potential treatment for inflammatory acne is its poor water solubility. Then the LA was incorporated into a liposome formulation to aid its delivery to P. acnes. It's demonstrated that the antimicrobial activity of LA was not only well maintained in its liposomal derivatives but also enhanced at low LA concentration. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of LA-loaded liposomes (LipoLA) mainly depended on the LA loading concentration per single liposomes. Further study found that the LipoLA could fuse with the membranes of P. acnes and release the carried LA directly into the bacterial membranes, thereby killing the bacteria effectively. Since LA is a natural compound that is the main acid in coconut oil and also resides in human breast milk and liposomes have been successfully and widely applied as a drug delivery vehicle in the clinic, the LipoLA developed in this work holds great potential of becoming an innate, safe and effective therapeutic medication for acne vulgaris and other P. acnes associated diseases.
Acne vulgaris; Antimicrobial; Free fatty acid; Lauric acid; Drug delivery; Liposome
The normal microflora of the skin includes staphylococcal species that will induce inflammation when present below the dermis but are tolerated on the epidermal surface without initiating inflammation. Here we reveal a previously unknown mechanism by which a product of staphylococci inhibits skin inflammation. This inhibition is mediated by staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and acts selectively on keratinocytes triggered through Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3. The significance of this is seen by observations that TLR3 activation is required for normal inflammation after injury, and that keratinocytes require TLR3 to respond to RNA from damaged cells with the release of inflammatory cytokines. Staphylococcal LTA inhibits both inflammatory cytokine release from keratinocytes and inflammation triggered by injury through a TLR2-dependent mechanism. These findings show for the first time that the skin epithelium requires TLR3 for normal inflammation after wounding and that the microflora can modulate specific cutaneous inflammatory responses.
The mouth is a favorable habitat for a great variety of bacteria. Microbial composition of dental plaque is the usual cause of various oral diseases in humans, including dental caries, periodontal disease and halitosis. In general, oral antibacterial agents such as antibiotics are commonly used to treat oral bacterial infection. Traditional periodontal surgery is painful and time-consuming. In addition, bacterial resistance and toxicity of antibiotics have become a global pandemic and unavoidable. Recently, vaccines for dental caries and periodontal disease have been developed and applied. Moreover, the use of photodynamic therapy has become an alternative to antibiotic drugs. The purpose of this article is to highlight the advantages of vaccine therapy and photodynamic therapy for oral microbial-related diseases compared to treatments with antimicrobial agents and traditional periodontal surgery.
Antimicrobial agent treatment; vaccine therapy; traditional periodontal surgery; photodynamic therapy
Tumor secreted proteins/peptides (tumor secretome) act as mediators of tumor-host communication in the tumor microenvironment. Therefore, development of anti-cancer drugs targeting secretome may effectively control tumor progression. Novel techniques including a capillary ultrafiltration (CUF) probe and a dermis-based cell-trapped system (DBCTS) linked to a tissue chamber were utilized to sample in vivo secretome from tumor masses and microenvironments. The CUF probe and tissue chamber were evaluated in the context of in vivo secretome sampling. Both techniques have been successfully integrated with mass spectrometry for secretome identification. A secretome containing multiple proteins and peptides can be analyzed by NanoLC-LTQ mass spectrometry, which is specially suited to identifying proteins in a complex mixture. In the future, the establishment of comprehensive proteomes of various host and tumor cells, as well as plasma will help in distinguishing the cellular sources of secretome. Many detection methods have been patented regarding probes and peptide used for identification of tumors.
Tumor secretion; ultrafiltration; secretome; drugs; mass spectrometry; tissue chamber
The strong bactericidal properties of lauric acid (C12:0), a middle chain-free fatty acid commonly found in natural products, have been shown in a number of studies. However, it has not been demonstrated whether lauric acid can be used for acne treatment as a natural antibiotic against Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), which promotes follicular inflammation (inflammatory acne). This study evaluated the antimicrobial property of lauric acid against P. acnes both in vitro and in vivo. Incubation of the skin bacteria P. acnes, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) with lauric acid yielded minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values against the bacterial growth over 15 times lower than those of benzoyl peroxide (BPO). The lower MIC values of lauric acid indicate stronger antimicrobial properties than that of BPO. The detected values of half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of lauric acid on P. acnes, S. aureus, and S. epidermidis growth indicate that P. acnes is the most sensitive to lauric acid among these bacteria. In addition, lauric acid did not induce cytotoxicity to human sebocytes. Notably, both intradermal injection and epicutaneous application of lauric acid effectively decreased the number of P. acnes colonized with mouse ears, thereby relieving P. acnes-induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. The obtained data highlight the potential of using lauric acid as an alternative treatment for antibiotic therapy of acne vulgaris.
Antimicrobial peptides, such as cathelicidin and β defensins, directly kill microbes and have been detected in human sebaceous glands and cell lines. Despite the presence of several such peptides, the apparent abundance of these is insufficient for direct killing of most skin pathogens. In this study, we sought to determine which molecules provide the majority of antimicrobial peptide activity in human sebocytes. Acid-soluble protein extracts of SEB-1 sebocytes were separated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and were assayed for their capacity to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrobial activity was isolated in a single major fraction and identified to be histone H4 by mass spectrometry and western blot analysis. The importance of histone H4 in the antimicrobial activity of sebocytes was confirmed by a specific neutralizing antibody and by direct demonstration that recombinant histone H4 had antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and Propionibacterium acnes. In addition, histone H4 enhanced the antimicrobial action of free fatty acids in human sebum. Taken together, these results indicate that the release of histone H4 by holocrine secretion from the sebaceous gland may play an important role in innate immunity.
Acne is a human disease of the sebaceous hair follicle. Unlike humans, most animals produce little or no triglycerides in hair follicles to harbor Propionibacterium acnes a fact that has encumbered the development of novel treatments for acne lesions. Although genetic mutant mice with acne-like skins have been used for screening anti-acne drugs, the mice generally have deficits in immune system that turns out to be inappropriate to generate antibodies for developing acne vaccines. Here, we employed a bioengineering approach using a tissue chamber integrated with a dermis-based cell-trapped system (DBCTS) to mimic the in vivo microenvironment of acne lesions. Human sebocyte cell lines were grown in DBCTS as a scaffold and inserted into a perforated tissue chamber. After implantation of a tissue chamber bearing human sebocytes into ICR mice, P. acnes or PBS was injected into a tissue chamber to induce host immune response. Infiltrated cells such as neutrophils and macrophages were detectable in tissue chamber fluids. In addition, a proinflammatory cytokine macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) was elevated after P. acnes injection. In tissue chamber fluids, 13 proteins including secreted proteins and cell matrix derived from mouse, human cells or P. acnes were identified by proteomics using isotope-coded protein label (ICPL) coupled to nano-LC-MS analysis. After P. acnes infection, four proteins including fibrinogen, α polypeptide, fibrinogen β chain, S100A9, and serine protease inhibitor A3K showed altered concentrations in the mimicked acne microenvironment. The bioengineered acne model thus provides an in vivo microenvironment to study the interaction of host with P. acnes and offers a unique set-up for screening novel anti-acne drugs and vaccines.
Acne; Bioengineering; Dermis-based cell-trapped system; Microenvironment; Propionibacterium acnes
New generation anthrax vaccines have been actively explored with the aim of enhancing efficacies and decreasing undesirable side effects that could be caused by licensed vaccines. Targeting novel antigens and/or eliminating the requirements for multiple needle injections and adjuvants are major objectives in the development of new anthrax vaccines. Using proteomics approaches, we identified a spore coat-associated protein (SCAP) in Bacillus anthracis. An E. coli vector-based vaccine system was used to determine the immunogenicity of SCAP. Mice generated detectable SCAP antibodies three weeks after intranasal immunization with an intact particle of ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated E. coli vector overproducing SCAP. The production of SCAP antibodies was detected via western blotting and SCAP-spotted antigen-arrays. The adjuvant effect of a UV-irradiated E. coli vector eliminates the necessity of boosting and the use of other immunomodulators which will foster the screening and manufacturing of new generation anthrax vaccines. More importantly, the immunogenic SCAP may potentially be a new candidate for the development of anthrax vaccines.
immunogenic; spore coat; Bacillus anthracis; proteomics; vector; vaccine