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1.  Morphology, Structure and Function Characterization of PEI Modified Magnetic Nanoparticles Gene Delivery System 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(6):e98919.
Modified magnetic nanoparticles are used as non-viral gene carriers in biological applications. To achieve successful gene delivery, it is critical that nanoparticles effectually assemble with nucleic acids. However, relatively little work has been conducted on the assemble mechanisms between nanoparticles and DNA, and its effects on transfection efficiency. Using biophysical and biochemical characterization, along with Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we investigate the morphologies, assembling structures and gene delivering abilities of the PEI modified magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) gene delivery system. In this gene delivery system, MNP/DNA complexes are formed via binding of DNA onto the surface of MNPs. MNPs are favorable to not only increase DNA concentration but also prevent DNA degradation. Magnetofection experiments showed that MNPs has low cytotoxicity and introduces highly stable transfection in mammalian somatic cells. In addition, different binding ratios between MNPs and DNA result in various morphologies of MNP/DNA complexes and have an influence on transfection efficiency. Dose–response profile indicated that transfection efficiency positively correlate with MNP/DNA ratio. Furthermore, intracellular tracking demonstrate that MNPs move though the cell membranes, deliver and release exogenous DNA into the nucleus.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0098919
PMCID: PMC4049641  PMID: 24911360
2.  Serum Stability and Physicochemical Characterization of a Novel Amphipathic Peptide C6M1 for SiRNA Delivery 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(5):e97797.
The efficient delivery of nucleic acids as therapeutic agents is a major challenge in gene therapy. Peptides have recently emerged as a novel carrier for delivery of drugs and genes. C6M1 is a designed amphipathic peptide with the ability to form stable complexes with short interfering RNA (siRNA). The peptide showed a combination of random coil and helical structure in water but mainly adopted a helical conformation in the presence of anions or siRNA. Revealed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and microscopy techniques, the interaction of C6M1 and siRNA in water and HEPES led to complexes of ∼70 and ∼155 nm in size, respectively, but showed aggregates as large as ∼500 nm in PBS. The time-dependent aggregation of the complex in PBS was studied by DLS and fluorescence spectroscopy. At molar ratio of 15∶1, C6M1 was able to completely encapsulate siRNA; however, higher molar ratios were required to obtain stable complexes. Naked siRNA was completely degraded in 4 h in the solution of 50% serum; however C6M1 protected siRNA against serum RNase over the period of 24 h. Western blotting experiment showed ∼72% decrease in GAPDH protein level of the cells treated with C6M1-siRNA complexes while no significant knockdown was observed for the cells treated with naked siRNA.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0097797
PMCID: PMC4022676  PMID: 24831131
3.  Methods for the Preparation of Large Quantities of Complex Single-Stranded Oligonucleotide Libraries 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e94752.
Custom-defined oligonucleotide collections have a broad range of applications in fields of synthetic biology, targeted sequencing, and cytogenetics. Also, they are used to encode information for technologies like RNA interference, protein engineering and DNA-encoded libraries. High-throughput parallel DNA synthesis technologies developed for the manufacture of DNA microarrays can produce libraries of large numbers of different oligonucleotides, but in very limited amounts. Here, we compare three approaches to prepare large quantities of single-stranded oligonucleotide libraries derived from microarray synthesized collections. The first approach, alkaline melting of double-stranded PCR amplified libraries with a biotinylated strand captured on streptavidin coated magnetic beads results in little or no non-biotinylated ssDNA. The second method wherein the phosphorylated strand of PCR amplified libraries is nucleolyticaly hydrolyzed is recommended when small amounts of libraries are needed. The third method combining in vitro transcription of PCR amplified libraries to reverse transcription of the RNA product into single-stranded cDNA is our recommended method to produce large amounts of oligonucleotide libraries. Finally, we propose a method to remove any primer binding sequences introduced during library amplification.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0094752
PMCID: PMC3986247  PMID: 24733454
4.  CLAVATA3 Dodecapeptide Modified CdTe Nanoparticles: A Biocompatible Quantum Dot Probe for In Vivo Labeling of Plant Stem Cells 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e89241.
CLAVATA3 (CLV3) dodecapeptides function in plant stem cell maintenance, but CLV3 function in cell-cell communication remains less clear. Here, we coupled CLV3 dodecapeptides to synthesized CdTe nanoparticles to track their bioactivity on stem cells in the root apical meristem. To achieve this, we first synthesized CdTe quantum dots (QDs) using a one-pot method, and then evaluated the cytotoxicity of the QDs in BY-2 cells. The results showed that QDs in plant cells must be used at low concentrations and for short treatment time. To make biocompatible probes to track stem cell fate, we conjugated CLV3 dodecapeptides to the QDs by the zero-coupling method; this modification greatly reduced the cytotoxicity of the QDs. Furthermore, we detected CLV3-QDs localized on the cell membrane, consistent with the known localization of CLV3. Our results indicate that using surface-modified QDs at low concentrations and for short time treatment can improve their utility for plant cell imaging.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0089241
PMCID: PMC3933426  PMID: 24586624
5.  Spiegelzymes® Mirror-Image Hammerhead Ribozymes and Mirror-Image DNAzymes, an Alternative to siRNAs and microRNAs to Cleave mRNAs In Vivo? 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e86673.
With the discovery of small non-coding RNA (ncRNA) molecules as regulators for cellular processes, it became intriguing to develop technologies by which these regulators can be applied in molecular biology and molecular medicine. The application of ncRNAs has significantly increased our knowledge about the regulation and functions of a number of proteins in the cell. It is surprising that similar successes in applying these small ncRNAs in biotechnology and molecular medicine have so far been very limited. The reasons for these observations may lie in the high complexity in which these RNA regulators function in the cells and problems with their delivery, stability and specificity. Recently, we have described mirror-image hammerhead ribozymes and DNAzymes (Spiegelzymes®) which can sequence-specifically hydrolyse mirror-image nucleic acids, such as our mirror-image aptamers (Spiegelmers) discovered earlier. In this paper, we show for the first time that Spiegelzymes are capable of recognising complementary enantiomeric substrates (D-nucleic acids), and that they efficiently hydrolyse them at submillimolar magnesium concentrations and at physiologically relevant conditions. The Spiegelzymes are very stable in human sera, and do not require any protein factors for their function. They have the additional advantages of being non-toxic and non-immunogenic. The Spiegelzymes can be used for RNA silencing and also as therapeutic and diagnostic tools in medicine. We performed extensive three-dimensional molecular modelling experiments with mirror-image hammerhead ribozymes and DNAzymes interacting with D-RNA targets. We propose a model in which L/D-double helix structures can be formed by natural Watson-Crick base pairs, but where the nucleosides of one of the two strands will occur in an anticlinal conformation. Interestingly enough, the duplexes (L-RNA/D-RNA and L-DNA/D-RNA) in these models can show either right- or left-handedness. This is a very new observation, suggesting that molecular symmetry of enantiomeric nucleic acids is broken down.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0086673
PMCID: PMC3906056  PMID: 24489764
6.  A Simple and Sensitive Approach for Ochratoxin A Detection Using a Label-Free Fluorescent Aptasensor 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e85968.
Ochratoxin A(OTA) is found to be one of the predominant contaminating mycotoxins in a wide variety of food commodities. To avoid the risk of OTA consumption, the detection and quantitation of OTA level are of great significance. Based on the fact that ssDNA aptamer has the ability to form a double-strand structure with its complementary sequence, a simple and rapid aptamer-based label-free approach for highly sensitive and selective fluorescence detection of OTA was developed by using ultra-sensitive double-strand DNA specific dyes PicoGreen. The results showed that as low as 1 ng/mL of OTA could be detected with a dynamic range of more than 5 orders of magnitude which satisfies the requirements for OTA maximum residue limit in various food regulated by European Commission. With the specificity of aptamer, the assay exhibited high selectivity for OTA against two other analogues (N-acetyl-l-phenylalanine and zearalenone). We also tested the aptasensor practicability using real sample of 1% beer spiked with a series of concentration of OTA and the results show good tolerance to matrix effect. All detections could be achieved in less than 30 min, which provides a simple, quick and sensitive detection method for OTA screening in food safety and could be easily extend to other small molecular chemical compounds detection which aptamer has been selected.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0085968
PMCID: PMC3897567  PMID: 24465818
7.  Development of Novel Radiogallium-Labeled Bone Imaging Agents Using Oligo-Aspartic Acid Peptides as Carriers 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e84335.
68Ga (T1/2 = 68 min, a generator-produced nuclide) has great potential as a radionuclide for clinical positron emission tomography (PET). Because poly-glutamic and poly-aspartic acids have high affinity for hydroxyapatite, to develop new bone targeting 68Ga-labeled bone imaging agents for PET, we used 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) as a chelating site and conjugated aspartic acid peptides of varying lengths. Subsequently, we compared Ga complexes, Ga-DOTA-(Asp)n (n = 2, 5, 8, 11, or 14) with easy-to-handle 67Ga, with the previously described 67Ga-DOTA complex conjugated bisphosphonate, 67Ga-DOTA-Bn-SCN-HBP. After synthesizing DOTA-(Asp)n by a Fmoc-based solid-phase method, complexes were formed with 67Ga, resulting in 67Ga-DOTA-(Asp)n with a radiochemical purity of over 95% after HPLC purification. In hydroxyapatite binding assays, the binding rate of 67Ga-DOTA-(Asp)n increased with the increase in the length of the conjugated aspartate peptide. Moreover, in biodistribution experiments, 67Ga-DOTA-(Asp)8, 67Ga-DOTA-(Asp)11, and 67Ga-DOTA-(Asp)14 showed high accumulation in bone (10.5±1.5, 15.1±2.6, and 12.8±1.7% ID/g, respectively) but were barely observed in other tissues at 60 min after injection. Although bone accumulation of 67Ga-DOTA-(Asp)n was lower than that of 67Ga-DOTA-Bn-SCN-HBP, blood clearance of 67Ga-DOTA-(Asp)n was more rapid. Accordingly, the bone/blood ratios of 67Ga-DOTA-(Asp)11 and 67Ga-DOTA-(Asp)14 were comparable with those of 67Ga-DOTA-Bn-SCN-HBP. In conclusion, these data provide useful insights into the drug design of 68Ga-PET tracers for the diagnosis of bone disorders, such as bone metastases.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0084335
PMCID: PMC3877283  PMID: 24391942
8.  Effects of 2′-O-Methyl Nucleotide Substitution on EcoRI Endonuclease Cleavage Activities 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e77111.
To investigate the effect of sugar pucker conformation on DNA-protein interactions, we used 2′-O-methyl nucleotide (2′-OMeN) to modify the EcoRI recognition sequence -TGAATTCT-, and monitored the enzymatic cleavage process using FRET method. The 2′-O-methyl nucleotide has a C3′-endo sugar pucker conformation different from the C2′-endo sugar pucker conformation of native DNA nucleotides. The initial reaction velocities were measured and the kinetic parameters, Km and Vmax were derived using Michaelis-Menten equation. Experimental results showed that 2′-OMeN substitutions for the EcoRI recognition sequence decreased the cleavage efficiency for A2, A3 and T4 substitutions significantly, and 2′-OMeN substitution for T5 residue inhibited the enzymatic activity completely. In contrast, substitutions for G1 and C6 could maintain the original activity. 2′-fluoro nucleic acid (2′-FNA) and locked nucleic acid (LNA) having similar C3′-endo sugar pucker conformation also demonstrated similar enzymatic results. This position-dependent enzymatic cleavage property might be attributed to the phosphate backbone distortion caused by the switch from C2′-endo to C3′-endo sugar pucker conformation, and was interpreted on the basis of the DNA-EcoRI structure. These 2′-modified nucleotides could behave as a regulatory element to modulate the enzymatic activity in vitro, and this property will have potential applications in genetic engineering and biomedicine.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0077111
PMCID: PMC3806743  PMID: 24194862
9.  A Tumor-Penetrating Peptide Modification Enhances the Antitumor Activity of Thymosin Alpha 1 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):e72242.
A serious limitation of numerous antitumor drugs is the incapacity to penetrate solid tumors. However, addition of an RGD fragment to peptide drugs might solve this problem. In this study, we explored whether the introduction of a permeability-enhancing sequence, such as iRGD (CRGDK/RGPD/EC) fragments, would enhance the activity of thymosin alpha 1 (Tα1). The modified Tα1 (Tα1-iRGD) was successfully expressed and purified, and the in vitro assay showed that Tα1-iRGD presented a similar activity as Tα1 in promoting proliferation of mouse splenocytes. Meanwhile, cell adhesion analysis revealed that Tα1-iRGD exhibited more specific and greater binding with tumor cells compared with Tα1. Furthermore, the iRGD fragment evidently enhanced the basal ability of Tα1 to inhibit proliferation of cancer cells in vitro, particularly of mouse melanoma cell line B16F10 and human lung cancer cell line H460. Our findings indicated that the addition of an iRGD fragment increased the anti-proliferative activity of Tα1 against cancer cells by improving the ability of Tα1 to penetrate the tumor cells. This study highlighted the important roles of an iRGD sequence in the therapeutic strategy of Tα1-iRGD. Thus, Tα1-iRGD could be a novel drug candidate for cancer treatment.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0072242
PMCID: PMC3747120  PMID: 23977262
10.  Plasma L-Ergothioneine Measurement by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Capillary Electrophoresis after a Pre-Column Derivatization with 5-Iodoacetamidofluorescein (5-IAF) and Fluorescence Detection 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e70374.
Two sensitive and reproducible capillary electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence procedures were established for quantitative determination of L-egothioneine in plasma. After derivatization of L-ergothioneine with 5-iodoacetamidofluorescein, the separation was carried out by HPLC on an ODS-2 C-18 sperisorb column by using a linear gradient elution and by HPCE on an uncoated fused silica capillary, 50 µm id, and 60 cm length. The methods were validated and found to be linear in the range of 0.3 to 10 µmol/l. The limit of quantification was 0.27 µmol/l for HPCE and 0.15 µmol/l for HPLC. The variations for intra- and inter-assay precision were around 6 RSD%, and the mean recovery accuracy close to 100% (96.11%).
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070374
PMCID: PMC3726632  PMID: 23922985
11.  Selective Light-Triggered Release of DNA from Gold Nanorods Switches Blood Clotting On and Off 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e68511.
Blood clotting is a precise cascade engineered to form a clot with temporal and spatial control. Current control of blood clotting is achieved predominantly by anticoagulants and thus inherently one-sided. Here we use a pair of nanorods (NRs) to provide a two-way switch for the blood clotting cascade by utilizing their ability to selectively release species on their surface under two different laser excitations. We selectively trigger release of a thrombin binding aptamer from one nanorod, inhibiting blood clotting and resulting in increased clotting time. We then release the complementary DNA as an antidote from the other NR, reversing the effect of the aptamer and restoring blood clotting. Thus, the nanorod pair acts as an on/off switch. One challenge for nanobiotechnology is the bio-nano interface, where coronas of weakly adsorbed proteins can obscure biomolecular function. We exploit these adsorbed proteins to increase aptamer and antidote loading on the nanorods.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0068511
PMCID: PMC3722233  PMID: 23894311
12.  Preparation of 5′-O-(1-Thiotriphosphate)-Modified Oligonucleotides Using Polymerase-Endonuclease Amplification Reaction (PEAR) 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e67558.
Antisense oligonucleotides (ASODNs) have been widely used as an important tool for regulating gene expression, and developed into therapeutics. Natural ODNs are susceptible to nuclease degradation, nucleic acid analogues, however, have less side effects, stronger stability and more potent activities. Large-scale de novo synthesis of a certain oligonucleotide has been very difficult and costly. In a previous preliminary study, we developed the polymerase-endonuclease amplification reaction (PEAR) for amplification and large-scale preparation of natural antisense ODNs. Here we extended the method in preparation of a widely used modified oligonucleotide with 5′-O-(1-Thiotriphosphate) modifications. Using electrospray ionization liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (ESI/LC/MS) detection, the purity of the PEAR product was measured as high as 100.0%. Using PEAR a large amount of a specific oligonucleotide can be produced starting from a small amount of synthetic seeds. It is suggested that PEAR can be a useful tool for large-scale production of modified oligonucleotides.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067558
PMCID: PMC3701678  PMID: 23861771
13.  Cationic and PEGylated Amphiphilic Cyclodextrins: Co-Formulation Opportunities for Neuronal Sirna Delivery 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(6):e66413.
Optimising non-viral vectors for neuronal siRNA delivery presents a significant challenge. Here, we investigate a co-formulation, consisting of two amphiphilic cyclodextrins (CDs), one cationic and the other PEGylated, which were blended together for siRNA delivery to a neuronal cell culture model. Co-formulated CD-siRNA complexes were characterised in terms of size, charge and morphology. Stability in salt and serum was also examined. Uptake was determined by flow cytometry and toxicity was measured by MTT assay. Knockdown of a luciferase reporter gene was used as a measure of gene silencing efficiency. Incorporation of a PEGylated CD in the formulation had significant effects on the physical and biological properties of CD.siRNA complexes. Co-formulated complexes exhibited a lower surface charge and greater stability in a high salt environment. However, the inclusion of the PEGylated CD also dramatically reduced gene silencing efficiency due to its effects on neuronal uptake. The co-formulation strategy for cationic and PEGylated CDs improved the stability of the CD.siRNA delivery systems, although knockdown efficiency was impaired. Future work will focus on the addition of targeting ligands to the co-formulated complexes to restore transfection capabilities.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066413
PMCID: PMC3689829  PMID: 23805220
14.  Aptamer Selection Based on G4-Forming Promoter Region 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(6):e65497.
We developed a method for aptamer identification without in vitro selection. We have previously obtained several aptamers, which may fold into the G-quadruplex (G4) structure, against target proteins; therefore, we hypothesized that the G4 structure would be an excellent scaffold for aptamers to recognize the target protein. Moreover, the G4-forming sequence contained in the promoter region of insulin can reportedly bind to insulin. We thus expected that G4 DNAs, which are contained in promoter regions, could act as DNA aptamers against their gene products. We designated this aptamer identification method as “G4 promoter-derived aptamer selection (G4PAS).” Using G4PAS, we identified vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)165, platelet-derived growth factor-AA (PDGF)-AA, and RB1 DNA aptamers. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis revealed that the dissociation constant (Kd) values of VEGF165, PDGF-AA, and RB1 DNA aptamers were 1.7 × 10−7 M, 6.3 × 10−9 M, and 4.4 × 10−7 M, respectively. G4PAS is a simple and rapid method of aptamer identification because it involves only binding analysis of G4 DNAs to the target protein. In the human genome, over 40% of promoters contain one or more potential G4 DNAs. G4PAS could therefore be applied to identify aptamers against target proteins that contain G4 DNAs on their promoters.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065497
PMCID: PMC3672139  PMID: 23750264
15.  Selection of an Aptamer Antidote to the Anticoagulant Drug Bivalirudin 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(3):e57341.
Adverse drug reactions, including severe patient bleeding, may occur following the administration of anticoagulant drugs. Bivalirudin is a synthetic anticoagulant drug sometimes employed as a substitute for heparin, a commonly used anticoagulant that can cause a condition called heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). Although bivalrudin has the advantage of not causing HIT, a major concern is lack of an antidote for this drug. In contrast, medical professionals can quickly reverse the effects of heparin using protamine. This report details the selection of an aptamer to bivalirudin that functions as an antidote in buffer. This was accomplished by immobilizing the drug on a monolithic column to partition binding sequences from nonbinding sequences using a low-pressure chromatography system and salt gradient elution. The elution profile of binding sequences was compared to that of a blank column (no drug), and fractions with a chromatographic difference were analyzed via real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and used for further selection. Sequences were identified by 454 sequencing and demonstrated low micromolar dissociation constants through fluorescence anisotropy after only two rounds of selection. One aptamer, JPB5, displayed a dose-dependent reduction of the clotting time in buffer, with a 20 µM aptamer achieving a nearly complete antidote effect. This work is expected to result in a superior safety profile for bivalirudin, resulting in enhanced patient care.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057341
PMCID: PMC3590194  PMID: 23483901
16.  A Novel Cell-Penetrating Peptide Derived from Human Eosinophil Cationic Protein 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(3):e57318.
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are short peptides which can carry various types of molecules into cells; however, although most CPPs rapidly penetrate cells in vitro, their in vivo tissue-targeting specificities are low. Herein, we describe cell-binding, internalization, and targeting characteristics of a newly identified 10-residue CPP, denoted ECP32–41, derived from the core heparin-binding motif of human eosinophil cationic protein (ECP). Besides traditional emphasis on positively charged residues, the presence of cysteine and tryptophan residues was demonstrated to be essential for internalization. ECP32–41 entered Beas-2B and wild-type CHO-K1 cells, but not CHO cells lacking of cell-surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), indicating that binding of ECP32–41 to cell-surface GAGs was required for internalization. When cells were cultured with GAGs or pre-treated with GAG-digesting enzymes, significant decreases in ECP32–41 internalization were observed, suggesting that cell-surface GAGs, especially heparan sulfate proteoglycans were necessary for ECP32–41 attachment and penetration. Furthermore, treatment with pharmacological agents identified two forms of energy-dependent endocytosis, lipid-raft endocytosis and macropinocytosis, as the major ECP32–41 internalization routes. ECP32–41 was demonstrated to transport various cargoes including fluorescent chemical, fluorescent protein, and peptidomimetic drug into cultured Beas-2B cells in vitro, and targeted broncho-epithelial and intestinal villi tissues in vivo. Hence this CPP has the potential to serve as a novel vehicle for intracellular delivery of biomolecules or medicines, especially for the treatment of pulmonary or gastrointestinal diseases.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057318
PMCID: PMC3587609  PMID: 23469189
17.  Nano-Scale Alignment of Proteins on a Flexible DNA Backbone 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(12):e52534.
Nano-scale alignment of several proteins with freedom of motion is equivalent to an enormous increase in effective local concentration of proteins and will enable otherwise impossible weak and/or cooperative associations between them or with their ligands. For this purpose, a DNA backbone made of six oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) chains is designed in which five double-stranded segments are connected by four single-stranded flexible linkers. A desired protein with an introduced cysteine is connected covalently to the 5′-end of azido-ODN by catalyst-free click chemistry. Then, six protein-ODN conjugates are assembled with their complementary nucleotide sequences into a single multi-protein-DNA complex, and six proteins are aligned along the DNA backbone. Flexible alignment of proteins is directly observed by high-speed AFM imaging, and association of proteins with weak interaction is demonstrated by fluorescence resonance energy transfer between aligned proteins.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052534
PMCID: PMC3530504  PMID: 23300700
18.  Spermine Attenuates the Action of the DNA Intercalator, Actinomycin D, on DNA Binding and the Inhibition of Transcription and DNA Replication 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(11):e47101.
The anticancer activity of DNA intercalators is related to their ability to intercalate into the DNA duplex with high affinity, thereby interfering with DNA replication and transcription. Polyamines (spermine in particular) are almost exclusively bound to nucleic acids and are involved in many cellular processes that require nucleic acids. Until now, the effects of polyamines on DNA intercalator activities have remained unclear because intercalation is the most important mechanism employed by DNA-binding drugs. Herein, using actinomycin D (ACTD) as a model, we have attempted to elucidate the effects of spermine on the action of ACTD, including its DNA-binding ability, RNA and DNA polymerase interference, and its role in the transcription and replication inhibition of ACTD within cells. We found that spermine interfered with the binding and stabilization of ACTD to DNA. The presence of increasing concentrations of spermine enhanced the transcriptional and replication activities of RNA and DNA polymerases, respectively, in vitro treated with ActD. Moreover, a decrease in intracellular polyamine concentrations stimulated by methylglyoxal-bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG) enhanced the ACTD-induced inhibition of c-myc transcription and DNA replication in several cancer cell lines. The results indicated that spermine attenuates ACTD binding to DNA and its inhibition of transcription and DNA replication both in vitro and within cells. Finally, a synergistic antiproliferative effect of MGBG and ACTD was observed in a cell viability assay. Our findings will be of significant relevance to future developments in combination with cancer therapy by enhancing the anticancer activity of DNA interactors through polyamine depletion.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047101
PMCID: PMC3493566  PMID: 23144800
19.  DNA-Interactive Properties of Crotamine, a Cell-Penetrating Polypeptide and a Potential Drug Carrier 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(11):e48913.
Crotamine, a 42-residue polypeptide derived from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, has been shown to be a cell-penetrating protein that targets chromosomes, carries plasmid DNA into cells, and shows specificity for actively proliferating cells. Given this potential role as a nucleic acid-delivery vector, we have studied in detail the binding of crotamine to single- and double-stranded DNAs of different lengths and base compositions over a range of ionic conditions. Agarose gel electrophoresis and ultraviolet spectrophotometry analysis indicate that complexes of crotamine with long-chain DNAs readily aggregate and precipitate at low ionic strength. This aggregation, which may be important for cellular uptake of DNA, becomes less likely with shorter chain length. 25-mer oligonucleotides do not show any evidence of such aggregation, permitting the determination of affinities and size via fluorescence quenching experiments. The polypeptide binds non-cooperatively to DNA, covering about 5 nucleotide residues when it binds to single (ss) or (ds) double stranded molecules. The affinities of the protein for ss- vs. ds-DNA are comparable, and inversely proportional to salt levels. Analysis of the dependence of affinity on [NaCl] indicates that there are a maximum of ∼3 ionic interactions between the protein and DNA, with some of the binding affinity attributable to non-ionic interactions. Inspection of the three-dimensional structure of the protein suggests that residues 31 to 35, Arg-Trp-Arg-Trp-Lys, could serve as a potential DNA-binding site. A hexapeptide containing this sequence displayed a lower DNA binding affinity and salt dependence as compared to the full-length protein, likely indicative of a more suitable 3D structure and the presence of accessory binding sites in the native crotamine. Taken together, the data presented here describing crotamine-DNA interactions may lend support to the design of more effective nucleic acid drug delivery vehicles which take advantage of crotamine as a carrier with specificity for actively proliferating cells.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048913
PMCID: PMC3493588  PMID: 23145017
20.  Rapid Identification of Cell-Specific, Internalizing RNA Aptamers with Bioinformatics Analyses of a Cell-Based Aptamer Selection 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(9):e43836.
Background
The broad applicability of RNA aptamers as cell-specific delivery tools for therapeutic reagents depends on the ability to identify aptamer sequences that selectively access the cytoplasm of distinct cell types. Towards this end, we have developed a novel approach that combines a cell-based selection method (cell-internalization SELEX) with high-throughput sequencing (HTS) and bioinformatics analyses to rapidly identify cell-specific, internalization-competent RNA aptamers.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We demonstrate the utility of this approach by enriching for RNA aptamers capable of selective internalization into vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Several rounds of positive (VSMCs) and negative (endothelial cells; ECs) selection were performed to enrich for aptamer sequences that preferentially internalize into VSMCs. To identify candidate RNA aptamer sequences, HTS data from each round of selection were analyzed using bioinformatics methods: (1) metrics of selection enrichment; and (2) pairwise comparisons of sequence and structural similarity, termed edit and tree distance, respectively. Correlation analyses of experimentally validated aptamers or rounds revealed that the best cell-specific, internalizing aptamers are enriched as a result of the negative selection step performed against ECs.
Conclusions and Significance
We describe a novel approach that combines cell-internalization SELEX with HTS and bioinformatics analysis to identify cell-specific, cell-internalizing RNA aptamers. Our data highlight the importance of performing a pre-clear step against a non-target cell in order to select for cell-specific aptamers. We expect the extended use of this approach to enable the identification of aptamers to a multitude of different cell types, thereby facilitating the broad development of targeted cell therapies.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0043836
PMCID: PMC3433472  PMID: 22962591
21.  Rapid One-Step Selection Method for Generating Nucleic Acid Aptamers: Development of a DNA Aptamer against α-Bungarotoxin 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(7):e41702.
Background
Nucleic acids based therapeutic approaches have gained significant interest in recent years towards the development of therapeutics against many diseases. Recently, research on aptamers led to the marketing of Macugen®, an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) for the treatment of age related macular degeneration (AMD). Aptamer technology may prove useful as a therapeutic alternative against an array of human maladies. Considering the increased interest in aptamer technology globally that rival antibody mediated therapeutic approaches, a simplified selection, possibly in one-step, technique is required for developing aptamers in limited time period.
Principal Findings
Herein, we present a simple one-step selection of DNA aptamers against α-bungarotoxin. A toxin immobilized glass coverslip was subjected to nucleic acid pool binding and extensive washing followed by PCR enrichment of the selected aptamers. One round of selection successfully identified a DNA aptamer sequence with a binding affinity of 7.58 µM.
Conclusion
We have demonstrated a one-step method for rapid production of nucleic acid aptamers. Although the reported binding affinity is in the low micromolar range, we believe that this could be further improved by using larger targets, increasing the stringency of selection and also by combining a capillary electrophoresis separation prior to the one-step selection. Furthermore, the method presented here is a user-friendly, cheap and an easy way of deriving an aptamer unlike the time consuming conventional SELEX-based approach. The most important application of this method is that chemically-modified nucleic acid libraries can also be used for aptamer selection as it requires only one enzymatic step. This method could equally be suitable for developing RNA aptamers.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041702
PMCID: PMC3408503  PMID: 22860007
22.  Low Concentration of Silver Nanoparticles Not Only Enhances the Activity of Horseradish Peroxidase but Alter the Structure Also 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(7):e41422.
Chemical synthesis of Ag-NPs was carried out using reduction method. The reduction mechanistic approach of silver ions was found to be a basic clue for the formation of the Ag-NPs. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR and TEM analysis. We had designed some experiments in support of our hypothesis, “low concentrations of novel nanoparticles (silver and gold) increases the activity of plant peroxidases and alter their structure also”, we had used Ag-NPs and HRP as models. The immobilization/interaction experiment had demonstrated the specific concentration range of the Ag-NPs and within this range, an increase in HRP activity was reported. At 0.08 mM concentration of Ag-NPs, 50% increase in the activity yield was found. The U.V-vis spectra had demonstrated the increase in the absorbance of HRP within the reported concentration range (0.06–0.12 mM). Above and below this concentration range there was a decrease in the activity of HRP. The results that we had found from the fluorescence spectra were also in favor of our hypothesis. There was a maximum increase in ellipticity and α-helix contents in the presence of 0.08 mM concentration of Ag-NPs, demonstrated by circular dichroism (CD) spectra. Finally, incubation of a plant peroxidase, HRP with Ag-NPs, within the reported concentration range not only enhances the activity but also alter the structure.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041422
PMCID: PMC3407207  PMID: 22848490
23.  Peg Precipitation Coupled with Chromatography is a New and Sufficient Method for the Purification of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type B 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(6):e39670.
Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins are used to treat a variety of neuro-muscular disorders, as well as in cosmetology. The increased demand requires efficient methods for the production and purification of these toxins. In this study, a new purification process was developed for purifying type B neurotoxin. The kinetics of C.botulinum strain growth and neurotoxin production were determined for maximum yield of toxin. The neurotoxin was purified by polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation and chromatography. Based on design of full factorial experiment, 20% (w/v) PEG-6000, 4°C, pH 5.0 and 0.3 M NaCl were optimal conditions to obtain a high recovery rate of 87% for the type B neurotoxin complex, as indicated by a purification factor of 61.5 fold. Furthermore, residual bacterial cells, impurity proteins and some nucleic acids were removed by PEG precipitation. The following purification of neurotoxin was accomplished by two chromatography techniques using Sephacryl™ S-100 and phenyl HP columns. The neurotoxin was recovered with an overall yield of 21.5% and the purification factor increased to 216.7 fold. In addition, a mouse bioassay determined the purified neurotoxin complex possessed a specific toxicity (LD50) of 4.095 ng/kg.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0039670
PMCID: PMC3386254  PMID: 22761863
24.  Development of Novel Single-Stranded Nucleic Acid Aptamers against the Pro-Angiogenic and Metastatic Enzyme Heparanase (HPSE1) 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(6):e37938.
Heparanase is an enzyme involved in extracellular matrix remodelling and heparan sulphate proteoglycan catabolism. It is secreted by metastatic tumour cells, allowing them to penetrate the endothelial cell layer and basement membrane to invade target organs. The release of growth factors at the site of cleaved heparan sulphate chains further enhance the potential of the tumour by encouraging the process of angiogenesis. This leads to increased survival and further proliferation of the tumour. Aptamers are single or double stranded oligonucleotides that recognise specific small molecules, peptides, proteins, or even cells or tissues and have shown great potential over the years as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in anticancer treatment. For the first time, single stranded DNA aptamers were successfully generated against the active heterodimer form of heparanase using a modified SELEX protocol, and eluted based on increasing affinity for the target. Sandwich ELISA assays showed recognition of heparanase by the aptamers at a site distinct from that of a polyclonal HPSE1 antibody. The binding affinities of aptamer to immobilised enzyme were high (7×107 to 8×107 M−1) as measured by fluorescence spectroscopy. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that the aptamers were able to recognise heparanase with staining comparable or in some cases superior to that of the HPSE1 antibody control. Finally, matrigel assay demonstrated that aptamers were able to inhibit heparanase. This study provides clear proof of principle concept that nucleic acid aptamers can be generated against heparanase. These reagents may serve as useful tools to explore the functional role of the enzyme and in the future development of diagnostic assays or therapeutic reagents.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0037938
PMCID: PMC3376095  PMID: 22719856
25.  Green Tea Polyphenol EGCG Sensing Motif on the 67-kDa Laminin Receptor 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(5):e37942.
Background
We previously identified the 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) as the cell-surface receptor conferring the major green tea polyphenol (–)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) responsiveness to cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanism for interaction between EGCG and 67LR remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the possible role of EGCG-67LR interaction responsible for its bioactivities.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We synthesized various peptides deduced from the extracellular domain corresponding to the 102-295 region of human 67LR encoding a 295-amino acid. The neutralizing activity of these peptides toward EGCG cell-surface binding and inhibition of cancer cell growth were assayed. Both activities were inhibited by a peptide containing the 10-amino acid residues, IPCNNKGAHS, corresponding to residues 161-170. Furthermore, mass spectrometric analysis revealed the formation of a EGCG-LR161-170 peptide complex. A study of the amino acid deletion/replacement of the peptide LR161-170 indicated that the 10-amino acid length and two basic amino acids, K166 and H169, have a critical role in neutralizing EGCG’s activities. Moreover, neutralizing activity against the anti-proliferation action of EGCG was observed in a recombinant protein of the extracellular domain of 67LR, and this effect was abrogated by a deletion of residues 161-170. These findings support that the 10 amino-acid sequence, IPCNNKGAHS, might be the functional domain responsible for the anti-cancer activity of EGCG.
Conclusions/Significance
Overall, our results highlight the nature of the EGCG-67LR interaction and provide novel structural insights into the understanding of 67LR-mediated functions of EGCG, and could aid in the development of potential anti-cancer compounds for chemopreventive or therapeutic uses that can mimic EGCG-67LR interactions.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0037942
PMCID: PMC3362541  PMID: 22666419

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