The Na+/I- symporter (NIS) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that mediates iodide uptake into thyroid follicular cells and serves as the molecular basis of radioiodine imaging and therapy for thyroid cancer patients. The finding that NIS protein is present in 80-90% of breast tumors suggests that breast cancer patients may also benefit from NIS-mediated radionuclide imaging and targeted therapy. However, only 17-25% of NIS-positive breast tumors have detectable radionuclide uptake activity. The discrepancy between NIS expression and radionuclide uptake activity is most likely contributed by variable cell surface NIS protein levels. Apart from the prevalent view that NIS cell surface trafficking impairments account for the variability, our current study proposes that differential levels of NIS expression may also account for variable cell surface NIS levels among breast tumors. We address the need to confirm the identity of intracellular NIS staining to reveal the mechanisms underlying variable cell surface NIS levels. In addition, we warrant a quantitative correlation between cell surface NIS levels and radionuclide uptake activity in patients such that the cell surface NIS levels required for radionuclide imaging can be defined and the defects impairing NIS activity can be recognized.
Breast cancer; glycoprotein; iodide uptake; radionuclide imaging and therapy; sodium iodide symporter (NIS)
In November 2011, the Third European Consensus Conference on Diagnosis and Treatment of Germ-Cell Cancer (GCC) was held in Berlin, Germany. This third conference followed similar meetings in 2003 (Essen, Germany) and 2006 (Amsterdam, The Netherlands) [Schmoll H-J, Souchon R, Krege S et al. European consensus on diagnosis and treatment of germ-cell cancer: a report of the European Germ-Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG). Ann Oncol 2004; 15: 1377–1399; Krege S, Beyer J, Souchon R et al. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ-cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ-Cell Cancer Consensus group (EGCCCG): part I. Eur Urol 2008; 53: 478–496; Krege S, Beyer J, Souchon R et al. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ-cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ-Cell Cancer Consensus group (EGCCCG): part II. Eur Urol 2008; 53: 497–513]. A panel of 56 of 60 invited GCC experts from all across Europe discussed all aspects on diagnosis and treatment of GCC, with a particular focus on acute and late toxic effects as well as on survivorship issues.
The panel consisted of oncologists, urologic surgeons, radiooncologists, pathologists and basic scientists, who are all actively involved in care of GCC patients. Panelists were chosen based on the publication activity in recent years. Before the meeting, panelists were asked to review the literature published since 2006 in 20 major areas concerning all aspects of diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of GCC patients, and to prepare an updated version of the previous recommendations to be discussed at the conference. In addition, ∼50 E-vote questions were drafted and presented at the conference to address the most controversial areas for a poll of expert opinions. Here, we present the main recommendations and controversies of this meeting. The votes of the panelists are added as online supplements.
consensus conference; diagnosis; germ-cell cancer; late toxic effects; long-term follow-up; treatment
Individual and trophic efficiencies of size-structured communities are derived from mechanistically based principles at the individual level. The derivations are relevant for communities with a size-based trophic structure, i.e. where trophic level is strongly correlated with individual size as in many aquatic systems. The derivations are used to link Lindeman's trophic theory and trophic theory based on average individuals with explicit individual-level size spectrum theory. The trophic efficiency based on the transfer of mass between trophic levels through predator–prey interactions is demonstrated to be valid only when somatic growth can be ignored. Taking somatic growth into account yields an average individual growth efficiency that is smaller than the trophic efficiency.
ecological efficiency; trophic efficiency; structured populations; trophic level; size spectrum
To analyse economic aspects of tobacco control policy issues in China.
Published and collected survey data were used to analyse economic consequences of smoking. Economic analysis was used to address the role of tobacco farmers and the cigarette industry in the Chinese economy.
In the agricultural sector, tobacco has the lowest economic rate of return of all cash crops. At the same time, the tobacco industry's tax contribution to the central government has been declining.
Economic gains become less important as the negative health impact of smoking on the population garners more awareness. China stands at a crossroads to implement the economic promises of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and promote the health of its population.
economics; tobacco control; China
Objectives: To analyse differences in smoking behaviour and smoking expenditures among low and high income households in China and the impact of smoking on standard of living of low income households in China.
Methods: About 3400 urban and rural households from 36 townships/districts in southwest China were interviewed in 2002. Cross tabulations and regression analysis were used to examine the differences in major household expenditures, including food, housing, clothing, and education between households with smokers and without smokers.
Results: Lower income households with smokers paid less per pack and smoked fewer cigarettes than higher income households with smokers. Poor urban households spent an average of 6.6% of their total expenditures on cigarettes; poor rural households spent 11.3% of their total expenditures on cigarettes.
Conclusion: Reducing cigarette expenditures could release household resources to spend on food, housing, and other goods that improve living standards.
The in vitro activities of ABT-773, erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin were compared. ABT-773 was the most active compound against macrolide-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Listeria monocytogenes, and Enterococcus spp. and multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. It also had good activity against gram-negative and atypical respiratory tract pathogens and Helicobacter pylori.
19 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) patients participated in a randomized double-blind crossover investigation to investigate the impact of human C-peptide on skin microvascular blood flow. The investigation was also carried out with 10 healthy volunteers. Blood pressure, heart rate, blood sugar, and C-peptide levels were monitored during a 60-min intravenous infusion period of C-peptide (8 pmol kg-1 min-1) or saline solution (154 mmol liter-1 NaCl), and 30 min after stopping the infusion. During the same time period, capillary blood cell velocity (CBV), laser Doppler flux (LDF), and skin temperature were assessed in the feet. In the verum arm, C-peptide levels increased after starting infusion to reach a maximum of 2.3+/-0.2 nmol liter-1 after 45 min, but remained below 0. 15 nmol liter-1 during the saline treatment. Baseline CBV was lower in diabetic patients compared with healthy subjects (147+/-3.6 vs. 162+/-4.2 micron s-1; P < 0.01). During C-peptide administration, CBV in IDDM patients increased progressively from 147+/-3.6 to 167+/-3.7 micron s-1; P < 0.001), whereas no significant change occurred during saline infusion or in healthy subjects. In contrast to the CBV measurements, the investigation of LDF, skin temperature, blood pressure, heart rate, or blood sugar did not demonstrate any significant change during the study. Replacement of human C-peptide in IDDM patients leads to a redistribution in skin microvascular blood flow levels comparable to levels in healthy subjects by increasing the nutritive CBV relative to subpapillary arteriovenous shunt flow.
Preparations of density gradient-purified infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were found to contain full and empty icosahedral virions, type I tubules with a diameter of about 60 nm, and type II tubules 24 to 26 nm in diameter. By immunoelectron microscopy we demonstrate that virions and both types of tubular structures specifically react with anti-IBDV serum. In infected cells intracytoplasmic and intranuclear type II tubules reacted exclusively with an anti-VP4 monoclonal antibody, as did type II tubules in virion preparations. The immunofluorescence pattern with the anti-VP4 antibody correlated with electron microscopical findings. Neither purified extracellular nor intracellular virions were labeled with the anti-VP4 MAb. Our data show that the type II tubules contain VP4 and suggest that VP4 is not part of the virus particle.
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from Saanen goats experimentally infected with the lentivirus caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) were evaluated by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase PCR for gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and IL-2 gene expression following in vitro stimulation with purified CAEV gp135 surface protein (SU). Studies examined three goats with chronic arthritis and four clinically asymptomatic goats at 5 years postinfection. SU-responsive IFN-gamma mRNA-positive cells and IL-4 mRNA-positive cells in PBMC from infected goats reflected differences in lymphokine balance associated with disease status. IFN-gamma mRNA-positive cells were dominant in PBMC from asymptomatic goats, whereas SU-responsive IL-4 mRNA-positive cells were dominant in PBMC from goats with arthritis. IL-2 gene expression was not responsive to SU stimulation of PBMC from either asymptomatic or arthritic goats. Lymphokine mRNA profiles in SU-stimulated PBMC were dependent on the presence of CD4+ T lymphocytes. The results indicate that asymptomatic goats have a dominant population of CAEV SU-reactive T-helper 1 (Th1)-like lymphocytes in PBMC whereas goats with clinical arthritis have a dominant population of SU-reactive Th2-like lymphocytes.
The National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) methods for susceptibility testing of Haemophilus influenzae in Haemophilus test medium allow a pH range of 7.2 to 7.4. However, it is known that bacteria may appear to be less susceptible to macrolides at lower pHs. Forty-four strains of H. influenzae were tested for their susceptibilities to clarithromycin and azithromycin by the disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The isolates appeared to be less susceptible at pH 7.2 than at pH 7.4 by both methods. Clarithromycin was less active at pH 7.2 against 43% of the isolates by the disk diffusion method and against 52% of the isolates by the broth microdilution method. Similarly, azithromycin was less active at pH 7.2 against 41 and 45% of the isolates by the disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods, respectively. Forty-two isolates were classified as clarithromycin susceptible and all isolates were classified as azithromycin susceptible by the disk diffusion method, regardless of the medium pH. However, only 21 isolates were clarithromycin susceptible at pH 7.2 and 34 isolates were susceptible at pH 7.4 by the broth microdilution method, even though quality control results indicated valid testing at both pHs. This study indicated that the results of tests of the susceptibility of H. influenzae with clarithromycin and azithromycin are highly dependent on the pH of the medium. Test results and their interpretations varied even when the medium pH was within the NCCLS-approved range and, coupled with the current NCCLS breakpoint of 8 microg/ml in the case of clarithromycin, may explain some of the observed discordances between the disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods.
We have developed a rapid PCR-oligonucleotide ligation assay that can discriminate single base substitutions that are associated with clarithromycin resistance in Helicobacter pylori. Susceptible isolates were wild type at positions 2143 and 2144 (cognate to 2058 and 2059 in Escherichia coli), while 93% of the resistant isolates contained A-to-G mutations at either position and 7% of the isolates contained A-to-C mutations at position 2143. In addition, the MIC for 86% of the resistant isolates with an A2143 mutation was > or = 64 micrograms per ml, and that for 89% of the resistant isolates with an A2144 mutation was < or = 32 micrograms per ml.
The molecular typing of 81 pretreatment Helicobacter pylori isolates and the comparison of 18 pretreatment-posttreatment pairs is described by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the ureC gene. The results of our study show the extreme genomic diversity of H. pylori and indicate that infection by H. pylori in the United States does not appear to be limited to a small number of RFLP types.
Twelve clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori isolates (100% of resistant isolates examined) from seven different patients each contained an A-->G transition mutation within a conserved loop of 23S rRNA. A-->G transition mutations at positions cognate with Escherichia coli 23S rRNA positions 2058 and 2059 were identified. Clarithromycin-susceptible H. pylori isolates from 14 different patients displayed no polymorphisms in a conserved loop within domain V of 23S rRNA. The study is the first to report mutations in H. pylori associated with resistance to an antimicrobial agent used in established peptic ulcer treatment regimens.
ABT-719 (A-86719.1) is the first compound of a new class of novel DNA gyrase inhibitors, the 2-pyridones, with potent antibacterial activity against gram-positive, gram-negative, and anaerobic organisms. ABT-719 was more active than ciprofloxacin, sparfloxacin, and clinafloxacin against gram-positive bacteria. ABT-719 was particularly active against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC at which 90% of the isolates were inhibited [MIC90] = 0.015 micrograms/ml) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (MIC90 = 0.03 micrograms/ml). ABT-719 was also the most active of the compounds tested against ciprofloxacin-resistant S. aureus isolates, with an MIC90 of 0.25 micrograms/ml, compared with 64 micrograms/ml for ciprofloxacin. Against gram-negative organisms, ABT-719 was as active as or slightly more active than ciprofloxacin and was the most active compound against ciprofloxacin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC90 = 2.0 micrograms/ml). ABT-719 was also the most active compound against both gram-positive and gram-negative anaerobes, with MIC90s ranging from 0.12 to 0.25 micrograms/ml.
Clarithromycin is a recently approved macrolide with improved pharmacokinetics, antibacterial activity, and efficacy in treating bacterial infections including those caused by Helicobacter pylori, an agent implicated in various forms of gastric disease. We successfully isolated ribosomes from H. pylori and present the results of a study of their interaction with macrolides. Kinetic data were obtained by using 14C-labeled macrolides to probe the ribosomal binding site. Clarithromycin, its parent compound erythromycin, and its 14-(R)-hydroxy metabolite all bound tightly to H. pylori ribosomes. Kd values were in the range of 2 x 10(-10) M, which is the tightest binding interaction observed to date for a macrolide-ribosome complex. This tight binding was due to very slow dissociation rate constants of 7.07 x 10(-4), 6.83 x 10(-4), and 16.6 x 10(-4) min-1 for clarithromycin, erythromycin, and 14-hydroxyclarithromycin, respectively, giving half-times of dissociation ranging from 7 to 16 h, the slowest yet measured for a macrolide-ribosome complex. These dissociation rate constants are 2 orders of magnitude slower than the dissociation rate constants of macrolides from other gram-negative ribosomes. [14C]clarithromycin was bound stoichiometrically to 50S ribosomal subunits following incubation with 70S ribosomes and subsequent separation of the 30S and 50S subunits by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. These data predict that the lower MIC of clarithromycin compared with that of erythromycin for H. pylori is likely due to a faster rate of intracellular accumulation, possibly because of increased hydrophobicity.
A-80556 is a novel fluoroquinolone with potent antibacterial activity against gram-positive, gram-negative, and anaerobic organisms. A-80556 was more active than ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, lomefloxacin, and sparfloxacin against gram-positive bacteria. A-80556 was particularly active against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC for 90% of isolates [MIC90], 0.12 microgram/ml, relative to fluoroquinolone-susceptible strains) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (MIC90, 0.12 microgram/ml). A-80556 was also the most active of the quinolones tested against ciprofloxacin-resistant S. aureus, with an MIC90 of 4.0 micrograms/ml; that of ciprofloxacin was > 128 micrograms/ml. However, the significance of this activity is not known. A-80556 was slightly less active against Escherichia coli (MIC90, 0.06 microgram/ml) and other enteric organisms than ciprofloxacin (MIC90 for E. coli, < or = 0.03 microgram/ml). A-80556 was slightly less active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC90, 4.0 micrograms/ml) than ciprofloxacin (MIC90, 2.0 micrograms/ml) and more active against Acinetobacter spp. (respective MIC90s, 0.12 and 0.5 microgram/ml). A-80556 was also the most active compound against anaerobes. Against Bacteroides fragilis, the MIC90 of A-80556 was 2.0 micrograms/ml; that of ciprofloxacin was 16 micrograms/ml. The in vivo efficacy of A-80556 in experimental models with both gram-positive and gram-negative infections was consistent with the in vitro activity and pharmacokinetics and oral absorption in mice.
The pharmacokinetics and applicability of aerosol amphotericin B administrations were studied in 40 neutropenic patients and 4 healthy volunteers. Particle size was measured and pulmonary deposition was demonstrated by radioisotope studies. Inhalations were easy to administer and were well tolerated, with minimal systemic absorption of the drug.
In a 2 year double blind controlled trial of cyclosporin against placebo in multiple sclerosis conducted at two centres there was a beneficial effect of the therapy upon the progression of the disease, relapse rate and relapse severity at one of the centres where the patients received a mean dose of 7.2 mg/kg/day. This beneficial effect was not seen in the other centre where a lower dose (mean 5 mg/kg/day) was given. Reduction in clinical progression was accompanied by decreased IgG synthesis in the central nervous system. Side effects included hypertension, renal insufficiency and anaemia and were of such severity to preclude the use of cyclosporin in a high enough dose to alter the course of the disease.
The in vitro activities of several 14-, 15- and 16-membered macrolides were compared with that of erythromycin. In general, 14-membered macrolides such as erythromycin, clarithromycin, and flurithromycin were more active against streptococci and Bordetella pertussis than was the 15-membered macrolide azithromycin, which was more active than 16-membered macrolides such as miocamycin and rokitamycin. Clarithromycin was the most active compound against Streptococcus pyogenes, pneumococci, Listeria monocytogenes, and Corynebacterium species. Legionella pneumophila was most susceptible to miocamycin, clarithromycin, and rokitamycin. Branhamella catarrhalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Haemophilus influenzae were most susceptible to azithromycin. Azithromycin and dirithromycin were the most active compounds against Campylobacter jejuni. MICs of 16-membered macrolides for strains expressing inducible-type resistance to erythromycin were less than or equal to 1 microgram/ml, whereas none of the compounds had activity against strains expressing constitutive-type resistance. The MICs of roxithromycin, miocamycin, rokitamycin, and josamycin increased in the presence of human serum, whereas MICs of the other compounds either were unchanged or decreased.
General practitioners have participated in the long term follow up of 367 patients who have undergone treatment with potent antirheumatic drugs at this hospital. Over the past two and a half years we have used the "shuttle case record" system, whereby patients' records are mailed back and forth between our department and general practitioners. This seems to work well. It is safe for the patients, and they save time and money in travel. The general practitioners like it, it improves communication between them and the specialist unit, and it enables the specialist unit to use its resources and manpower more effectively. The system may also be used to monitor patients with other chronic disorders, and it may be a valuable tool for doing research in general practice.
Three patients with refractory rheumatoid arthritis were treated with oral cyclophosphamide; in two cases this was supplemented with pulse treatment with methylprednisolone. Long term remission was induced in all three patients and was sustained until follow up at least nine months after the methylprednisolone was stopped. Leucopenia occurred but resolved when cyclophosphamide was reduced from daily to intermittent dosing. Intermittent treatment with cyclophosphamide, possibly in conjunction with pulses of methylprednisolone, may induce remission in patients with rheumatoid arthritis refractory to other forms of treatment.