This report aimed to provide the full results of QoL assessment in INFORM study. QoL was assessed by FACT-L questionnaire. QoL improvement ratio in gefitinib arm was higher than placebo arm (FACT-L: 46% vs. 22%, p < 0.001; TOI: 41% vs. 18%, p < 0.001; LCS: 46% vs. 22%, p < 0.001). Gefitinib prolonged time-to-worsening of QoL (FACT-L: 2.8 m vs 1.4 m, p = 0.019; TOI: 3.5 m vs 1.4 m, p = 0.006; LCS: 2.8 vs 1.4 m, p = 0.028). Patients with an improvement in QoL had longer PFS (FACT-L: 9.4 m vs. 2.8 m vs. 2.7 m, P < 0.001; TOI: 9.9 m vs. 2.8 m vs. 2.1 m, P < 0.001; LCS: 9.4 m vs. 2.9 m vs. 2.1 m, P < 0.001) and OS (FACT-L: 25.4 m vs. 19.9 m vs. 14.4 m, P = 0.003; TOI: 25.7 m vs. 19.0 m vs. 12.7 m, P = 0.002; LCS: 25.4 m vs. 19.3 m vs. 14.7 m, P = 0.004) compared with patients with stable or worsened QoL. Furthermore, in patients with good QoL at baseline, the treatment of gefitinib couldn’t improve OS compared to placebo, whereas patients with low QoL experienced marginal significant improvement in OS (20.6 m vs 14.4, p = 0.051). Our study indicated that gefitinib could improve patients’ QoL, confirmed the prognostic value of QoL changes during treatment, and implied patients with low QoL at baseline may be the potential population which will gain OS benefit from maintenance EGFR-TKI therapy.
Objective. To explore the efficacy and mechanism of primary dysmenorrhea patients were treated with herb-partitioned moxibustion through metabonomics. Methods. 20 patients with primary dysmenorrhea were randomized into two groups, separately treated with herb-partitioned moxibustion at CV8 (shenque) and acupuncture at SP6 (sanyinjiao). After three menstrual cycles' treatment, the intensity of menstrual pain using VAS and the changes of metabolites of plasma using LC-MS were observed. Results. The VAS of two groups decreased with different descending range. Herb-partitioned moxibustion upregulated 20α-dihydroprogesterone, pregnenolone, prostaglandin E2 and γ-aminobutyric acid and downregulated the content of estrone and prostaglandin H2, while acupuncture upregulated pregnenolone and 20α-dihydroprogesterone and downregulated 2-methoxyestradiol-3-methylether, 15-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid and 6-keto-prostaglandin. Discussion. It was effective in relieving the abdominal pain by these two therapies. Herb-partitioned moxibustion is superior to acupuncture for primary dysmenorrhea, which could be related to regulating the endocrine hormone.
To investigate the expression and role of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in diabetic retinopathy (DR) and its relationship with neovascularization and retinal cell apoptosis.
A total of 80 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to control (4, 8, 12 and 16wk, n=10 in each group) and diabetes mellitus (DM) groups (4, 8, 12 and 16wk, n=10 in each group). A diabetic rat model was established by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). After 4, 8, 12 and 16wk, rats were sacrificed. Retinal layers and retinal neovascularization growth were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and examined under light microscopy. Cell apoptosis in the retina was detected by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling, and NF-κB distribution and expression in the retina was determined using immunohistochemistry.
DM model success rate up to 100%. Diabetes model at each time point after the experimental groupcompared with the control group, the blood glucose was significantly increased, decreased body weight, each time point showed significant differences compared with the control group (P<0.01). After 12wk other pathological changes in the retina of diabetic rats were observed; after 16wk, neovascularization were observed. After 1mo, retinal cell apoptosis was observed. Compared with the control group, NF-κB expression in the DM group significantly increased with disease duration.
With the prolonging of DM progression, the expression NF-κB increases. NF-κB may be related to retinal cell apoptosis and neovascularization.
nuclear factor κB; retinal neovascularization; cell apoptosis; diabetic retinopathy
The mechanism underlying acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity remains controversial. Previous studies have focused on acrylamide-induced toxicity in adult rodents, but neurotoxicity in weaning rats has not been investigated. To explore the neurotoxic effect of acrylamide on the developing brain, weaning rats were gavaged with 0, 5, 15, and 30 mg/kg acrylamide for 4 consecutive weeks. No obvious neurotoxicity was observed in weaning rats in the low-dose acrylamide group (5 mg/kg). However, rats from the moderate- and high-dose acrylamide groups (15 and 30 mg/kg) had an abnormal gait. Furthermore, biochemical tests in these rats demonstrated that glutamate concentration was significantly reduced, and γ-aminobutyric acid content was significantly increased and was dependent on acrylamide dose. Immunohistochemical staining showed that in the cerebral cortex, γ-aminobutyric acid, glutamic acid decarboxylase and glial fibrillary acidic protein expression increased remarkably in the moderate- and high-dose acrylamide groups. These results indicate that in weaning rats, acrylamide is positively associated with neurotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner, which may correlate with upregulation of γ-aminobutyric acid and subsequent neuronal degeneration after the initial acrylamide exposure.
nerve regeneration; γ-aminobutyric acid; glial fibrillary acidic protein; glutamic acid decarboxylase; neurotoxicity; weaning; organ index; cerebrum; cortex; glutamate; neural regeneration
Physical penetration of lipid bilayer membranes presents an alternative pathway for cellular delivery of nanoparticles (NPs) besides endocytosis. NPs delivered through this pathway could reach the cytoplasm, thereby opening the possibility of organelle-specific targeting. Herein we perform dissipative particle dynamics simulations to elucidate the transmembrane penetration mechanisms of multiple NPs. Our simulations demonstrate that NPs’ translocation proceeds in a cooperative manner, where the interplay of the quantity and surface chemistry of the NPs regulates the translocation efficiency. For NPs with hydrophilic surfaces, the increase of particle quantity facilitates penetration, while for NPs with partly or totally hydrophobic surfaces, the opposite highly possibly holds. Moreover, a set of interesting cooperative ways, such as aggregation, aggregation-dispersion, and aggregation-dispersion-reaggregation of the NPs, are observed during the penetration process. We find that the penetration behaviors of multiple NPs are mostly dominated by the changes of the NP-membrane force components in the membrane plane direction, in addition to that in the penetration direction, suggesting a different interaction mechanism between the multiple NPs and the membrane compared with the one-NP case. These results provide a fundamental understanding in the underlying mechanisms of cooperative penetration of NPs, and shed light on the NP-based drug and gene delivery.
To understand the clinicopathological features of patients with primary pulmonary large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), including the frequency of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation, and to explore prognostic factors.
We investigated a cohort of 50 individuals from our center database who were diagnosed with operable pulmonary LCNEC and treated in Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center. Serum albumin (ALB) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) were also collected. Survival curves were obtained with the Kaplan–Meier method, and the differences between groups in survival were tested by the log-rank test.
The median age was 59 years (range, 40–80 years). Fourteen patients underwent mutational analysis of EGFR; of these, 12 had wild-type EGFR and the remaining two had EGFR mutations in exons. The median disease-free survival (DFS) of pulmonary LCNEC was 49.3 months and that of overall survival (OS) was not reached. DFS and OS were shorter for patients with decreased serum ALB than for patients with normal serum ALB (P=0.003 and P=0.004, respectively). Meanwhile, a high level of NSE was also significantly associated with short DFS and OS (P=0.005 and P=0.000, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that decrease in serum ALB was an independent prognostic factor for OS (P=0.046).
The frequency of EGFR mutation in LCNEC patients is low. Serum ALB and NSE levels are valuable prognostic factors for LCNEC patients.
pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma; ALB; NSE; EGFR; prognosis
Jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) regulate plant development, resistance to stress, and insect attack by inducing specific gene expression. However, little is known about the mechanism of plant defense against herbivore attack at a protein level. Using a high-resolution 2-D gel, we identified 62 MeJA-responsive proteins and measured protein expression level changes.
Among these 62 proteins, 43 proteins levels were increased while 11 proteins were decreased. We also found eight proteins uniquely expressed in response to MeJA treatment. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001793. The proteins identified in this study have important biological functions including photosynthesis and energy related proteins (38.4%), protein folding, degradation and regulated proteins (15.0%), stress and defense regulated proteins (11.7%), and redox-responsive proteins (8.3%). The expression levels of four important genes were determined by qRT-PCR analysis. The expression levels of these proteins did not correlate well with their translation levels. To test the defense functions of the differentially expressed proteins, expression vectors of four protein coding genes were constructed to express in-fusion proteins in E. coli. The expressed proteins were used to feed Ostrinia furnacalis, the Asian corn borer (ACB). Our results demonstrated that the recombinant proteins of pathogenesis-related protein 1 (PR1) and thioredoxin M-type, chloroplastic precursor (TRXM) showed the significant inhibition on the development of larvae and pupae.
We found MeJA could not only induce plant defense mechanisms to insects, it also enhanced toxic protein production that potentially can be used for bio-control of ACB.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12864-015-1363-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Maize; 2-DE; Mass spectrometry; Methyl jasmonate; qRT-PCR; Asian corn borer; Bio-control
This paper describes the development of a high density consensus genetic linkage map of a turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) family composed of 149 mapping individuals using Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) developed using the restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing technique with the restriction enzyme, PstI. A total of 6,647 SNPs were assigned to 22 linkage groups, which is equal to the number of chromosome pairs in turbot. For the first time, the average marker interval reached 0.3958 cM, which is equal to approximately 0.1203 Mb of the turbot genome. The observed 99.34% genome coverage indicates that the linkage map was genome-wide. A total of 220 Quantitative Traits Locus (QTLs) associated with two body length traits, two body weight traits in different growth periods and sex determination were detected with an LOD > 5.0 in 12 linkage groups (LGs), which explained the corresponding phenotypic variance (R2), ranging from 14.4–100%. Among them, 175 overlapped with linked SNPs, and the remaining 45 were located in regions between contiguous SNPs. According to the QTLs related to growth trait distribution and the changing of LGs during different growth periods, the growth traits are likely controlled by multi-SNPs distributed on several LGs; the effect of these SNPs changed during different growth periods. Most sex-related QTLs were detected at LG 21 with a linkage span of 70.882 cM. Additionally, a small number of QTLs with high feasibility and a narrow R2 distribution were also observed on LG7 and LG14, suggesting that multi LGs or chromosomes might be involved in sex determination. High homology was recorded between LG21 in Cynoglossus semilaevis and turbot. This high-saturated turbot RAD-Seq linkage map is undoubtedly a promising platform for marker assisted selection (MAS) and flatfish genomics research.
Decreased glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3) expression has been identified in numerous solid tumors. However, GPX3 expression pattern in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains poorly known. Our study was intended to explore GPX3 expression status and further analyze the clinical relevance of GPX3 expression in AML. GPX3 mRNA level was detected by real-time quantitative PCR in 122 de novo AML patients and 44 normal controls. GPX3 transcript level was significantly decreased compared with normal controls (P < 0.001). The patients with low GPX3 expression had significantly higher hemoglobin and platelets than those with high GPX3 expression (P = 0.049 and 0.020). The frequency of low GPX3 expression in favorable karyotype (66%, 23/35) and intermediate karyotype (65%, 45/69) was higher than in poor karyotype (29%, 4/14) (P = 0.017). No significant differences were observed in both complete remission and overall survival between the GPX3 low-expressed and high-expressed patients (P > 0.05). Reduced GPX3 expression is associated with favorable/intermediate karyotypes but not with survival in de novo AML patients.
GPX3; expression; karyotype; acute myeliod leukemia
Human airway epithelial cells are the principal target of human rhinovirus (HRV), a common cold pathogen that triggers the majority of asthma exacerbations. The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate an in vitro air liquid interface cultured human airway epithelial cell model for HRV infection, and 2) to identify gene expression patterns associated with asthma intrinsically and/or after HRV infection using this model.
Air-liquid interface (ALI) human airway epithelial cell cultures were prepared from 6 asthmatic and 6 non-asthmatic donors. The effects of rhinovirus RV-A16 on ALI cultures were compared. Genome-wide gene expression changes in ALI cultures following HRV infection at 24 hours post exposure were further analyzed using RNA-seq technology. Cellular gene expression and cytokine/chemokine secretion were further evaluated by qPCR and a Luminex-based protein assay, respectively.
ALI cultures were readily infected by HRV. RNA-seq analysis of HRV infected ALI cultures identified sets of genes associated with asthma specific viral responses. These genes are related to inflammatory pathways, epithelial structure and remodeling and cilium assembly and function, including those described previously (e.g. CCL5, CXCL10 and CX3CL1, MUC5AC, CDHR3), and novel ones that were identified for the first time in this study (e.g. CCRL1).
ALI-cultured human airway epithelial cells challenged with HRV are a useful translational model for the study of HRV-induced responses in airway epithelial cells, given that gene expression profile using this model largely recapitulates some important patterns of gene responses in patients during clinical HRV infection. Furthermore, our data emphasize that both abnormal airway epithelial structure and inflammatory signaling are two important asthma signatures, which can be further exacerbated by HRV infection.
To identify the presence of various bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and their receptors in normal sclera of human, rat and guinea pigs, and to determine whether their expression changed with form-deprivation myopia (FDM) in guinea pig sclera.
The expression of BMPs and BMP receptors were detected using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunofluorescence. Two-week-old guinea pigs were monocularly form-deprived with a translucent lens. After fourteen days induction of FDM, total RNA was isolated and subjected to RT-PCR to examine the changes of BMPs and BMP receptors in tissues from the posterior sclera. Western blotting analysis was used to investigate their changes in protein levels.
Human sclera expressed mRNAs for BMP-2, -4, -5, -7, -RIA, -RIB and BMP-RII. Conversely, rat sclera only expressed mRNA for BMP-7 and BMP-RIB, while the expression of BMPs and BMP receptors in guinea pigs were similar to that of humans. Human sclera also expresses BMP-2, -4, -5,-7 in protein level. Fourteen days after the induction of myopia, significant decreased expressions for BMP-2 and BMP-5 in the posterior sclera of FDM-affected eyes (P<0.05 vs internal control eyes).
Various BMPs were expressed in human and guinea pig sclera. In the posterior sclera, expressions of BMP-2 and BMP-5 significantly decreased in FDM eyes. This finding indicates that various BMPs as components of the scleral cytokines regulating tissue homeostasis and provide evidence that alterations in the expression of BMP-2 and BMP-5 are associated with sclera remodeling during myopia induction.
form-deprivation myopia; bone morphogenetic protein; human sclera; guinea pig sclera
The planting of trees on mine wastelands is an effective, long-term technique for phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated wastes. In this study, a pot experiment with seedlings of Koelreuteria paniculata under six treatments of local mine wastes was designed to determine the major constraints on tree establishment and to evaluate the feasibility of planting K. paniculata on manganese mine wastelands. Results showed that K. paniculata grew well in mine tailings, and also under a regime of equal amounts of mine tailings and soil provided in adjacent halves of pots. In contrast, mine sludge did not favor survival and growth because its clay texture limited fine root development. The bio-concentration factor and the translocation factor were mostly less than 1, indicating a low phytoextraction potential for K. paniculata. K. paniculata is suited to restore manganese mine sludge by mixing the mine sludge with local mine tailings or soil.
Koelreuteria paniculata; lateral fine root development; seedling biomass; phytoremediation; manganese mine wastes
The study was performed to investigate the molecular mechanism for SCI patients. The interaction between miRNA-130a and HDAC was demonstrated in PBMCs from SCI patients. Increased HDAC3 and decreased miRNA-130a were observed in PBMCs from AS patients. Next, HDAC3 loss-of-function or HAAC3 inhibition promoted the expression of miRNA-130a, and HDAC3 could be recruited to the promoter region of the gene, miRNA-130a, in PBMCs. In addition, linear regression analysis indicated that mRNA expression results were highly negative correlated between HDAC3 and miRNA-130a in PBMCs from SCI patients. Furthermore, miRNA-130a down expression increased the expression of HDAC3 in PBMCs. Loss-of-function of miRNA-130a promoted PBMCs apoptosis, but HDAC3 loss-of-function had no significant effect on the apoptotic cell. In addition, miR-130a overexpression decreased, whereas miR-130a inhibition increased, the expression of TNF-α in PBMCs. Furthermore, HDAC3 loss-of-function or HAAC3 inhibition associated with simultaneous up-regulation the expression of miR-130a and down-regulation the expression of TNF-α in PBMCs. In conclusion, HDAC3 regulated a distinct underlying molecular and pathogenic mechanism of SCI by forming a negative feedback loop with miR-130a and enhanced TNF-1α expression.
Spinal cord injury; HDAC3; miRNA-130a; PBMCs
The objective of the present study was to comparatively investigate the feasibility and safety of etomidate and propofol use following sevoflurane inhalation in autistic children during the intrathecal transplantation of stem cells. The patients selected were 60 autistic children with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I, who were aged between two and 12 years and scheduled for stem cell transplantation. The children received an inhalation induction of 8% sevoflurane, followed by intravenous injection of etomidate (0.2 mg/kg) in group E and propofol (2 mg/kg) in group P (n=30/group). Supplemental doses of 0.1 mg/kg etomidate or 1 mg/kg propofol were used until a deep sedation was obtained. The heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure, oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, Ramsay sedation score (RSS) and recovery time were monitored continuously. Following anesthesia, blood pressure and HR measurements were significantly decreased in group P compared with the baseline (P<0.01) and group E values at the same time-points (P<0.05). The occurrence of adverse effects, such as respiratory depression, bradycardia, hypotension and pain on injection, was significantly higher in group P than that in group E, whereas the incidence of myoclonus in group E was significantly higher than that in group P (P<0.01). No significant differences in anesthesia induction, surgery duration, recovery time, RSS and physician satisfaction were observed between the two groups. In conclusion, sevoflurane-etomidate combinations resulted in more stable hemodynamic responses and relatively fewer adverse effects compared with propofol injection following sevoflurane inhalation and may therefore be more suitable for the induction of short-term anesthesia in autistic children during stem cell transplantation.
sevoflurane; propofol; etomidate; autism; stem cell transplantation
Despite significant improvement in our understanding of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) biology and pathogenesis, many questions remain unanswered. In previous studies, we found a T-ALL case with two malignant T-cell clones with Vδ1Dδ2Dδ3Jδ1 and Vδ2Dδ3Jδ2 rearrangements. In this study, we further characterized T-ALL cases with two malignant clones containing Vδ1Dδ3Jδ1 and Vδ2Dδ1Jδ1 rearrangements using fine-tiling array comparative genomic hybridization, ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction (LM-PCR), sequencing, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. We further analyzed the distribution and clonality of the T-cell receptor (TCR) Vγ and Vδ subfamily T cells in the two T-ALL cases by RT-PCR and GeneScan. Monoclonal Vδ1 and Vδ2 subfamilies were confirmed in both samples, the Vδ3 through Vδ7 subfamilies could not be detected in the T-ALL samples, whereas the oligoclonal Vδ8 subfamily could be identified. Based on the clinical finding that both of the T-ALL cases with two malignant T-cell clones had a poor outcome, we attempted to compare the expression pattern of genes related to T-cell activation and proliferation between cases with the malignant Vδ1 and Vδ2 T-cell clones and T-ALL cases with a mono-malignant Vα T-cell clone. We selected two T-ALL cases with VαJα rearrangements and analyzed the expression level of Notch1, TAL1, and the CARMA-BCL10-MALT-A20-NF-κB pathway genes by real-time PCR. A20 had significantly higher expression in the biclonal compared with the monoclonal T-ALL group (p=0.0354), and there was a trend toward higher expression for the other genes in the biclonal group with the exception of TAL1, although the differences were not statistically significant. In conclusion, we identified two T-ALL cases with biclonal malignant T-cell clones and described the characteristics of the biclonal T-ALL subtype and its gene expression pattern. Thus, our findings may improve the understanding of biclonal T-ALL.
Myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers is a maternally inherited disease that is characterized by myoclonic epilepsy, cerebellar ataxia and progressive muscular weakness. The present study reports the case of a 25-year-old male who presented with paroxysmal left upper limb tics and weakness for two years. Neurological examination revealed intact cranial nerves, decreased deep tendon reflexes and decreased sensation of touch, pain and vibration. The gait of the patient was broad and he was unable to walk in a straight line. Local cortical atrophy was also observed in the left temporal-occipital cortex on a magnetic resonance imaging scan. The muscle biopsy revealed ragged-red fibers. Therefore, the present study hypothesized that imaging observations and follow-up examinations are important in patients with myoclonic epilepsy.
myoclonia; epilepsy; mitochondrial encephalomyopathy
Knowledge of the oncogenic signaling pathways of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) remains limited. Constitutive aberrant activation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway has been detected in various lymphoid malignancies and plays a key role in the development of these carcinomas. The zinc finger-containing protein, A20, is a central regulator of multiple NF-κB-activating signaling cascades. A20 is frequently inactivated by deletions and/or mutations in several B-and T-cell lymphoma subtypes. However, few A20 mutations and polymorphisms have been reported in T-ALL. Thus, it is of interest to analyze the expression characteristics of A20 and its regulating factors, including upstream regulators and the CBM complex, which includes CARMA1, BCL10, and MALT1.
The expression levels of CARMA1, BCL10, MALT1, A20, and NF-κB were detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 21 patients with newly diagnosed T-ALL using real-time PCR, and correlations between the aberrant expression of these genes in T-ALL was analyzed. Sixteen healthy individuals, including 10 males and 6 females, served as controls.
Significantly lower A20 expression was found in T-ALL patients (median: 4.853) compared with healthy individuals (median: 8.748; P = 0.017), and significantly increased expression levels of CARMA1 (median: 2.916; P = 0.034), BCL10 (median: 0.285; P = 0.033), and MALT1 (median: 1.201; P = 0.010) were found in T-ALL compared with the healthy individuals (median: 1.379, 0.169, and 0.677, respectively). In contrast, overexpression of NF-κB (median: 0.714) was found in T-ALL compared with healthy individuals (median: 0.335; P = 0.001). A negative correlation between the MALT1 and A20 expression levels and a positive correlation between CARMA1 and BCL10 were found in T-ALL and healthy individuals. However, no negative correlation was found between A20 and NF-κB and the MALT1 and NF-κB expression level in the T-ALL group.
We characterized the expression of the CARMA-BCL10-MALT1-A20-NF-κB pathway genes in T-ALL. Overexpression of CARMA-BCL10-MALT in T-ALL may contribute to the constitutive cleavage and inactivation of A20, which enhances NF-κB signaling and may be related to T-ALL pathogenesis.
A20; CARMA1-BCL10-MALT1; T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia
In addition to original role of lowering cholesterol, statins display multiple neuroprotective mechanisms. In this study, 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-treated pheochromocytoma-12 (PC12) cells were used to investigate the neuroprotective nature of lovastatin. After incubation with 6-OHDA and/or lovastatin, test kits were used to detect the levels of LDH and glutamate, which were released from PC12 cells exposed to different culture media. The mRNA levels of TNF-α, and NMDAR1 were determined by RT-PCR and the protein levels were analyzed by western blot. Our results show that lovastatin significantly decreased both the mRNA and the protein levels of TNF-α and NMDAR1. ELISA assays revealed increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glutamate binding activity in 6-OHDA-lesioned PC12 cells, and this increase could be prevented by lovastatin. Our results suggest that lovastatin induces neuroprotection by inhibiting NMDAR1 and TNF-α. The data provide direct evidence of the potential application of lovastatin for the treatment of parkinson’s diseases.
Parkinson’s disease; lovastatin; NMDA receptor1; TNF-α
To improve the outcome of assisted reproductive technology (ART) for patients with ovulation problems, it is necessary to retrieve and select germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes with high developmental potential. Oocytes with high developmental potential are characterized by their ability to undergo proper maturation, fertilization, and embryo development. In this study, we analyzed morphological traits of GV stage mouse oocytes, including cumulus cell layer thickness, zona pellucida thickness, and perivitelline space width. Then, we assessed the corresponding developmental potential of each of these oocytes and found that it varies across the range measured for each morphological trait. Furthermore, by manipulating these morphological traits in
vitro, we were able to determine the influence of morphological variation on oocyte developmental potential. Manually altering the thickness of the cumulus layer showed strong effects on the fertilization and embryo development potentials of oocytes, whereas manipulation of zona pellucida thickness effected the oocyte maturation potential. Our results provide a systematic detailed method for selecting GV stage oocytes based on a morphological assessment approach that would benefit for several downstream ART applications.
AIM: To identify risk factors that might contribute to hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT) after liver transplantation (LT).
METHODS: The perioperative and follow-up data of a total of 744 liver transplants, performed from February 1999 to July 2010, were retrospectively reviewed. HAT developed in 20 patients (2.7%). HAT was classified as early (occurring in fewer than 30 d post LT) or late (occurring more than 30 d post LT). Early HAT developed in 14 patients (1.9%). Late HAT developed in 6 patients (0.8%). Risk factors associated with HAT were analysed using the χ2 test for univariate analysis and logistic regression for multivariate analysis.
RESULTS: Lack of ABO compatibility, recipient/donor weight ratio ≥ 1.15, complex arterial reconstruction, duration time of hepatic artery anastomosis > 80 min, duration time of operation > 10 h, dual grafts, number of units of blood received intraoperatively ≥ 7, number of units of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) received intraoperatively ≥ 6, postoperative blood transfusion and postoperative FFP use were significantly associated with early HAT in the univariate analysis (P < 0.1). After logistic regression, independent risk factors associated with early HAT were recipient/donor weight ratio ≥ 1.15 (OR = 4.499), duration of hepatic artery anastomosis > 80 min (OR = 5.429), number of units of blood received intraoperatively ≥ 7 (OR = 4.059) and postoperative blood transfusion (OR = 6.898). Graft type (whole/living-donor/split), duration of operation > 10 h, retransplantation, rejection reaction, recipients with diabetes preoperatively and recipients with a high level of blood glucose or diabetes postoperatively were significantly associated with late HAT in the univariate analysis (P < 0.1). After logistic regression, the independent risk factors associated with early HAT were duration of operation > 10 h (OR = 6.394), retransplantation (OR = 21.793) and rejection reactions (OR = 16.936).
CONCLUSION: Early detection of these risk factors, strict surveillance protocols by Doppler ultrasound and prophylactic anticoagulation for recipients at risk might be determined prospectively.
Liver transplantation; Hepatic artery thrombosis; Risk factors; Complication; Blood transfusion
Microalgae have been an emerging biofuel resource; however, the germplasm improvement has been slow due to the lack of molecular tools. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) deactivates the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) which catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate. Acetyl-CoA production via PDC is important in plant tissues that are active in fatty acid synthesis.
A 1261-bp cDNA of a putative PDK gene (PtPDK) was cloned from a diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and PtPDK antisense knockdown transgenic diatoms were generated. Both PtPDK transcript abundance and enzyme activity were reduced significantly due to antisense knockdown of PtPDK. Neutral lipid content of transgenic diatom cells increased up to 82% as determined by Nile red staining, and fatty acid composition was not altered. Transgenic cells showed slightly lower growth rate but similar cell size with the wild type, hence retaining similar biomass productivity.
This work first obtained a successful engineered diatom regulating a key gene involved in lipid metabolism. Our findings also provide powerful indications in enhancing microalgal lipid production by metabolic engineering for biofuel industry.
Microalga; Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase; Antisense; Lipid; Biofuel
In order to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay on childhood pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), we evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of Xpert MTB/RIF assay using BALF in comparison with acid-fast bacilli (AFB) microscopy and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) culture for diagnosing childhood PTB using Chinese “composite clinical reference standard” (CCRS) as reference standard. Two hundred fifty-five children with suspected PTB were enrolled at Beijing Children's Hospital from September 2010 to July 2013. Compared with Chinese CCRS, the sensitivity of AFB microscopy, MTB culture, and Xpert MTB/RIF assay was 8.4%, 28.9%, and 53.0%, respectively. The specificity of three assays was all 100%. Xpert MTB/RIF assay could detect 33.9% of cases with negative MTB culture, and 48.7% of cases with negative AFB microscopy. Younger age (<3 years), absence of BCG scar, and contact with TB patient were found significantly associated with a positive result of Xpert MTB/RIF assay. In conclusion, Xpert MTB/RIF assay using BALF can assist in diagnosing childhood PTB much faster when fiberoptic bronchoscopy is necessary according to the chest radiograph.
Fifty-four Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200~240 g were randomly divided into sham-operated group (sham group), vehicle-treated SNL group (model group), and Tan IIA-treated SNL group (Tan IIA group). Tan IIA was administered intraperitoneally to rats in the Tan IIA-treated group at a dose of 30 mg/kg daily for 14 days after SNL surgery. Paw withdrawal mechanical thresholds (PWTs) and paw withdrawal thermal latencies (PWLs) were measured. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) mRNA and protein expression in the spinal cord were measured. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the spinal cord were measured, too. Both the mechanical and heat pain thresholds were significantly decreased. After Tan IIA treatment, HMGB1, and TLR4 mRNA and protein levels, the expression of TNF-α and IF-1β was reduced significantly. In conclusion, Tanshinone IIA reversed SNL-induced thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia and downregulated HMGB1 and TLR4 levels and inhibited the HMGB1-TLR4 pathway. Tanshinone IIA inhibited TNF-α and IL-1β expression but not IF-10 expression in the spinal cords of SNL rats. These results indicate that Tanshinone IIA inhibited SNL-induced neuropathic pain via multiple effects, and targeting the HMGB1-TLR4 pathway could serve as the basis of new antinociceptive agents.
To improve cancer pain management, the Medical Oncology Department of Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center (SYSUCC) launched the Good Pain Management (GPM) Ward Program, which has been recognized by the Chinese Ministry of Health and promoted throughout the nation. This retrospective case-control study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the program. Patients diagnosed with malignant solid tumors with bone metastasis were eligible. Patients who were admitted 6 months before the initiation of the GPM program were used as the control group, and patients admitted 6 months after the initiation of the program were used as the GPM group. The pain-reporting rate and pain management index (PMI) were calculated. The pain levels before and after pain management were compared. A total of 475 patients (244 in the control group and 231 in the GPM group) were analyzed. The pain-reporting rate of the GPM group was significantly higher than that of the control group (62.8% vs. 37.7%, P < 0.001). The PMI of the GPM group was significantly higher than that of the control group (0.083 vs. -0.261, P < 0.001). Therefore, the GPM Ward Program improved the pain management of cancer patients and provided experience for improving cancer pain management in the future.
Good pain management; cancer pain management; pain-reporting rate; pain management index
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 131I gelatin microspheres (131I-GMS) on human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) in nude mice and the biodistribution of 131I-GMSs following intratumoral injections.
A total of 20 tumor-bearing mice were divided into a treatment group and control group and received intratumoral injections of 2.5 mci 131I-GMSs and nonradioactive GMSs, respectively. Tumor size was measured once per week. Another 16 mice received intratumoral injections of 0.4 mci 131I-GMSs and were subjected to single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans and tissue radioactivity concentration measurements on day 1, 4, 8 and 16 postinjection. The 20 tumor-bearing mice received intratumoral injections of 0.4 mci [131I] sodium iodide solution and were subjected to SPECT scans and intratumoral radioactivity measurements at 1, 6, 24, 48 and 72 h postinjection. The tumors were collected for histological examination.
The average tumor volume in the 131I-GMSs group on post-treatment day 21 decreased to 86.82 ± 63.6%, while it increased to 893.37 ± 158.12% in the control group (P < 0.01 vs. the 131I-GMSs group). 131I-GMSs provided much higher intratumoral retention of radioactivity, resulting in 19.93 ± 5.24% of the injected radioactivity after 16 days, whereas the control group retained only 1.83 ± 0.46% of the injected radioactivity within the tumors at 1 h postinjection.
131I-GMSs suppressed the growth of MCF-7 in nude mice and provided sustained intratumoral radioactivity retention. The results suggest the potential of 131I-GMSs for clinical applications in radiotherapy for breast cancer.
131I; Gelatin microspheres; Breast neoplasms; Intratumoral injection; Treatment outcome; Biodistribution