Search tips
Search criteria

Results 1-5 (5)

Clipboard (0)

Select a Filter Below

more »
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Neural changes in the primate brain correlated with the evolution of complex motor skills 
Scientific Reports  2016;6:31084.
Complex motor skills of eventual benefit can be learned after considerable trial and error. What do structural brain changes that accompany such effortful long-term learning tell us about the mechanisms for developing innovative behavior? Using MRI, we monitored brain structure before, during and after four marmosets learnt to use a rake, over a long period of 10–13 months. Throughout learning, improvements in dexterity and visuo-motor co-ordination correlated with increased volume in the lateral extrastriate cortex. During late learning, when the most complex behavior was maintained by sustained motivation to acquire the skill, the volume of the nucleus accumbens increased. These findings reflect the motivational state required to learn, and show accelerated function in higher visual cortex that is consistent with neurocognitive divergence across a spectrum of primate species.
PMCID: PMC4976342  PMID: 27498966
2.  High STOP-Bang score indicates a high probability of obstructive sleep apnoea 
BJA: British Journal of Anaesthesia  2012;108(5):768-775.
The STOP-Bang questionnaire is used to screen patients for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). We evaluated the association between STOP-Bang scores and the probability of OSA.
After Institutional Review Board approval, patients who visited the preoperative clinics for a scheduled inpatient surgery were approached for informed consent. Patients answered STOP questionnaire and underwent either laboratory or portable polysomnography (PSG). PSG recordings were scored manually. The BMI, age, neck circumference, and gender (Bang) were documented. Over 4 yr, 6369 patients were approached and 1312 (20.6%) consented. Of them, 930 completed PSG, and 746 patients with complete data on PSG and STOP-Bang questionnaire were included for data analysis.
The median age of 746 patients was 60 yr, 49% males, BMI 30 kg m−2, and neck circumference 39 cm. OSA was present in 68.4% with 29.9% mild, 20.5% moderate, and 18.0% severe OSA. For a STOP-Bang score of 5, the odds ratio (OR) for moderate/severe and severe OSA was 4.8 and 10.4, respectively. For STOP-Bang 6, the OR for moderate/severe and severe OSA was 6.3 and 11.6, respectively. For STOP-Bang 7 and 8, the OR for moderate/severe and severe OSA was 6.9 and 14.9, respectively. The predicted probabilities for moderate/severe OSA increased from 0.36 to 0.60 as the STOP-Bang score increased from 3 to 7 and 8.
In the surgical population, a STOP-Bang score of 5–8 identified patients with high probability of moderate/severe OSA. The STOP-Bang score can help the healthcare team to stratify patients for unrecognized OSA, practice perioperative precautions, or triage patients for diagnosis and treatment.
PMCID: PMC3325050  PMID: 22401881
mass screening; obstructive/ep (epidemiology); polysomnography; prospective studies; questionnaires; sleep apnoea; snoring/di (diagnosis); snoring/ep (epidemiology)
3.  Roles of cyclooxygenase 2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 in rat acid reflux oesophagitis 
Gut  2006;55(4):450-456.
Although prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX‐2), and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 (mPGES‐1) are known to play a role in various inflammatory events, their roles in the pathogenesis of gastro‐oesophageal reflux disease are not known.
We examined the dynamics of COX‐1, COX‐2, mPGES‐1, mPGES‐2, cytosolic PGES (cPGES), and PGE2 synthetic activity in rat acid reflux oesophagitis and the effects of COX‐2 inhibitors on the severity of oesophagitis.
Acid reflux oesophagitis was induced by ligating the transitional region between the forestomach and the glandular portion and wrapping the duodenum near the pylorus. Rats were killed on day 3 (acute phase) or day 21 (chronic phase) after induction of oesophagitis.
Expression of COX‐2 and mPGES‐1 was markedly increased in oesophagitis while modest changes in COX‐1, cPGES, and mPGES‐2 expression were observed. COX‐2 and mPGES‐1 were colocalised in epithelial cells of the basal layer, as well as inflammatory and mesenchymal cells in the lamina propria and submucosa. COX‐2 inhibitors significantly reduced the severity of chronic oesophagitis but did not affect acute oesophageal lesions. COX‐2 inhibitors significantly inhibited the increase in PGE2 synthesis in oesophageal lesions on both days 3 and 21. Epithelial proliferation was significantly increased in the basal layer on day 21. Inflammatory cells and epithelial cells of the basal layer exhibited reactions for EP4 in oesophagitis.
PGE2 derived from COX‐2 and mPGES‐1 plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of chronic acid reflux oesophagitis, and possibly in basal hyperplasia and persistent inflammatory cell infiltration.
PMCID: PMC1856161  PMID: 16210398
cyclooxygenase 2; microsomal prostaglandin E synthesis 1; prostaglandin E2; cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors; reflux oesophagitis
4.  Evaluation of intestinal permeability in patients with inflammatory bowel disease using lactulose and measuring antibodies to lipid A. 
Gut  1995;36(6):891-896.
This study looked at the intestinal permeability and the immune response to enteric bacterial antigens in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). They were evaluated by using a lactulose tolerance test and measuring blood anti-lipid A antibody concentrations, respectively. The lactulose tolerance tests were performed 22 times in 14 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), 19 times in 12 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), and 12 times in 12 healthy controls. Blood lactulose concentrations were measured after oral administration every two hours for eight hours, also blood C reactive protein concentrations and anti-lipid A antibody concentrations were measured just before lactulose administration. Blood lactulose concentrations were significantly higher in patients with CD than in the controls from two to eight hours after administration, while in UC they were significantly higher than in the controls from six to eight hours. Maximum blood lactulose concentrations in each tolerance test in patients with the active phase significantly exceeded those in the inactive phase of either CD or UC. A significant correlation was also seen between the maximum blood lactulose concentrations and the C reactive protein concentrations. Blood anti-lipid A antibody concentrations in patients with CD were significantly higher than in the controls as well as in patients with UC in immunoglobulin (Ig) A class and IgG class. In UC they were significantly higher than in the controls in IgA class. But, they were not related to the severity of the disease of either CD or UC, and not correlated significantly with the maximum blood lactulose concentrations in either CD or UC. The intestinal permeability and the immune response to enteric bacterial antigens in patients with inactive CD were significantly increased over those in the controls as well as in patients with inactive UC. These findings suggest that an increase of the intestinal permeability and that of producing antibodies to enteric bacterial antigens are both important for the pathogenesis of IBD, and that the characteristics of CD and UC differ.
PMCID: PMC1382628  PMID: 7615279
5.  Soluble interleukin-6 receptors in inflammatory bowel disease: relation to circulating interleukin-6. 
Gut  1995;36(1):45-49.
The in vivo appearance of soluble interleukin (IL)-6 receptor (sIL-6R) in serum from patients with inflammatory bowel disease was examined using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The serum sIL-6R concentrations in patients with active disease (ulcerative colitis, 148.4 (5.1); Crohn's disease, 142.3 (9.3) ng/ml; mean (SEM)) were significantly raised compared with those in patients with inactive disease (ulcerative colitis, 116.2 (7.2); Crohn's disease, 114.3 (7.1) ng/ml), some other type of colitis (104.8 (11.6) ng/ml), or in normal subjects (107.3 (2.4) ng/ml). These differences were also seen in paired samples examined during both active and inactive phases. Additionally, serum sIL-6R and IL-6 concentrations correlated significantly with C-reactive protein levels in both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease patients (r = 0.23 and 0.56, respectively; p < 0.05 for both). Furthermore, gel filtration analysis of serum from these patients showed two major peaks of immunoreactive IL-6-one peak corresponding to free IL-6 and another peak to sIL-6R-bound IL-6-this was further confirmed by a luminescence sandwich ELISA. These results, together with its in vitro effects, indicate that natural sIL-6R may function as a powerful enhancer of the IL-6-dependent immune processes observed in inflammatory bowel disease.
PMCID: PMC1382351  PMID: 7890234

Results 1-5 (5)