Recent success in the derivation of haploid embryonic stem cells (haESCs) from mouse via parthenogenesis and androgenesis has enabled genetic screening in mammalian cells and generation of gene-modified animals. However, whether haESCs can be derived from primates remains unknown. Here, we report the derivation of haESCs from parthenogenetic blastocysts of Macaca fascicularis monkeys. These cells, termed as PG-haESCs, are pluripotent and can differentiate to cells of three embryonic germ layers in vitro or in vivo. Interestingly, the haploidy of one monkey PG-haESC line (MPH1) is more stable compared with that of the other one (MPH2), as shown by the existence of haploid cells for more than 140 days without fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) enrichment of haploid cells. Importantly, transgenic monkey PG-haESC lines can be generated by lentivirus- and piggyBac transposon-mediated gene transfer. Moreover, genetic screening is feasible in monkey PG-haESCs. Our results demonstrate that PG-haESCs can be generated from monkeys, providing an ideal tool for genetic analyses in primates.
embryonic stem cell; haploid cells; monkey
The major challenge in cancer therapy is to efficiently translocate drug molecules into cancer tumors without doing any damage to healthy tissues. Since there exist pH gradients between tumor and normal tissues, pH-sensitive materials may have great potential to overcome such challenge. Here, we report one new type of pH-responsive drug delivery system where pH-sensitive polymers are introduced to control the cellular uptake of nanoparticles under different pH environments through dissipative particle dynamics simulations. Interestingly, the behavior of cellular uptake of nanoparticles here exhibits “smart” pH-responsive properties: for lower and higher pH, the nanoparticles can be taken up by cell membranes, while for pH in middle range, the endocytosis is blocked. Further, it is found that receptor-ligand interactions as well as surface charge property of nanoparticles and membranes can also have important impacts on the endocytosis. The present study may give some significant insights into future stimulus-responsive medical materials design.
In the title complex, [Cu(C9H4O6)(H2O)3]n, the CuII cation exhibits a distorted square-pyramidal coordination geometry involving five O atoms from two monodentate 5-carboxybenzene-1,3-dicarboxylate anions and three water molecules. The 5-carboxybenzene-1,3-dicarboxylate anions bridge CuII cations into zigzag polymeric chains running along the b-axis direction. These chains are further linked by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between coordinating water molecules or carboxyl groups and carboxylate groups into a three-dimensional supramolecular architecture. In the crystal, π–π stacking is observed between parallel benzene rings of adjacent chains, the centroid–centroid distances being 3.584 (3) and 3.684 (3) Å.
Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes, which play a central role in activating and detoxifying many carcinogens and endogenous compounds thought to be involved in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). The CYP1A2*C (rs2069514) and CYP1A2*F (rs762551) polymorphism are two of the most commonly studied polymorphisms of the gene for their association with risk of CRC, but the results are conflicting. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship between CYP1A2 and genetic risk of CRC, we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis which included 7088 cases and 7568 controls from 12 published case-control studies. In a combined analysis, the summary per-allele odds ratio for CRC was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.83–1.00, P = 0.04), and 0.91 (95% CI: 0.68–1.22, P = 0.53), for CYP1A2 *F and *C allele, respectively. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, significant associations were found in Asians for CYP1A2*F and CYP1A2*C, while no significant associations were detected among Caucasian populations. Similar results were also observed using dominant genetic model. Potential sources of heterogeneity were explored by subgroup analysis and meta-regression. No significant heterogeneity was detected in most of comparisons. This meta-analysis suggests that the CYP1A2 *F and *C polymorphism is a protective factor against CRC among Asians.
Angiogenesis is closely related to the growth, invasion and metastasis of tumors, also considered as the key target of anticancer therapy. Scutellaria barbata D. Don (S. barbata), a traditional Chinese medicine, is being used to treat various diseases, including cancer. However, the antitumor molecular mechanism of S. barbata was still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of the total flavones in S. barbata (TF-SB) on angiogenesis.
Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with various concentrations of TF-SB. Cell viability was examined using the MTT assay. The scratch assay was used to detect the migration of HUVECs after treatment with TF-SB. The ability of HUVECs to form network structures in vitro was demonstrated using the tube formation assay. The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay was performed to detect the in vivo anti-angiogenic effect. The expression of VEGF was measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent.
Results showed that TF-SB inhibited the proliferation and migration of HUVECs in a dose- dependent manner. Simultaneously, TF-SB significantly suppressed HUVEC angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, VEGF was downregulated in both HUVECs and MHCC97-H cells after TF-SB treatment.
TF-SB could suppress the process of angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. TF-SB potentially suppresses angiogenesis in HUVECs by regulating VEGF. These findings suggested that TF-SB may serve as a potent anti-angiogenic agent.
Scutellaria Barbata; Angiogenesis; Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells
More than 1 million tuberculosis (TB) patients are receiving directly observed treatment strategy (DOTS) therapy in China every year. As to the profile of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) due to DOTS therapy, no consensus has been reached. There is no report regarding ADRs due to DOTS therapy with a large Chinese TB population. This study aimed to determine the incidence and prognosis of ADRs due to DOTS therapy, and to evaluate their impact on anti-TB treatment in China.
A prospective population-based cohort study was performed during 2007–2008. Sputum smear positive pulmonary TB patients who received DOTS therapy were included and followed up for six to nine months in 52 counties of four regions in China. The suspected ADRs were recorded and reviewed by Chinese State Food and Drug Administration.
A total of 4304 TB patients were included in this study. 649 patients (15.08%) showed at least one ADR and 766 cases in total were detected. The incidence (count) of ADR based on affected organ was: liver dysfunction 6.34% (273), gastrointestinal disorders 3.74% (161), arthralgia 2.51% (108), allergic reactions 2.35% (101), neurological system disorders 2.04% (88), renal impairment 0.07% (3) and others 0.05% (2). Most cases of ADRs (95%) had a good clinical outcome, while two with hepatotoxicity and one with renal impairment died. Compared with patients without ADRs, patients with ADRs were more likely to have positive smear test results at the end of the intensive phase (adjusted OR, 2.00; 95%CI, 1.44–2.78) and unsuccessful anti-TB outcomes (adjusted OR, 2.58; 95%CI, 1.43–4.68).
The incidence of ADRs due to DOTS therapy was 15.08%. Those ADRs had a substantial impact on TB control in China. This highlighted the importance of developing strategies to ameliorate ADRs both to improve the quality of patient care and to control TB safely.
Nitrogen limitation can induce neutral lipid accumulation in microalgae, as well as inhibiting their growth. Therefore, to obtain cultures with both high biomass and high lipid contents, and explore the lipid accumulation mechanisms, we implemented nitrogen deprivation in a model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum at late exponential phase.
Neutral lipid contents per cell subsequently increased 2.4-fold, both the number and total volume of oil bodies increased markedly, and cell density rose slightly. Transcriptional profile analyzed by RNA-Seq showed that expression levels of 1213 genes (including key carbon fixation, TCA cycle, glycerolipid metabolism and nitrogen assimilation genes) increased, with a false discovery rate cut-off of 0.001, under N deprivation. However, most light harvesting complex genes were down-regulated, extensive degradation of chloroplast membranes was observed under an electron microscope, and photosynthetic efficiency declined. Further identification of lipid classes showed that levels of MGDG and DGDG, the main lipid components of chloroplast membranes, dramatically decreased and triacylglycerol (TAG) levels significantly rose, indicating that intracellular membrane remodeling substantially contributed to the neutral lipid accumulation.
Our findings shed light on the molecular mechanisms of neutral lipid accumulation and the key genes involved in lipid metabolism in diatoms. They also provide indications of possible strategies for improving microalgal biodiesel production.
Microalga; Nitrogen deprivation; Lipid; Membrane remodeling; Transcriptomics
SALL4 and BMI-1 are important factors in hematopoiesis. Placental tissue (PT) and umbilical cord blood (CB) are rich in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSCs/HPCs), but their SALL4 and BMI-1 expression levels remain unknown.
Real-time PCR was used to determine the expression level of these genes in PT and CB from ten cases, and ten healthy donors were used as controls.
A significantly higher BMI-1 and SALL4 gene expression level was found in PT (median: 17.548 and 34.362, respectively) than in cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs) (median: 2.071 and 11.300, respectively) (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.007) and healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) (median: 0.259 and 0.384, respectively) (P = 0.001 and P <0.0001), and their expression level was lower in PBMCs than in CBMCs (P = 0.029 and P = 0.002). A positive correlation between the BMI-1 and SALL4 genes was found in the PT and CB groups, while there was no significant correlation between these genes in the healthy group. There was also no significant correlation between the expression level of each gene in PT and CB.
These results describe the characteristic features of the BMI-1 and SALL4 gene expression pattern in placental tissue and cord blood. Placental tissue with higher expression level of both genes may be considered as a potential resource for SALL4-related HPC expansion.
BMI-1 gene; Cord blood; Placenta; Real-time PCR; SALL4 gene
Hypertension has been recognized as a health concern for developing countries. However, there are no current nationwide surveys on the prevalence of hypertension in China (the latest nationwide survey was ten years ago). The goal of this study was to estimate the pooled prevalence of hypertension in Chinese cities.
We systematically reviewed published epidemiologic studies on the prevalence of hypertension in Chinese cities through meta-analysis. We searched for studies published between January 2002 and June 2012 using PubMed and two Chinese electronic publication libraries. The keywords ‘hypertension’ and ‘prevalence’ were used. Before pooling prevalence of hypertension, all raw prevalence data was age adjusted to the 2010 China standard population. Prevalence estimates were stratified by sex and geographic area.
27 studies were identified with of a total of 195,027 study participants. The overall pooled prevalence of hypertension was 21.5% (19.4%, 23.6%). Subgroup analyses showed the following results north 25.8% (21.6%, 30.0%), south 20.4% (18.6%, 22.2%); male 22.2% (19.3%, 25.1%), female 19.9% (17.6%, 22.1%); large cities 18.9% (15.7%, 22.1%), medium-sized cities 24.6% (19.9%, 29.4%), small cities 20.6% (17.5%, 23.7%); study years in 2002–2006, 21.9% (18.9%, 24.8%), and study year in 2007–2011, 20.6% (17.3%, 23.9%).
Comparing data from several previous national hypertension surveys, the prevalence of hypertension is higher in cities than the Chinese national average. Subgroup studies also found a higher prevalence of hypertension in northern cities and among males. Also, the prevalence of hypertension in medium-sized and small cities is likely to increase faster than in large cities.
The pathogenic mechanism of anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) drug-induced hepatitis is associated with drug metabolizing enzymes. No tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) of cytochrome P450 2E1(CYP2E1) in the risk of anti-TB drug-induced hepatitis have been reported. The present study was aimed at exploring the role of tSNPs in CYP2E1 gene in a population-based anti-TB treatment cohort.
Methods and Design
A nested case-control study was designed. Each hepatitis case was 14 matched with controls by age, gender, treatment history, disease severity and drug dosage. The tSNPs were selected by using Haploview 4.2 based on the HapMap database of Han Chinese in Beijing, and detected by using TaqMan allelic discrimination technology.
Eighty-nine anti-TB drug-induced hepatitis cases and 356 controls were included in this study. 6 tSNPs (rs2031920, rs2070672, rs915908, rs8192775, rs2515641, rs2515644) were genotyped and minor allele frequencies of these tSNPs were 21.9%, 23.0%, 19.1%, 23.6%, 20.8% and 44.4% in the cases and 20.9%, 22.7%, 18.9%, 23.2%, 18.2% and 43.2% in the controls, respectively. No significant difference was observed in genotypes or allele frequencies of the 6 tSNPs between case group and control group, and neither of haplotypes in block 1 nor in block 2 was significantly associated with the development of hepatitis.
Based on the Chinese anti-TB treatment cohort, we did not find a statistically significant association between genetic polymorphisms of CYP2E1 and the risk of anti-TB drug-induced hepatitis. None of the haplotypes showed a significant association with the development of hepatitis in Chinese TB population.
Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has opened new avenues for the investigation of heart diseases, drug screening and potential autologous cardiac regeneration. However, their application is hampered by inefficient cardiac differentiation, high interline variability, and poor maturation of iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (iPS-CMs). To identify efficient inducers for cardiac differentiation and maturation of iPSCs and elucidate the mechanisms, we systematically screened sixteen cardiomyocyte inducers on various murine (m) iPSCs and found that only ascorbic acid (AA) consistently and robustly enhanced the cardiac differentiation of eleven lines including eight without spontaneous cardiogenic potential. We then optimized the treatment conditions and demonstrated that differentiation day 2-6, a period for the specification of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs), was a critical time for AA to take effect. This was further confirmed by the fact that AA increased the expression of cardiovascular but not mesodermal markers. Noteworthily, AA treatment led to approximately 7.3-fold (miPSCs) and 30.2-fold (human iPSCs) augment in the yield of iPS-CMs. Such effect was attributed to a specific increase in the proliferation of CPCs via the MEK-ERK1/2 pathway by through promoting collagen synthesis. In addition, AA-induced cardiomyocytes showed better sarcomeric organization and enhanced responses of action potentials and calcium transients to β-adrenergic and muscarinic stimulations. These findings demonstrate that AA is a suitable cardiomyocyte inducer for iPSCs to improve cardiac differentiation and maturation simply, universally, and efficiently. These findings also highlight the importance of stimulating CPC proliferation by manipulating extracellular microenvironment in guiding cardiac differentiation of the pluripotent stem cells.
induced pluripotent stem cells; ascorbic acid; cardiomyocytes; cardiac progenitor cells
To update and refine systematic literature review on the association between outpatient statins use and mortality in patients with infectious disease.
Materials and Methods
We searched articles published before September 31, 2012, on the association between statins and infectious disease-related mortality through electronic databases. Eligible articles were analyzed in Review Manager 5.1. We conducted stratification analysis by study design, infection types, clinical outcomes and study locations.
The pooled odds ratio (OR) for death (statins use vs. no use) across the 41 included studies was 0.71 (95% confidence interval: 0.64, 0.78). The corresponding pooled ORs were 0.58 (0.38, 0.90), 0.66 (0.57, 0.75), 0.71 (0.57, 0.89) and 0.83 (0.67, 1.04) for the case-control study, retrospective cohort studies, prospective cohort studies and RCTs; 0.40 (0.20, 0.78), 0.61 (0.41, 0.90), 0.69 (0.62, 0.78) and 0.86 (0.68, 1.09) for bacteremia, sepsis, pneumonia and other infections; 0.62 (0.534, 0.72), 0.68 (0.53, 0.89), 0.71 (0.61, 0.83) and 0.86 (0.70, 1.07) for 30-day, 90-day, in-hospital and long-term (>1 year) mortality, respectively.
Outpatient statins use is associated with a lower risk of death in patients with infectious disease in observational studies, but in a less extent in clinical trials. This association also varies considerably by infection types and clinical outcomes.
Melatonin receptor 1B (MTNR1B) belongs to the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor superfamily involved in insulin secretion, which has attracted considerable attention as a candidate gene for type 2 diabetes (T2D) since it was first identified as a loci associated with fasting plasma glucose level through genome wide association approach. The relationship between MTNR1B and T2D has been reported in various ethnic groups. The aim of this study was to consolidate and summarize published data on the potential of MTNR1B polymorphisms in T2D risk prediction.
PubMed, EMBASE, ISI web of science and the CNKI databases were systematically searched to identify relevant studies. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. Heterogeneity and publication bias were also tested.
A total of 23 studies involving 172,963 subjects for two common polymorphisms (rs10830963, rs1387153) on MTNR1B were included. An overall random effects per-allele OR of 1.05 (95% CI: 1.02–1.08; P<10−4) and 1.04 (95% CI: 0.98–1.10; P = 0.20) were found for the two variants respectively. Similar results were also observed using dominant or recessive genetic model. There was strong evidence of heterogeneity, which largely disappeared after stratification by ethnicity. Significant results were found in Caucasians when stratified by ethnicity; while no significant associations were observed in East Asians and South Asians. Besides, we found that the rs10830963 polymorphism is a risk factor associated with increased impaired glucose regulation susceptibility.
This meta-analysis demonstrated that the rs10830963 polymorphism is a risk factor for developing impaired glucose regulation and T2D.
MicroRNA (miR)-155 is a critical player in both innate and adaptive immune responses. It can influence CD4+ T cell lineage choice. To clarify the role of miR-155 in CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T (Treg)/T helper (Th)17 cell differentiation and function, as well as the mechanism involved, we performed gain-and loss-of-function analysis by transfection pre-miR-155 and anti-miR-155 into purified CD4+ T cells. The results showed that miR-155 positively regulated both Treg and Th17 cell differentiation. It also induced the release of interleukin (IL)-17A by Th17 cells, but not the release of IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 by Treg cells. Furthermore, we found that miR-155 reacted through regulating Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) rather than TGF-β/mothers against decapentaplegic homolog (SMAD) signaling pathway in the process of Treg and Th17 cells differentiation. This may because suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS)1, the important negative regulator of JAK/STAT signaling pathway, was the direct target of miR-155 in this process, but SMAD2 and SMAD5 were not. Therefore, we demonstrated that miR-155 enhanced Treg and Th17 cells differentiation and IL-17A production by targeting SOCS1.
Background and methods
In order to characterize the expression pattern of SALL4, BMI-1 and ABCA3 genes in patients with myeloid leukemia and those who achieved complete remission (CR) after chemotherapy. Real-time PCR was used to determine the expression level of these genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 24 patients with AML, eight patients with AML-CR, 13 patients with CML in the chronic phase (CML-CP), 12 patients with CML in blast crisis (CML-BC), 13 patients with CML-CR and 11 healthy individuals (HI).
Overexpression of the BMI-1 gene was found in the AML, CML-CP and CML-BC groups as compared with HI group, while the BMI-1 expression level was lower in patients who achieved CR. In contrast, significantly increased SALL4 expression was only found in AML group, additionally, SALL4 expression was lower in the CML-CP and CML-CR groups compared with the HI group, while the SALL4 expression level in the CML-BC group was higher and significantly greater than that in the CML-CP and CML-CR groups. Moreover, a positive correlation between the expression of SALL4 and BMI-1 genes was found in samples from most groups. There was no significant difference of ABCA3 expression level in AML and CML-BC group in comparison with HI group. Interestingly, the ABCA3 expression level was significantly decreased in the CML-CP, AML-CR and CML-CR in comparison with the HI group. Moreover, the ABCA3 expression level in all of the CR groups was lower than that in their corresponding groups.
These results describe the altered SALL4, ABCA3 and BMI-1 expression pattern in different phases of myeloid leukemia, which may relate to the development and progression to different diseases. SALL4 expression was strongly correlated with BMI-1 in most of the myeloid leukemia patient groups, providing a potential link between SALL4 and BMI-1 in leukemogenesis.
SALL4 gene; BMI-1 gene; Real-time PCR; AML; CML
Paracrine signaling of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) cytokine plays an important role in survival and invasion ability of placental trophoblasts. However, the intracellular factors and biological pathways underlying these responses remain unclear.
This study investigated whether HGF affected the expression of homeobox gene HLX1, which is principally expressed in reproductive tissues and in some immune cells, and evaluated the implications of such in the HGF-induced human trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo.
HGF was found to up-regulate both HLX1 mRNA and protein levels. Transient transfection of small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting HLX1 abrogated its induction by HGF. Functionally, HLX1 siRNA not only reduced the growth and invasion capacities of HTR-8/SVneo cells at the basal level, but also inhibited these responses induced by HGF treatment.
HLX1 is an essential downstream signaling component of HGF that leads to growth and invasiveness of trophoblast cells.
Hepatocyte growth factor; Trophoblast; Cell invasion; RNA interference
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) provide an attractive cell source for basic research and disease treatment. Currently, the common culture system for mouse ESC requires mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) as a feeder layer supplemented with leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). The drawbacks associated with MEF and the cost of LIF have motivated exploration of new feeder cell types to maintain self-renewal of mouse ESCs without the need of exogenous LIF. However, why these feeder cells could maintain ESCs at the undifferentiated state independent of exogenous LIF is unclear.
We derived mouse ESC lines using human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) in the absence of exogenous LIF. We also examined the dependence of HFF on the JAK-Stat3 pathway to maintain ESC identities and explored the potential molecular basis for HFF to support self-renewal of ESCs.
HFF supported mouse ESC self-renewal superiorly to MEFs. Using the HFF system, multiple lines of mouse ESCs were successfully derived without addition of exogenous LIF and any small molecular inhibitors. These ESCs had capacities to self-renew for a long period of time and to differentiate into various cell types of the three germ layers both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the ESCs participated in embryonic development and contributed to germ cell lineages in the chimeric mouse. At a molecular level, HFF was dependent on the JAK-Stat3 pathway to maintain ESC self-renewal. The high level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) produced by HFF might be responsible for the exogenous LIF-independent effect.
This study describes an efficient, convenient and economic system to establish and maintain mouse ESC lines, and provides insights into the functional difference in the support of ESC culture between MEF and HFF.
Zoledronic acid, one of the most potent nitrogen-containing biphosphonates, has been demonstrated to have direct anti-tumor and anti-metastatic properties in breast cancer in vitro and in vivo. In particular, tumor-cell apoptosis has been recognized to play an important role in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer with zoledronic acid. However, the precise mechanisms remain less clear. In the present study, we investigated the specific role of large conductance Ca2+-activated potassium (BKCa) channel in zoledronic acid-induced apoptosis of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.
The action of zoledronic acid on BKCa channel was investigated by whole-cell and cell-attached patch clamp techniques. Cell apoptosis was assessed with immunocytochemistry, analysis of fragmented DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis, and flow cytometry assays. Cell proliferation was investigated by MTT test and immunocytochemistry. In addition, such findings were further confirmed with human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells which were transfected with functional BKCa α-subunit (hSloα). Our results clearly indicated that zoledronic acid directly increased the activities of BKCa channels, and then activation of BKCa channel by zoledronic acid contributed to induce apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells. The possible mechanisms were associated with the elevated level of intracellular Ca2+ and a concomitant depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) in MDA-MB-231 cells.
Activation of BKCa channel was here shown to be a novel molecular pathway involved in zoledronic acid-induced apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro.
Objective. Intracellular localization of translationally controlled tumour protein (TCTP) was investigated in cancer cells. Methods. The expression and localization of TCTP were detected at 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 60 h time points in culture of human hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2, human cervical carcinoma cell line HeLa, and human normal liver cell line HL-7702 by immunofluorescence. Results. TCTP was expressed in both normal and tumor cells, and its localization changes at different time points. TCTP was mainly expressed in cytoplasm from 24 h to 48 h then expressed in both nucleus and cytoplasm at 60 h in HL-7702 cells. While in HepG2 cells, TCTP first localized at cell membrane within 24 h then at both nucleus and cytoplasm from 48 h to 60 h; TCTP localized at both nucleus and cytoplasm from 12 h to 60 h in Hela cells. Conclusion. The translocation of intracellular expression of TCTP in normal and tumor cells at different time points may pave a path to the studying of TCTP role in tumor growth.
Human Elongator complex, which plays a key role in transcript elongation in vitro assay, is incredibly similar in either components or function to its yeast counterpart. However, there are only a few studies focusing on its target gene characterization in vivo. We studied the effect of down-regulation of the human elongation protein 3 (hELP3) on the expression of HSP70 through antisense strategy. Transfecting antisense plasmid p1107 into HeLa cells highly suppressed hELP3 expression, and substantially reduced expression of HSP70 mRNA and protein. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP Assay) revealed that hElp3 participates in the transcription elongation of HSPA1A in HeLa cells. Finally, complementation and ChIP Assay in yeast showed that hElp3 can not only complement the growth and slow activation of HSP70 (SSA3) gene transcription, but also directly regulates the transcription of SSA3. On the contrary, these functions are lost when the HAT domain is deleted from hElp3. These data suggest that hElp3 can regulate the transcription of HSP70 gene, and the HAT domain of hElp3 is essential for this function. These findings now provide novel insights and evidence of the functions of hELP3 in human cells.
To characterize the influence of dialysis facilities and nephrologists on resource use and patient outcomes in the dialysis population and to illustrate how such information can be used to inform payment system design.
Medicare claims for all hemodialysis patients for whom Medicare was the primary payer in 2004, combined with the Medicare Enrollment Database and the CMS Medical Evidence Form (CMS Form 2728), which is completed at onset of renal replacement therapy.
Resource use (mainly drugs and laboratory tests) per dialysis session and two clinical outcomes (achieving targets for anemia management and dose of dialysis) were modeled at the patient level with random effects for nephrologist and dialysis facility, controlling for patient characteristics.
For each measure, both the physician and the facility had significant effects. However, facilities were more influential than physicians, as measured by the standard deviation of the random effects.
The success of tools such as P4P and provider profiling relies upon the identification of providers most able to enhance efficiency and quality. This paper demonstrates a method for determining the extent to which variation in health care costs and quality of care can be attributed to physicians and institutional providers. Because variation in quality and cost attributable to facilities is consistently larger than that attributable to physicians, if provider profiling or financial incentives are targeted to only one type of provider, the facility appears to be the appropriate locus.
Pay-for-performance; monitoring; dialysis
AIM: To assess the association between Interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene IL-10-1082 (G/A), IL-10-592(C/A), IL-10-819 (T/C) polymorphisms and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) susceptibility.
METHODS: Two investigators independently searched the Medline, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Chinese Biomedicine Database. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for IL-10 polymorphisms and HCC were calculated in a ﬁxed-effects model (the Mantel-Haenszel method) and a random-effects model (the DerSimonian and Laird method) when appropriate.
RESULTS: This meta-analysis included seven eligible studies, which included 1012 HCC cases and 2308 controls. Overall, IL-10-1082 G/A polymorphism was not associated with the risk of HCC (AA vs AG + GG, OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 0.90-1.37). When stratifying for ethnicity, the results were similar (Asian, OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.87-1.44; non-Asian, OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 0.75-1.60). In the overall analysis, the IL-10 polymorphism at position -592 (C/A) was identiﬁed as a genetic risk factor for HCC among Asians; patients carrying the IL-10-592*C allele had an increased risk of HCC (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.12-1.49). No association was observed between the IL-10-819 T/C polymorphism and HCC susceptibility (TT vs TC + CC, OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.79-1.32).
CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis suggests that IL-10-592 A/C polymorphism may be associated with HCC among Asians. IL-10-1082 G/A and IL-10-819 T/C polymorphisms were not detected to be related to the risk for HCC.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Interleukin-10; Gene polymorphism; Meta-analysis
The objectives of this study were to monitor the stability of rifampin (RIF) in Löwenstein-Jensen medium (L-J medium) and 7H9 broth, which are the media commonly used for drug susceptibility testing (DST) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Rifampin degradation in stock solution, 7H9 broth, and L-J medium and during the inspissation process for L-J medium preparation was serially monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). L-J medium-based DST was conducted to examine the effect of L-J medium storage on the DST outcome. The RIF stock solution was stable for at least 3 months when kept at either 4°C or −20°C; RIF in 7H9 broth and L-J medium was almost 50% decayed after 1 week of storage at 37°C, and rifampin could not be detected in 7H9 or L-J medium after 3 weeks or 6 weeks of storage at 37°C. Approximately half of the drug was decomposed after 4 months of storage at 4°C for both media, and after 6 months of storage at 4°C, RIF in L-J medium was undetectable, while 38% of RIF remained in 7H9 medium. Approximately 21, 24, 29, and 35% RIF degradations were detected when the L-J medium was coagulated at 75°C, 80°C, 85°C, and 90°C, respectively. The DST outcomes when using L-J medium stored for different periods of time were consistent with the RIF concentration monitoring data. Rifampin in stock solution is stable for at least 3 months at a reduced storage temperature. Media containing RIF should be prepared strictly according to validated standard operating procedures. RIF degradation is a possible reason for false resistance categorizations of M. tuberculosis isolates in the clinical laboratory.
Anti-tuberculosis drug induced liver injury (ATLI) is emerging as a significant threat to tuberculosis control in China, though limited data is available about the burden of ATLI at population level. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of ATLI, to better understand its clinical features, and to evaluate its impact on anti-tuberculosis (TB) treatment in China.
In a population-based prospective study, we monitored 4,304 TB patients receiving directly observed treatment strategy (DOTS) treatment, and found that 106 patients developed ATLI with a cumulative incidence of 2.55% (95% Confidence Interval [CI], 2.04%–3.06%). Nausea, vomiting and anorexia were the top three most frequently observed symptoms. There were 35 (33.02%) ATLI patients with no symptoms, including 8 with severe hepatotoxicity. Regarding the prognosis of ATLI, 84 cases (79.25%) recovered, 18 (16.98%) improved, 2 (1.89%) failed to respond to the treatment with continued elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase, and 2 (1.89%) died as result of ATLI. Of all the ATLI cases, 74 (69.81%) cases changed their anti-TB treatment, including 4 (3.77%) cases with medication administration change, 21 (19.81%) cases with drugs replacement, 54 (50.94%) cases with therapy interruption, and 12 (11.32%) cases who discontinued therapy. In terms of treatment outcomes, 53 (51.46%) cases had TB cured in time, 48 (46.60%) cases had therapy prolonged, and 2 (1.94%) cases died. Compared with non-ATLI patients, ATLI patients had a 9.25-fold (95%CI, 5.69–15.05) risk of unsuccessful anti-TB treatment outcomes and a 2.11-fold (95%CI,1.23–3.60) risk of prolonged intensive treatment phase.
ATLI could considerably impact the outcomes of anti-TB treatment. Given the incidence of ATLI and the size of TB population in China, the negative impact is substantial. Therefore, more research and efforts are warranted in order to enhance the diagnosis and the prevention of ATLI.
The differential adaptations of cerebrovasculature and small mesenteric arteries could be one of critical factors in postspaceflight orthostatic intolerance, but the cellular mechanisms remain unknown. We hypothesize that there is a differential regulation of intracellular Ca2+ determined by the alterations in the functions of plasma membrane CaL channels and ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ releases from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in cerebral and small mesenteric vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) of simulated microgravity rats, respectively.
Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 28-day hindlimb unweighting to simulate microgravity. In addition, tail-suspended rats were submitted to a recovery period of 3 or 7 days after removal of suspension. The function of CaL channels was evaluated by patch clamp and Western blotting. The function of ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ releases in response to caffeine were assessed by a laser confocal microscope. Our results indicated that simulated microgravity increased the functions of CaL channels and ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ releases in cerebral VSMCs, whereas, simulated microgravity decreased the functions of CaL channels and ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ releases in small mesenteric VSMCs. In addition, 3- or 7-day recovery after removal of suspension could restore the functions of CaL channels and ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ releases to their control levels in cerebral and small mesenteric VSMCs, respectively.
The differential regulation of CaL channels and ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ releases in cerebral and small mesenteric VSMCs may be responsible for the differential regulation of intracellular Ca2+, which leads to the altered autoregulation of cerebral vasculature and the inability to adequately elevate peripheral vascular resistance in postspaceflight orthostatic intolerance.