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1.  Occupational Health and Safety Issues in Ontario Sawmills and Veneer/Plywood Plants: A Pilot Study 
A pilot study was conducted within the Ontario sawmill and veneer/plywood manufacturing industry. Information was collected by postal questionnaire and observational walk-through surveys. Industrial hygiene walk-through surveys were conducted at 22 work sites, and measurements for wood dust, noise, and bioaerosol were taken. The aim of the study was to obtain data on the current status regarding health and safety characteristics and an estimate of wood dust, noise, and bioaerosol exposures. The occupational exposure to wood dust and noise are similar to what has been reported in this industry in Canada and elsewhere. Airborne wood dust concentration ranged between 0.001 mg/m3 and 4.87 mg/m3 as total dust and noise exposure ranged between 55 and 117 dB(A). The study indicates the need for a more comprehensive industry-wide study of wood dust, noise, and bioaersols.
doi:10.1155/2010/526487
PMCID: PMC3022185  PMID: 21253473
2.  Mortality in Vermont granite workers and its association with silica exposure 
Objectives
To assess mortality in Vermont granite workers and examine relationships between silica exposure and mortality from lung cancer, kidney cancer, non-malignant kidney disease, silicosis and other non-malignant respiratory disease.
Methods
Workers employed between 1947 and 1998 were identified. Exposures were estimated using a job–exposure matrix. Mortality was assessed through 2004 and standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed. Associations between mortality and exposure to silica were assessed by nested case–control analyses using conditional logistic regression.
Results
7052 workers had sufficient data for statistical analysis. SMRs were significantly elevated for lung cancer (SMR 1.37, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.52), silicosis (SMR 59.13, 95% CI 44.55 to 76.97), tuberculosis (SMR 21.74, 95% CI 18.37 to 25.56) and other non-malignant respiratory disease (SMR 1.74, 95% CI 1.50 to 2.02) but not for kidney cancer or non-malignant kidney disease. In nested case–control analyses, significant associations with cumulative exposure to respirable free silica were observed for silicosis (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.21 for each 1 mg/m3-year increase in cumulative exposure) and other non-malignant respiratory disease (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.16) but not for lung cancer (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.03), kidney cancer (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.09) or non-malignant kidney disease (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.08).
Conclusions
Exposure to crystalline silica in Vermont granite workers was associated with increased mortality from silicosis and other non-malignant respiratory disease, but there was no evidence that increased lung cancer mortality in the cohort was due to exposure. Mortality from malignant and non-malignant kidney disease was not significantly increased or associated with exposure.
doi:10.1136/oem.2009.054452
PMCID: PMC3088478  PMID: 20855299
Epidemiology; cancer; silicosis; mortality studies
3.  A Cohort Study of Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Mortality in Toronto, Ontario, Canada 
Environmental Health Perspectives  2009;117(5):772-777.
Background
Chronic exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) may contribute to premature mortality, but few studies to date have addressed this topic.
Objectives
In this study we assessed the association between TRAP and mortality in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Methods
We collected nitrogen dioxide samples over two seasons using duplicate two-sided Ogawa passive diffusion samplers at 143 locations across Toronto. We calibrated land use regressions to predict NO2 exposure on a fine scale within Toronto. We used interpolations to predict levels of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and ozone levels. We assigned predicted pollution exposures to 2,360 subjects from a respiratory clinic, and abstracted health data on these subjects from medical billings, lung function tests, and diagnoses by pulmonologists. We tracked mortality between 1992 and 2002. We used standard and multilevel Cox proportional hazard models to test associations between air pollution and mortality.
Results
After controlling for age, sex, lung function, obesity, smoking, and neighborhood deprivation, we observed a 17% increase in all-cause mortality and a 40% increase in circulatory mortality from an exposure contrast across the interquartile range of 4 ppb NO2. We observed no significant associations with other pollutants.
Conclusions
Exposure to TRAP was significantly associated with increased all-cause and circulatory mortality in this cohort. A high prevalence of cardiopulmonary disease in the cohort probably limits inference of the findings to populations with a substantial proportion of susceptible individuals.
doi:10.1289/ehp.11533
PMCID: PMC2685840  PMID: 19479020
air pollution; GIS; mortality; nitrogen dioxide; traffic air pollution; Toronto
4.  Relation between income, air pollution and mortality: a cohort study 
Background
Community levels of air pollution have been associated with variability in mortality rates, but previous studies have inferred exposure to pollutants on a citywide basis. We investigated mortality in relation to neighbourhood levels of income and air pollution in an urban area.
Methods
We identified 5228 people in the Hamilton–Burlington area of southern Ontario who had been referred for pulmonary function testing between 1985 and 1999. Nonaccidental deaths that occurred in this group between 1992 and 1999 were ascertained from the Ontario Mortality Registry. Mean household income was estimated by linking the subjects' postal codes with the 1996 census. Mean neighbourhood levels of total suspended particulates and sulfur dioxide were estimated by interpolation from data from a network of sampling stations. We used proportional hazards regression models to compute mortality risk in relation to income and pollutant levels, while adjusting for pulmonary function, body mass index and diagnoses of chronic disease. Household incomes and pollutant levels were each divided into 2 risk categories (low and high) at the median.
Results
Mean pollutant levels tended to be higher in lower-income neighbourhoods. Both income and pollutant levels were associated with mortality differences. Compared with people in the most favourable category (higher incomes and lower particulate levels), those with all other income–particulate combinations had a higher risk of death from nonaccidental causes (lower incomes and higher particulate levels: relative risk [RR] 2.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.67–4.13; lower incomes and lower particulate levels: RR 1.82, 95% CI 1.30–2.55; higher incomes and higher particulate levels: RR 1.33, 95% CI 1.12–1.57). Similar results were observed for sulfur dioxide. The relative risk was lower at older ages.
Interpretation
Mortality rates varied by neighbourhood of residence in this cohort of people whose lung function was tested. Two of the broader determinants of health — income and air pollution levels — were important correlates of mortality in this population.
PMCID: PMC183288  PMID: 12952800

Results 1-4 (4)