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1.  A multistate outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Baildon associated with domestic raw tomatoes. 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2001;7(6):1046-1048.
Salmonella enterica serotype Baildon, a rare serotype, was recovered from 86 persons in eight states; 87% of illnesses began during a 3-week period ending January 9, 1999. Raw restaurant-prepared tomatoes were implicated in multiple case-control studies. Contamination likely occurred on the farm or during packing; more effective disinfection and prevention strategies are needed.
PMCID: PMC2631895  PMID: 11747740
2.  A multistate outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections linked to alfalfa sprouts grown from contaminated seeds. 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2001;7(6):977-982.
A multistate outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections occurred in the United States in June and July 1997. Two concurrent outbreaks were investigated through independent case-control studies in Michigan and Virginia and by subtyping isolates with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Isolates from 85 persons were indistinguishable by PFGE. Alfalfa sprouts were the only exposure associated with E. coli O157:H7 infection in both Michigan and Virginia. Seeds used for sprouting were traced back to one common lot harvested in Idaho. New subtyping tools such as PFGE used in this investigation are essential to link isolated infections to a single outbreak.
PMCID: PMC2631892  PMID: 11747724
4.  Food-related illness and death in the United States. 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  1999;5(5):607-625.
To better quantify the impact of foodborne diseases on health in the United States, we compiled and analyzed information from multiple surveillance systems and other sources. We estimate that foodborne diseases cause approximately 76 million illnesses, 325,000 hospitalizations, and 5,000 deaths in the United States each year. Known pathogens account for an estimated 14 million illnesses, 60, 000 hospitalizations, and 1,800 deaths. Three pathogens, Salmonella, Listeria, and Toxoplasma, are responsible for 1,500 deaths each year, more than 75% of those caused by known pathogens, while unknown agents account for the remaining 62 million illnesses, 265,000 hospitalizations, and 3,200 deaths. Overall, foodborne diseases appear to cause more illnesses but fewer deaths than previously estimated.
PMCID: PMC2627714  PMID: 10511517
5.  Infections associated with eating seed sprouts: an international concern. 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  1999;5(5):626-634.
Recent outbreaks of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections associated with raw seed sprouts have occurred in several countries. Subjective evaluations indicate that pathogens can exceed 107 per gram of sprouts produced from inoculated seeds during sprout production without adversely affecting appearance. Treating seeds and sprouts with chlorinated water or other disinfectants fails to eliminate the pathogens. A comprehensive approach based on good manufacturing practices and principles of hazard analysis and critical control points can reduce the risk of sprout-associated disease. Until effective measures to prevent sprout-associated illness are identified, persons who wish to reduce their risk of foodborne illness from raw sprouts are advised not to eat them; in particular, persons at high risk for severe complications of infections with Salmonella or E. coli O157:H7, such as the elderly, children, and those with compromised immune systems, should not eat raw sprouts.
PMCID: PMC2627711  PMID: 10511518
6.  Using laboratory-based surveillance data for prevention: an algorithm for detecting Salmonella outbreaks. 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  1997;3(3):395-400.
By applying cumulative sums (CUSUM), a quality control method commonly used in manufacturing, we constructed a process for detecting unusual clusters among reported laboratory isolates of disease-causing organisms. We developed a computer algorithm based on minimal adjustments to the CUSUM method, which cumulates sums of the differences between frequencies of isolates and their expected means; we used the algorithm to identify outbreaks of Salmonella Enteritidis isolates reported in 1993. By comparing these detected outbreaks with known reported outbreaks, we estimated the sensitivity, specificity, and false-positive rate of the method. Sensitivity by state in which the outbreak was reported was 0%(0/1) to 100%. Specificity was 64% to 100%, and the false-positive rate was 0 to 1.
PMCID: PMC2627626  PMID: 9284390

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