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1.  Patient-centred communication intervention study to evaluate nurse-patient interactions in complex continuing care 
BMC Geriatrics  2012;12:61.
Background
Communication impairment is a frequent consequence of stroke. Patients who cannot articulate their needs respond with frustration and agitation, resulting in poor optimization of post-stroke functions. A key component of patient-centred care is the ability of staff to communicate in a way that allows them to understand the patient’s needs. We developed a patient-centred communication intervention targeting registered and unregulated nursing staff caring for complex continuing care patients with communication impairments post stroke. Research objectives include 1) examining the effects of the intervention on patients’ quality of life, depression, satisfaction with care, and agitation; and (2) examining the extent to which the intervention improves staff’s attitudes and knowledge in caring for patients with communication impairments. The intervention builds on a previous pilot study.
Methods/design
A quasi-experimental repeated measures non-equivalent control group design in a complex continuing care facility is being used. Patients with a communication impairment post-stroke admitted to the facility are eligible to participate. All staff nurses are eligible. Baseline data are collected from staff and patients. Follow-up will occur at 1 and 3 months post-intervention. Subject recruitment and data collection from 60 patients and 30 staff will take approximately 36 months. The Patient-Centred Communication Intervention consists of three components: (1) development of an individualized patient communication care plan; (2) a one-day workshop focused on communication and behavioural management strategies for nursing staff; and (3) a staff support system. The intervention takes comprehensive patient assessments into account to inform the development of communication and behavioural strategies specifically tailored to each patient.
Discussion
The Patient-Centred Communication Intervention will provide staff with strategies to facilitate interactions with patients and to minimize agitation associated with considerable stress. The improvement of these interactions will lead to a reduction of agitation, which has the additional significance of increasing patients’ well-being, quality of life, and satisfaction with care.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01654029
doi:10.1186/1471-2318-12-61
PMCID: PMC3538737  PMID: 23050517
Aphasia; Communication intervention; Complex continuing care; Individualized communication strategies; Knowledge translation strategy; Nurse-patient interactions; Stroke
2.  Will Mobile Diabetes Education Teams (MDETs) in primary care improve patient care processes and health outcomes? Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial 
Trials  2012;13:165.
Background
There is evidence to suggest that delivery of diabetes self-management support by diabetes educators in primary care may improve patient care processes and patient clinical outcomes; however, the evaluation of such a model in primary care is nonexistent in Canada. This article describes the design for the evaluation of the implementation of Mobile Diabetes Education Teams (MDETs) in primary care settings in Canada.
Methods/design
This study will use a non-blinded, cluster-randomized controlled trial stepped wedge design to evaluate the Mobile Diabetes Education Teams' intervention in improving patient clinical and care process outcomes. A total of 1,200 patient charts at participating primary care sites will be reviewed for data extraction. Eligible patients will be those aged ≥18, who have type 2 diabetes and a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of ≥8%. Clusters (that is, primary care sites) will be randomized to the intervention and control group using a block randomization procedure within practice size as the blocking factor. A stepped wedge design will be used to sequentially roll out the intervention so that all clusters eventually receive the intervention. The time at which each cluster begins the intervention is randomized to one of the four roll out periods (0, 6, 12, and 18 months). Clusters that are randomized into the intervention later will act as the control for those receiving the intervention earlier. The primary outcome measure will be the difference in the proportion of patients who achieve the recommended HbA1c target of ≤7% between intervention and control groups. Qualitative work (in-depth interviews with primary care physicians, MDET educators and patients; and MDET educators’ field notes and debriefing sessions) will be undertaken to assess the implementation process and effectiveness of the MDET intervention.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01553266
doi:10.1186/1745-6215-13-165
PMCID: PMC3519552  PMID: 22974080
Diabetes; Self-management education; Diabetes self-management support; Primary care; Cluster randomized controlled trial; Stepped wedge design; Inter-professional collaboration; Chronic disease models
3.  Process evaluation of appreciative inquiry to translate pain management evidence into pediatric nursing practice 
Background
Appreciative inquiry (AI) is an innovative knowledge translation (KT) intervention that is compatible with the Promoting Action on Research in Health Services (PARiHS) framework. This study explored the innovative use of AI as a theoretically based KT intervention applied to a clinical issue in an inpatient pediatric care setting. The implementation of AI was explored in terms of its acceptability, fidelity, and feasibility as a KT intervention in pain management.
Methods
A mixed-methods case study design was used. The case was a surgical unit in a pediatric academic-affiliated hospital. The sample consisted of nurses in leadership positions and staff nurses interested in the study. Data on the AI intervention implementation were collected by digitally recording the AI sessions, maintaining logs, and conducting individual semistructured interviews. Data were analysed using qualitative and quantitative content analyses and descriptive statistics. Findings were triangulated in the discussion.
Results
Three nurse leaders and nine staff members participated in the study. Participants were generally satisfied with the intervention, which consisted of four 3-hour, interactive AI sessions delivered over two weeks to promote change based on positive examples of pain management in the unit and staff implementation of an action plan. The AI sessions were delivered with high fidelity and 11 of 12 participants attended all four sessions, where they developed an action plan to enhance evidence-based pain assessment documentation. Participants labeled AI a 'refreshing approach to change' because it was positive, democratic, and built on existing practices. Several barriers affected their implementation of the action plan, including a context of change overload, logistics, busyness, and a lack of organised follow-up.
Conclusions
Results of this case study supported the acceptability, fidelity, and feasibility of AI as a KT intervention in pain management. The AI intervention requires minor refinements (e.g., incorporating continued follow-up meetings) to enhance its clinical utility and sustainability. The implementation process and effectiveness of the modified AI intervention require evaluation in a larger multisite study.
doi:10.1186/1748-5908-5-90
PMCID: PMC3000375  PMID: 21092118
4.  Relationships Between Personal Beliefs and Treatment Acceptability, and Preferences for Behavioral Treatments 
Behaviour research and therapy  2009;47(10):823-829.
Background
The literature on preferences for behavioral interventions is limited in terms of understanding treatment-related factors that underlie treatment choice. The objectives of this study were to examine the direct relationships between personal beliefs about clinical condition, perception of treatment acceptability, and preferences for behavioral interventions for insomnia.
Methods
The data set used in this study was obtained from 431 persons with insomnia who participated in a partially randomized clinical trial and expressed preferences for treatment options. The data were collected at baseline. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationships between personal beliefs and treatment acceptability, and preferences. The relationships between personal beliefs and perception of treatment acceptability were explored with correlational analysis.
Results
Perception of treatment acceptability was associated with preferences. Persons viewing the option as convenient tended to choose that option for managing insomnia. Personal beliefs were not related to preferences. However, beliefs about sleep promoting behaviors were correlated with perceived treatment effectiveness.
Conclusions
Perception of treatment acceptability underlies expressed preferences for behavioral interventions. Personal beliefs about insomnia are not directly associated with preferences. Importance is highlighted for providing information about treatment options and exploring perception of each option’s acceptability during the process of treatment selection.
doi:10.1016/j.brat.2009.06.009
PMCID: PMC2742570  PMID: 19604500
treatment preference; treatment acceptability; treatment attributes; beliefs about condition; chronic insomnia; behavioral treatment

Results 1-4 (4)