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Breast cancer research and treatment (1)
Journal of Clinical Investigation (1)
Nucleic Acids Research (1)
Jhiang, S M (2)
Beyer, S.J. (1)
Burant, C (1)
Chiu, I M (1)
Cho, J.Y. (1)
Jhiang, S.M. (1)
Jimenez, R.E. (1)
Mazzaferri, E L (1)
Pohlenz, J (1)
Refetoff, S (1)
Rosenthal, I M (1)
Shapiro, C.L. (1)
Weiss, R E (1)
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Do cell surface trafficking impairments account for variable cell surface sodium iodide symporter levels in breast cancer?
Breast cancer research and treatment
The Na+/I- symporter (NIS) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that mediates iodide uptake into thyroid follicular cells and serves as the molecular basis of radioiodine imaging and therapy for thyroid cancer patients. The finding that NIS protein is present in 80-90% of breast tumors suggests that breast cancer patients may also benefit from NIS-mediated radionuclide imaging and targeted therapy. However, only 17-25% of NIS-positive breast tumors have detectable radionuclide uptake activity. The discrepancy between NIS expression and radionuclide uptake activity is most likely contributed by variable cell surface NIS protein levels. Apart from the prevalent view that NIS cell surface trafficking impairments account for the variability, our current study proposes that differential levels of NIS expression may also account for variable cell surface NIS levels among breast tumors. We address the need to confirm the identity of intracellular NIS staining to reveal the mechanisms underlying variable cell surface NIS levels. In addition, we warrant a quantitative correlation between cell surface NIS levels and radionuclide uptake activity in patients such that the cell surface NIS levels required for radionuclide imaging can be defined and the defects impairing NIS activity can be recognized.
Breast cancer; glycoprotein; iodide uptake; radionuclide imaging and therapy; sodium iodide symporter (NIS)
Congenital hypothyroidism due to mutations in the sodium/iodide symporter. Identification of a nonsense mutation producing a downstream cryptic 3' splice site.
Rosenthal, I M
Weiss, R E
Journal of Clinical Investigation
A 12-yr-old hypothyroid girl was diagnosed at birth as athyreotic because her thyroid gland could not be visualized by isotope scanning. Goiter development due to incomplete thyrotropin suppression, a thyroidal radioiodide uptake of < 1%, and a low saliva to plasma ratio of 2.5 suggested iodide (I-) transport defect. mRNA isolated from her thyroid gland and injected into Xenopus oocytes failed to increase I- transport. Sequencing of the entire Na+/I- symporter (NIS) cDNA revealed a C to G transversion of nucleotide (nt) 1146 in exon 6, resulting in a Gln 267 (CAG) to Glu (GAG) substitution. This missense mutation produces an NIS with undetectable I- transport activity when expressed in COS-7 cells. Although only this missense mutation was identified in thyroid and lymphocyte cDNA, genotyping revealed that the proposita and her unaffected brother and father were heterozygous for this mutation. However, amplification of cDNA with a primer specific for the wild-type nt 1146 yielded a sequence lacking 67 nt. Genomic DNA showed a C to G transversion of nt 1940, producing a stop codon as well as a new downstream cryptic 3' splice acceptor site in exon 13, responsible for the 67 nt deletion, frameshift, and premature stop predicting an NIS lacking 129 carboxy-terminal amino acids. This mutation was inherited from the mother and present in the unaffected sister. Thus, although the proposita is a compound heterozygote, because of the very low expression (< 2.5%) of one mutant allele, she is functionally hemizygous for an NIS without detectable bioactivity.
An STS in the human PTC oncogene located at 10q11.2.
Chiu, I M
Mazzaferri, E L
Nucleic Acids Research
Results 1-3 (3)
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