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1.  Benefits of Mobile Phone Technology for Personal Environmental Monitoring 
JMIR mHealth and uHealth  2016;4(4):e126.
Background
Tracking individuals in environmental epidemiological studies using novel mobile phone technologies can provide valuable information on geolocation and physical activity, which will improve our understanding of environmental exposures.
Objective
The objective of this study was to assess the performance of one of the least expensive mobile phones on the market to track people's travel-activity pattern.
Methods
Adults living and working in Barcelona (72/162 bicycle commuters) carried simultaneously a mobile phone and a Global Positioning System (GPS) tracker and filled in a travel-activity diary (TAD) for 1 week (N=162). The CalFit app for mobile phones was used to log participants’ geographical location and physical activity. The geographical location data were assigned to different microenvironments (home, work or school, in transit, others) with a newly developed spatiotemporal map-matching algorithm. The tracking performance of the mobile phones was compared with that of the GPS trackers using chi-square test and Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test. The minute agreement across all microenvironments between the TAD and the algorithm was compared using the Gwet agreement coefficient (AC1).
Results
The mobile phone acquired locations for 905 (29.2%) more trips reported in travel diaries than the GPS tracker (P<.001) and had a median accuracy of 25 m. Subjects spent on average 57.9%, 19.9%, 9.0%, and 13.2% of time at home, work, in transit, and other places, respectively, according to the TAD and 57.5%, 18.8%, 11.6%, and 12.1%, respectively, according to the map-matching algorithm. The overall minute agreement between both methods was high (AC1 .811, 95% CI .810-.812).
Conclusions
The use of mobile phones running the CalFit app provides better information on which microenvironments people spend their time in than previous approaches based only on GPS trackers. The improvements of mobile phone technology in microenvironment determination are because the mobile phones are faster at identifying first locations and capable of getting location in challenging environments thanks to the combination of assisted-GPS technology and network positioning systems. Moreover, collecting location information from mobile phones, which are already carried by individuals, allows monitoring more people with a cheaper and less burdensome method than deploying GPS trackers.
doi:10.2196/mhealth.5771
PMCID: PMC5122720  PMID: 27833069
smartphone; cell phones; mobile applications; monitoring, ambulatory; spatio-temporal analysis; automatic data processing; travel; environmental exposure
2.  Particulate Air Pollution, Exceptional Aging, and Rates of Centenarians: A Nationwide Analysis of the United States, 1980–2010 
Environmental Health Perspectives  2016;124(11):1744-1750.
Background:
Exceptional aging, defined as reaching age 85 years, shows geographic inequalities that may depend on local environmental conditions. Links between particulate pollution—a well-recognized environmental risk factor—and exceptional aging have not been investigated.
Objectives:
We conducted a nationwide analysis of ~28 million adults in 3,034 United States counties to determine whether local PM2.5 levels (particulate matter < 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter) affected the probability of becoming 85- to 94-year-olds or centenarians (100- to 104-year-olds) in 2010 for individuals who were 55–64 or 70–74 years old, respectively, in 1980.
Methods:
We used population-weighted regression models including county-level PM2.5 from hybrid land-use regression and geostatistical interpolation, smoking, obesity, sociodemographic, and age-specific migration variables.
Results:
On average, 2,295 and 71.4 per 10,000 of the 55- to 64- and 70- to 74-year-olds in 1980, respectively, remained in the 85- to 94- and 100- to 104-year-old population in 2010. An interquartile range (4.19 μg/m3) increase in PM2.5 was associated with 93.7 fewer 85- to 94-year-olds (p < 0.001) and 3.5 fewer centenarians (p < 0.05). These associations were nearly linear, were stable to model specification, and were detectable below the annual PM2.5 national standard. Exceptional aging was strongly associated with smoking, with an interquartile range (4.77%) increase in population who smoked associated with 181.9 fewer 85- to 94-year-olds (p < 0.001) and 6.4 fewer centenarians (p < 0.001). Exceptional aging was also associated with obesity rates and median income.
Conclusions:
Communities with the most exceptional aging have low ambient air pollution and low rates of smoking, poverty, and obesity. Improvements in these determinants may contribute to increasing exceptional aging.
Citation:
Baccarelli AA, Hales N, Burnett RT, Jerrett M, Mix C, Dockery DW, Pope CA III. 2016. Particulate air pollution, exceptional aging, and rates of centenarians: a nationwide analysis of the United States, 1980–2010. Environ Health Perspect 124:1744–1750; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP197
doi:10.1289/EHP197
PMCID: PMC5089884  PMID: 27138440
3.  Manganese in Teeth and Neurodevelopment in Young Mexican-American Children 
Environmental research  2015;142:688-695.
Introduction
Manganese (Mn) is an essential nutrient but higher exposure has been associated with poorer neurodevelopment in children.
Methods
We measured Mn levels in prenatal (Mnpre) (n=197) and postnatal (Mnpost) dentin (n=193) from children's shed teeth using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy and examined the relationship with children's scores on the Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development at 6, 12, and 24-months. We explored non-linear associations and interactions by sex, blood lead concentrations and maternal iron status during pregnancy.
Results
A two-fold increase of Mnpost levels in dentin was associated with small decreases in MDI at 6-months and 12-months of age. We also observed a non-linear relationship between Mnpost levels and PDI at 6-months. We found effect modification by sex for Mnpost levels and neurodevelopment at 6-months with stronger effects among girls for both MDI (−1.5 points; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): −2.4, −0.6) and PDI (−1.8 points; 95% CI: −3.3, −0.3). Girls whose mothers had lower hemoglobin levels experienced larger decreases in MDI and PDI associated with Mnpre levels than girls whose mothers had higher hemoglobin levels (pinteraction=0.007 and 0.09, respectively). We did not observe interactions with blood lead concentrations or any relationships with neurodevelopment at 24-months.
Conclusions
Using Mn measurements in tooth dentin, a novel biomarker that provides prenatal and early postnatal levels, we observed negative transient associations between postnatal Mn levels and early neurodevelopment with effect modification by sex and interactions with prenatal hemoglobin.
doi:10.1016/j.envres.2015.09.003
PMCID: PMC4696558  PMID: 26381693
Bayley Scales of Infant Development; manganese; neurodevelopment; pesticides
4.  Ambient Fine Particulate Matter and Mortality among Survivors of Myocardial Infarction: Population-Based Cohort Study 
Environmental Health Perspectives  2016;124(9):1421-1428.
Background:
Survivors of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are at increased risk of dying within several hours to days following exposure to elevated levels of ambient air pollution. Little is known, however, about the influence of long-term (months to years) air pollution exposure on survival after AMI.
Objective:
We conducted a population-based cohort study to determine the impact of long-term exposure to fine particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) on post-AMI survival.
Methods:
We assembled a cohort of 8,873 AMI patients who were admitted to 1 of 86 hospital corporations across Ontario, Canada in 1999–2001. Mortality follow-up for this cohort extended through 2011. Cumulative time-weighted exposures to PM2.5 were derived from satellite observations based on participants’ annual residences during follow-up. We used standard and multilevel spatial random-effects Cox proportional hazards models and adjusted for potential confounders.
Results:
Between 1999 and 2011, we identified 4,016 nonaccidental deaths, of which 2,147 were from any cardiovascular disease, 1,650 from ischemic heart disease, and 675 from AMI. For each 10-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR10) of nonaccidental mortality was 1.22 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.45]. The association with PM2.5 was robust to sensitivity analyses and appeared stronger for cardiovascular-related mortality: ischemic heart (HR10 = 1.43; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.83) and AMI (HR10 = 1.64; 95% CI: 1.13, 2.40). We estimated that 12.4% of nonaccidental deaths (or 497 deaths) could have been averted if the lowest measured concentration in an urban area (4 μg/m3) had been achieved at all locations over the course of the study.
Conclusions:
Long-term air pollution exposure adversely affects the survival of AMI patients.
Citation:
Chen H, Burnett RT, Copes R, Kwong JC, Villeneuve PJ, Goldberg MS, Brook RD, van Donkelaar A, Jerrett M, Martin RV, Brook JR, Kopp A, Tu JV. 2016. Ambient fine particulate matter and mortality among survivors of myocardial infarction: population-based cohort study. Environ Health Perspect 124:1421–1428; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP185
doi:10.1289/EHP185
PMCID: PMC5010396  PMID: 27152932
5.  Critical Review of Health Impacts of Wildfire Smoke Exposure 
Environmental Health Perspectives  2016;124(9):1334-1343.
Background:
Wildfire activity is predicted to increase in many parts of the world due to changes in temperature and precipitation patterns from global climate change. Wildfire smoke contains numerous hazardous air pollutants and many studies have documented population health effects from this exposure.
Objectives:
We aimed to assess the evidence of health effects from exposure to wildfire smoke and to identify susceptible populations.
Methods:
We reviewed the scientific literature for studies of wildfire smoke exposure on mortality and on respiratory, cardiovascular, mental, and perinatal health. Within those reviewed papers deemed to have minimal risk of bias, we assessed the coherence and consistency of findings.
Discussion:
Consistent evidence documents associations between wildfire smoke exposure and general respiratory health effects, specifically exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Growing evidence suggests associations with increased risk of respiratory infections and all-cause mortality. Evidence for cardiovascular effects is mixed, but a few recent studies have reported associations for specific cardiovascular end points. Insufficient research exists to identify specific population subgroups that are more susceptible to wildfire smoke exposure.
Conclusions:
Consistent evidence from a large number of studies indicates that wildfire smoke exposure is associated with respiratory morbidity with growing evidence supporting an association with all-cause mortality. More research is needed to clarify which causes of mortality may be associated with wildfire smoke, whether cardiovascular outcomes are associated with wildfire smoke, and if certain populations are more susceptible.
Citation:
Reid CE, Brauer M, Johnston FH, Jerrett M, Balmes JR, Elliott CT. 2016. Critical review of health impacts of wildfire smoke exposure. Environ Health Perspect 124:1334–1343; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409277
doi:10.1289/ehp.1409277
PMCID: PMC5010409  PMID: 27082891
6.  Countervailing effects of income, air pollution, smoking, and obesity on aging and life expectancy: population-based study of U.S. Counties 
Environmental Health  2016;15:86.
Background
Income, air pollution, obesity, and smoking are primary factors associated with human health and longevity in population-based studies. These four factors may have countervailing impacts on longevity. This analysis investigates longevity trade-offs between air pollution and income, and explores how relative effects of income and air pollution on human longevity are potentially influenced by accounting for smoking and obesity.
Methods
County-level data from 2,996 U.S. counties were analyzed in a cross-sectional analysis to investigate relationships between longevity and the four factors of interest: air pollution (mean 1999–2008 PM2.5), median income, smoking, and obesity. Two longevity measures were used: life expectancy (LE) and an exceptional aging (EA) index. Linear regression, generalized additive regression models, and bivariate thin-plate smoothing splines were used to estimate the benefits of living in counties with higher incomes or lower PM2.5. Models were estimated with and without controls for smoking, obesity, and other factors.
Results
Models which account for smoking and obesity result in substantially smaller estimates of the effects of income and pollution on longevity. Linear regression models without these two variables estimate that a $1,000 increase in median income (1 μg/m3 decrease in PM2.5) corresponds to a 27.39 (33.68) increase in EA and a 0.14 (0.12) increase in LE, whereas models that control for smoking and obesity estimate only a 12.32 (20.22) increase in EA and a 0.07 (0.05) increase in LE. Nonlinear models and thin-plate smoothing splines also illustrate that, at higher levels of income, the relative benefits of the income-pollution tradeoff changed—the benefit of higher incomes diminished relative to the benefit of lower air pollution exposure.
Conclusions
Higher incomes and lower levels of air pollution both correspond with increased human longevity. Adjusting for smoking and obesity reduces estimates of the benefits of higher income and lower air pollution exposure. This adjustment also alters the tradeoff between income and pollution: increases in income become less beneficial relative to a fixed reduction in air pollution—especially at higher levels of income.
doi:10.1186/s12940-016-0168-2
PMCID: PMC4983078  PMID: 27520789
Air pollution; Life expectancy; Income; Smoking; Obesity; Economic tradeoffs
7.  Ischemic Heart Disease Mortality and Long-Term Exposure to Source-Related Components of U.S. Fine Particle Air Pollution 
Environmental Health Perspectives  2015;124(6):785-794.
Background:
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution exposure has been identified as a global health threat. However, the types and sources of particles most responsible are not yet known.
Objectives:
We sought to identify the causal characteristics and sources of air pollution underlying past associations between long-term PM2.5 exposure and ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality, as established in the American Cancer Society’s Cancer Prevention Study-II cohort.
Methods:
Individual risk factor data were evaluated for 445,860 adults in 100 U.S. metropolitan areas followed from 1982 through 2004 for vital status and cause of death. Using Cox proportional hazard models, we estimated IHD mortality hazard ratios (HRs) for PM2.5, trace constituents, and pollution source–associated PM2.5, as derived from air monitoring at central stations throughout the nation during 2000–2005.
Results:
Associations with IHD mortality varied by PM2.5 mass constituent and source. A coal combustion PM2.5 IHD HR = 1.05 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.08) per microgram/cubic meter, versus an IHD HR = 1.01 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.02) per microgram/cubic meter PM2.5 mass, indicated a risk roughly five times higher for coal combustion PM2.5 than for PM2.5 mass in general, on a per microgram/cubic meter PM2.5 basis. Diesel traffic–related elemental carbon (EC) soot was also associated with IHD mortality (HR = 1.03; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.06 per 0.26-μg/m3 EC increase). However, PM2.5 from both wind-blown soil and biomass combustion was not associated with IHD mortality.
Conclusions:
Long-term PM2.5 exposures from fossil fuel combustion, especially coal burning but also from diesel traffic, were associated with increases in IHD mortality in this nationwide population. Results suggest that PM2.5–mortality associations can vary greatly by source, and that the largest IHD health benefits per microgram/cubic meter from PM2.5 air pollution control may be achieved via reductions of fossil fuel combustion exposures, especially from coal-burning sources.
Citation:
Thurston GD, Burnett RT, Turner MC, Shi Y, Krewski D, Lall R, Ito K, Jerrett M, Gapstur SM, Diver WR, Pope CA III. 2016. Ischemic heart disease mortality and long-term exposure to source-related components of U.S. fine particle air pollution. Environ Health Perspect 124:785–794; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509777
doi:10.1289/ehp.1509777
PMCID: PMC4892920  PMID: 26629599
8.  Ambient Particulate Matter Air Pollution Exposure and Mortality in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Cohort 
Environmental Health Perspectives  2015;124(4):484-490.
Background:
Outdoor fine particulate matter (≤ 2.5 μm; PM2.5) has been identified as a global health threat, but the number of large U.S. prospective cohort studies with individual participant data remains limited, especially at lower recent exposures.
Objectives:
We aimed to test the relationship between long-term exposure PM2.5 and death risk from all nonaccidental causes, cardiovascular (CVD), and respiratory diseases in 517,041 men and women enrolled in the National Institutes of Health-AARP cohort.
Methods:
Individual participant data were linked with residence PM2.5 exposure estimates across the continental United States for a 2000–2009 follow-up period when matching census tract–level PM2.5 exposure data were available. Participants enrolled ranged from 50 to 71 years of age, residing in six U.S. states and two cities. Cox proportional hazard models yielded hazard ratio (HR) estimates per 10 μg/m3 of PM2.5 exposure.
Results:
PM2.5 exposure was significantly associated with total mortality (HR = 1.03; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.05) and CVD mortality (HR = 1.10; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.15), but the association with respiratory mortality was not statistically significant (HR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.13). A significant association was found with respiratory mortality only among never smokers (HR = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.56). Associations with 10-μg/m3 PM2.5 exposures in yearly participant residential annual mean, or in metropolitan area-wide mean, were consistent with baseline exposure model results. Associations with PM2.5 were similar when adjusted for ozone exposures. Analyses of California residents alone also yielded statistically significant PM2.5 mortality HRs for total and CVD mortality.
Conclusions:
Long-term exposure to PM2.5 air pollution was associated with an increased risk of total and CVD mortality, providing an independent test of the PM2.5–mortality relationship in a new large U.S. prospective cohort experiencing lower post-2000 PM2.5 exposure levels.
Citation:
Thurston GD, Ahn J, Cromar KR, Shao Y, Reynolds HR, Jerrett M, Lim CC, Shanley R, Park Y, Hayes RB. 2016. Ambient particulate matter air pollution exposure and mortality in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health cohort. Environ Health Perspect 124:484–490; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509676
doi:10.1289/ehp.1509676
PMCID: PMC4829984  PMID: 26370657
9.  A class of non-linear exposure-response models suitable for health impact assessment applicable to large cohort studies of ambient air pollution 
The effectiveness of regulatory actions designed to improve air quality is often assessed by predicting changes in public health resulting from their implementation. Risk of premature mortality from long-term exposure to ambient air pollution is the single most important contributor to such assessments and is estimated from observational studies generally assuming a log-linear, no-threshold association between ambient concentrations and death. There has been only limited assessment of this assumption in part because of a lack of methods to estimate the shape of the exposure-response function in very large study populations. In this paper, we propose a new class of variable coefficient risk functions capable of capturing a variety of potentially non-linear associations which are suitable for health impact assessment. We construct the class by defining transformations of concentration as the product of either a linear or log-linear function of concentration multiplied by a logistic weighting function. These risk functions can be estimated using hazard regression survival models with currently available computer software and can accommodate large population-based cohorts which are increasingly being used for this purpose. We illustrate our modeling approach with two large cohort studies of long-term concentrations of ambient air pollution and mortality: the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS II) cohort and the Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CanCHEC). We then estimate the number of deaths attributable to changes in fine particulate matter concentrations over the 2000 to 2010 time period in both Canada and the USA using both linear and non-linear hazard function models.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11869-016-0398-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s11869-016-0398-z
PMCID: PMC5093184  PMID: 27867428
Air pollution; Cohort; Exposure; Mortality; Particulate matter
10.  Associations of Pregnancy Outcomes and PM2.5 in a National Canadian Study 
Environmental Health Perspectives  2015;124(2):243-249.
Background
Numerous studies have examined associations between air pollution and pregnancy outcomes, but most have been restricted to urban populations living near monitors.
Objectives
We examined the association between pregnancy outcomes and fine particulate matter in a large national study including urban and rural areas.
Methods
Analyses were based on approximately 3 million singleton live births in Canada between 1999 and 2008. Exposures to PM2.5 (particles of median aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) were assigned by mapping the mother’s postal code to a monthly surface based on a national land use regression model that incorporated observations from fixed-site monitoring stations and satellite-derived estimates of PM2.5. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the association between PM2.5 and preterm birth (gestational age < 37 weeks), term low birth weight (< 2,500 g), small for gestational age (SGA; < 10th percentile of birth weight for gestational age), and term birth weight, adjusting for individual covariates and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES).
Results
In fully adjusted models, a 10-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 over the entire pregnancy was associated with SGA (odds ratio = 1.04; 95% CI 1.01, 1.07) and reduced term birth weight (–20.5 g; 95% CI –24.7, –16.4). Associations varied across subgroups based on maternal place of birth and period (1999–2003 vs. 2004–2008).
Conclusions
This study, based on approximately 3 million births across Canada and employing PM2.5 estimates from a national spatiotemporal model, provides further evidence linking PM2.5 and pregnancy outcomes.
Citation
Stieb DM, Chen L, Beckerman BS, Jerrett M, Crouse DL, Omariba DW, Peters PA, van Donkelaar A, Martin RV, Burnett RT, Gilbert NL, Tjepkema M, Liu S, Dugandzic RM. 2016. Associations of pregnancy outcomes and PM2.5 in a National Canadian Study. Environ Health Perspect 124:243–249; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408995
doi:10.1289/ehp.1408995
PMCID: PMC4749076  PMID: 26090691
11.  Temporal aspects of air pollutant measures in epidemiologic analysis: a simulation study 
Scientific Reports  2016;6:19691.
Numerous observational studies have assessed the association between ambient air pollution and chronic disease incidence, but there is no uniform approach to create an exposure metric that captures the variability in air pollution through time and determines the most relevant exposure window. The purpose of the present study was to assess ways of modeling exposure to air pollution in relation to incident hypertension. We simulated data on incident hypertension to assess the performance of six air pollution exposure metrics, using characteristics from the Black Women’s Health Study. Each metric made different assumptions about how to incorporate time trends in pollutant data, and the most relevant window of exposure. We use observed values for particulate matter ≤2.5 microns (PM2.5) for this cohort to create the six exposure metrics and fit Cox proportional hazards models to the simulated data using the six metrics. The optimal exposure metric depends on the underlying association between PM2.5 and disease, which is unknown. Metrics that incorporate exposure information from multiple years tend to be more robust and suffer from less bias. This study provides insight into factors that influence the metric used to quantifying exposure to PM2.5 and suggests the need for careful sensitivity analyses.
doi:10.1038/srep19691
PMCID: PMC4726372  PMID: 26791428
12.  PARENTAL STRESS INCREASES BODY MASS INDEX TRAJECTORY IN PRE-ADOLESCENTS 
Pediatric obesity  2013;9(6):435-442.
Objective
We examined the impact of parental psychological stress on body mass index (BMI) in pre-adolescent children over four years of follow-up.
Methods
We included 4,078 children aged 5–10 years (90% were between 5.5 and 7.5 years) at study entry (2002–2003) into the Children's Health Study, a prospective cohort study in southern California. A multi-level linear model simultaneously examined the effect of parental stress at study entry on the attained BMI at age 10 and the slope of change across annual measures of BMI during follow-up, controlled for the child's age and sex. Body mass index was calculated based on objective measurements of height and weight by trained technicians following a standardized procedure.
Results
A two standard deviation increase in parental stress at study entry was associated with an increase in predicted BMI attained by age 10 of 0.287 kg/m2 (95% confidence interval 0.016-0.558; a 2% increase at this age for a participant of average attained BMI). The same increase in parental stress was also associated with an increased trajectory of weight gain over follow-up, with the slope of change in BMI increased by 0.054 kg/m2 (95% confidence interval 0.007-0.100; a 7% increase in the slope of change for a participant of average BMI trajectory).
Conclusions
We prospectively demonstrated a small effect of parental stress on BMI at age 10 and weight gain earlier in life than reported previously. Interventions to address the burden of childhood obesity should address the role of parental stress in children.
doi:10.1111/j.2047-6310.2013.00208.x
PMCID: PMC4334321  PMID: 24311567
Parental stress; psychological stress; obesity; weight gain; pre-adolescents; children; prospective cohort
13.  Ambient PM2.5, O3, and NO2 Exposures and Associations with Mortality over 16 Years of Follow-Up in the Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CanCHEC) 
Environmental Health Perspectives  2015;123(11):1180-1186.
Background
Few studies examining the associations between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and mortality have considered multiple pollutants when assessing changes in exposure due to residential mobility during follow-up.
Objective
We investigated associations between cause-specific mortality and ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (≤ 2.5 μm; PM2.5), ozone (O3), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in a national cohort of about 2.5 million Canadians.
Methods
We assigned estimates of annual concentrations of these pollutants to the residential postal codes of subjects for each year during 16 years of follow-up. Historical tax data allowed us to track subjects’ residential postal code annually. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for each pollutant separately and adjusted for the other pollutants. We also estimated the product of the three HRs as a measure of the cumulative association with mortality for several causes of death for an increment of the mean minus the 5th percentile of each pollutant: 5.0 μg/m3 for PM2.5, 9.5 ppb for O3, and 8.1 ppb for NO2.
Results
PM2.5, O3, and NO2 were associated with nonaccidental and cause-specific mortality in single-pollutant models. Exposure to PM2.5 alone was not sufficient to fully characterize the toxicity of the atmospheric mix or to fully explain the risk of mortality associated with exposure to ambient pollution. Assuming additive associations, the estimated HR for nonaccidental mortality corresponding to a change in exposure from the mean to the 5th percentile for all three pollutants together was 1.075 (95% CI: 1.067, 1.084). Accounting for residential mobility had only a limited impact on the association between mortality and PM2.5 and O3, but increased associations with NO2.
Conclusions
In this large, national-level cohort, we found positive associations between several common causes of death and exposure to PM2.5, O3, and NO2.
Citation
Crouse DL, Peters PA, Hystad P, Brook JR, van Donkelaar A, Martin RV, Villeneuve PJ, Jerrett M, Goldberg MS, Pope CA III, Brauer M, Brook RD, Robichaud A, Menard R, Burnett RT. 2015. Ambient PM2.5, O3, and NO2 exposures and associations with mortality over 16 years of follow-up in the Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CanCHEC). Environ Health Perspect 123:1180–1186; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409276
doi:10.1289/ehp.1409276
PMCID: PMC4629747  PMID: 26528712
14.  Within- and between-city contrasts in nitrogen dioxide and mortality in 10 Canadian cities; a subset of the Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CanCHEC) 
The independent and joint effects of within- and between-city contrasts in air pollution on mortality have been investigated rarely. To examine the differential effects of between- versus within-city contrasts in pollution exposure, we used both ambient measurements and land use regression models to assess associations with mortality and exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) among ~735,600 adults in 10 of the largest Canadian cities. We estimated exposure contrasts partitioned into within- and between-city contrasts, and the sum of these as overall exposures, for every year from 1984 to 2006. Residential histories allowed us to follow subjects annually during the study period. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted for many personal and contextual variables. In fully-adjusted, random-effects models, we found positive associations between overall NO2 exposures and mortality from non-accidental causes (HR per 5 p.p.b.: 1.05; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03–1.07), cardiovascular disease (HR per 5 p.p.b.: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.01–1.06), ischaemic heart disease (HR per 5 p.p.b.: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.02–1.08) and respiratory disease (HR per 5 p.p.b.: 1.04; 95% CI: 0.99–1.08), but not from cerebrovascular disease (HR per 5 p.p.b.: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.96–1.06). We found that most of these associations were determined by within-city contrasts, as opposed to by between-city contrasts in NO2. Our results suggest that variation in NO2 concentrations within a city may represent a more toxic mixture of pollution than variation between cities.
doi:10.1038/jes.2014.89
PMCID: PMC4542139  PMID: 25605445
criteria pollutants; epidemiology; exposure modelling
15.  Development of a Canadian socioeconomic status index for the study of health outcomes related to environmental pollution 
BMC Public Health  2015;15:714.
Background
Socioeconomic status (SES) is an important determinant of health and potential modifier of the effects of environmental contaminants. There has been a lack of comprehensive indices for measuring overall SES in Canada. Here, a more comprehensive SES index is developed aiming to support future studies exploring health outcomes related to environmental pollution in Canada.
Methods
SES variables (n = 22, Census Canada 2006) were selected based on: cultural identities, housing characteristics, variables identified in Canadian environmental injustice studies and a previous deprivation index (Pampalon index). Principal component analysis with a single varimax rotation (factor loadings ≥ │60│) was performed on SES variables for 52974 census dissemination areas (DA). The final index was created by averaging the factor scores per DA according to the three components retained. The index was validated by examining its association with preterm birth (gestational age < 37 weeks), term low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g), small for gestational age (SGA, <10 percentile of birth weight for gestational age) and PM2.5 (particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm) exposures in Edmonton, Alberta (1999–2008).
Results
Index values exhibited a relatively normal distribution (median = 0.11, mean = 0.0, SD = 0.58) across Canada. Values in Alberta tended to be higher than in Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest Territories and Nunavut (Pearson chi-square p < 0.001 across provinces). Lower quintiles of our index and the Pampalon’s index confirmed know associations with a higher prevalence of LBW, SGA, preterm birth and PM2.5 exposure. Results with our index exhibited greater statistical significance and a more consistent gradient of PM2.5 levels and prevalence of pregnancy outcomes.
Conclusions
Our index reflects more dimensions of SES than an earlier index and it performed superiorly in capturing gradients in prevalence of pregnancy outcomes. It can be used for future research involving environmental pollution and health in Canada.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12889-015-1992-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12889-015-1992-y
PMCID: PMC4517649  PMID: 26215141
Socioeconomic status; Environment; Health
16.  Assessment of Traffic-Related Noise in Three Cities in the United States 
Environmental research  2014;0:182-189.
Background
Traffic-related noise is a growing public health concern in developing and developed countries due to increasing vehicle traffic. Epidemiological studies have reported associations between noise exposure and high blood pressure, increased risk of hypertension and heart disease, and stress induced by sleep disturbance and annoyance. These findings motivate the need for regular noise assessments within urban areas. This paper assesses the relationships between traffic and noise in three US cities.
Methods
Noise measurements were conducted in downtown areas in three cities in the United States: Atlanta, Los Angeles, and New York City. For each city, we measured ambient noise levels, and assessed their correlation with simultaneously measured vehicle counts, and with traffic data provided by local Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPO). Additionally, measured noise levels were compared to noise levels predicted by the Federal Highway Administration’s Traffic Noise Model using (1) simultaneously measured traffic counts or (2) MPO traffic data sources as model input.
Results
We found substantial variations in traffic and noise within and between cities. Total number of vehicle counts explained a substantial amount of variation in measured ambient noise in Atlanta (78%), Los Angeles (58%), and New York City (62%). Modeled noise levels were moderately correlated with measured noise levels when observed traffic counts were used as model input. Weaker correlations were found when MPO traffic data was used as model input.
Conclusions
Ambient noise levels measured in all three cities were correlated with traffic data, highlighting the importance of traffic planning in mitigating noise-related health effects. Model performance was sensitive to the traffic data used as input. Future noise studies that use modeled noise estimates should evaluate traffic data quality and should ideally include other factors, such as local roadway, building, and meteorological characteristics.
doi:10.1016/j.envres.2014.03.005
PMCID: PMC4058403  PMID: 24792415
Community noise; Noise survey; Traffic Noise Model; Vehicle counts; Truck Traffic
17.  Social environment and asthma: Associations with crime and No Child Left Behind programs 
Background
The relationship between asthma and socioeconomic status remains unclear. We investigated how neighborhood, school and community social environments were associated with incident asthma in Southern California school children.
Methods
New onset asthma was measured over three years of follow-up in the Children’s Health Study cohort. Multilevel random effects models assessed associations between social environments and asthma, adjusted for individual risk factors. Subjects resided in 274 neighborhoods and attended one of 45 schools in 13 communities. Neighborhoods and communities were characterized by measures of deprivation, income inequality and racial segregation. Communities were further described by crime rates. Information on schools included whether a school received funding related to the Title 1 No Child Left Behind program, which aims to reduce academic underachievement in disadvantaged populations.
Results
Increased risk for asthma was observed in subjects attending schools receiving Title I funds compared to those from schools without funding (adjusted hazard ratio 1.71, 95% CI 1.14–2.58), and residing in communities with higher rates of larceny crime (adjusted hazard ratio 2.02, 95% CI 1.08–3.02 across the range of 1827 incidents per 100,000 population).
Conclusions
Risk for asthma was higher in areas of low socioeconomic status, possibly due to unmeasured risk factors or chronic stress.
doi:10.1136/jech.2009.102806
PMCID: PMC4384703  PMID: 21071562
asthma; multilevel models; socio-economic; air pollution
18.  A Longitudinal Cohort Study of Body Mass Index and Childhood Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke and Air Pollution: The Southern California Children’s Health Study 
Environmental Health Perspectives  2014;123(4):360-366.
Background:
Childhood body mass index (BMI) and obesity prevalence have been associated with exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS), maternal smoking during pregnancy, and vehicular air pollution. There has been little previous study of joint BMI effects of air pollution and tobacco smoke exposure.
Methods:
Information on exposure to SHS and maternal smoking during pregnancy was collected on 3,318 participants at enrollment into the Southern California Children’s Health Study. At study entry at average age of 10 years, residential near-roadway pollution exposure (NRP) was estimated based on a line source dispersion model accounting for traffic volume, proximity, and meteorology. Lifetime exposure to tobacco smoke was assessed by parent questionnaire. Associations with subsequent BMI growth trajectory based on annual measurements and attained BMI at 18 years of age were assessed using a multilevel modeling strategy.
Results:
Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with estimated BMI growth over 8-year follow-up (0.72 kg/m2 higher; 95% CI: 0.14, 1.31) and attained BMI (1.14 kg/m2 higher; 95% CI: 0.66, 1.62). SHS exposure before enrollment was positively associated with BMI growth (0.81 kg/m2 higher; 95% CI: 0.36, 1.27) and attained BMI (1.23 kg/m2 higher; 95% CI: 0.86, 1.61). Growth and attained BMI increased with more smokers in the home. Compared with children without a history of SHS and NRP below the median, attained BMI was 0.80 kg/m2 higher (95% CI: 0.27, 1.32) with exposure to high NRP without SHS; 0.85 kg/m2 higher (95% CI: 0.43, 1.28) with low NRP and a history of SHS; and 2.15 kg/m2 higher (95% CI: 1.52, 2.77) with high NRP and a history of SHS (interaction p-value 0.007). These results suggest a synergistic effect.
Conclusions:
Our findings strengthen emerging evidence that exposure to tobacco smoke and NRP contribute to development of childhood obesity and suggest that combined exposures may have synergistic effects.
Citation:
McConnell R, Shen E, Gilliland FD, Jerrett M, Wolch J, Chang CC, Lurmann F, Berhane K. 2015. A longitudinal cohort study of body mass index and childhood exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke and air pollution: the Southern California Children’s Health Study. Environ Health Perspect 123:360–366; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307031
doi:10.1289/ehp.1307031
PMCID: PMC4384197  PMID: 25389275
19.  Childhood obesity and proximity to urban parks and recreational resources: A longitudinal cohort study 
Health & place  2010;17(1):207-214.
The objective of the research was to assess how proximity to parks and recreational resources affects the development of childhood obesity through a longitudinal study. Data were collected on 3173 children aged 9–10 from 12 communities in Southern California in 1993 and 1996. Children were followed for eight years to collect longitudinal information, including objectively measured body mass index (BMI). Multilevel growth curve models were used to assess associations between attained BMI growth at age 18 and numerous environmental variables, including park space and recreational program access. For park acres within a 500 meter distance of children’s homes, there were significant inverse associations with attained BMI at age 18. Effect sizes were larger for boys than for girls. Recreation programs within a 10 km buffer of children’s homes were significantly and inversely associated with achieved levels in BMI at age 18, with effect sizes for boys also larger than those for girls. We conclude that children with better access to park and recreational resources are less likely to experience significant increases in attained BMI.
doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2010.10.001
PMCID: PMC4380517  PMID: 21075670
obesity; built environment; parks and recreation; GIS; multilevel growth curve models
20.  Factors Influencing Whether Children Walk to School 
Health & place  2013;22:153-161.
Few studies have evaluated multiple levels of influence simultaneously on whether children walk to school. A large cohort of 4,338 subjects from ten communities was used to identify the determinants of walking through (1) a one-level logistic regression model for individual-level variables and (2) a two-level mixed regression model for individual and school-level variables. Walking rates were positively associated with home-to-school proximity, greater age, and living in neighborhoods characterized by lower traffic density. Greater land use mix around the home was, however, associated with lower rates of walking. Rates of walking to school were also higher amongst recipients of the Free and Reduced Price Meals Program and attendees of schools with higher percentage of English language learners. Designing schools in the same neighborhood as residential districts should be an essential urban planning strategy to reduce walking distance to school. Policy interventions are needed to encourage children from higher socioeconomic status families to participate in active travel to school and to develop walking infrastructures and other measures that protect disadvantaged children.
doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2013.03.011
PMCID: PMC4363112  PMID: 23707968
walking to school; Children's Health Study; multilevel analysis; landscape metrics; Los Angeles
21.  Automobile Traffic around the Home and Attained Body Mass Index: A Longitudinal Cohort Study of Children aged 10–18 Years 
Preventive medicine  2009;50(0 1):S50-S58.
Objectives
The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between measured traffic density near the homes of children and attained body mass index (BMI) over an eight-year follow up.
Methods
Children aged 9–10 years were enrolled across multiple communities in Southern California in 1993 and 1996 (n = 3318). Children were followed until age 18 or high school graduation to collect longitudinal information, including annual height and weight measurements. Multilevel growth curve models were used to assess the association between BMI levels at age 18 and traffic around the home.
Results
For traffic within 150 m around the child’s home, there were significant positive associations with attained BMI for both sexes at age 18. With the 300 m traffic buffer, associations for both male and female growth in BMI were positive, but significantly elevated only in females. These associations persisted even after controlling for numerous potential confounding variables.
Conclusions
This analysis yields the first evidence of significant effects from traffic density on BMI levels at age 18 in a large cohort of children. Traffic is a pervasive exposure in most cities, and our results identify traffic as a major risk factor for the development of obesity in children.
doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2009.09.026
PMCID: PMC4334364  PMID: 19850068
Traffic; built environment; children; overweight and obesity; geographic information systems; multilevel models; cohort study
22.  Spatial pattern of body mass index among adults in the diabetes study of Northern California (DISTANCE) 
Background
The role that environmental factors, such as neighborhood socioeconomics, food, and physical environment, play in the risk of obesity and chronic diseases is not well quantified. Understanding how spatial distribution of disease risk factors overlap with that of environmental (contextual) characteristics may inform health interventions and policies aimed at reducing the environment risk factors. We evaluated the extent to which spatial clustering of extreme body mass index (BMI) values among a large sample of adults with diabetes was explained by individual characteristics and contextual factors.
Methods
We quantified spatial clustering of BMI among 15,854 adults with diabetes from the Diabetes Study of Northern California (DISTANCE) cohort using the Global and Local Moran’s I spatial statistic. As a null model, we assessed the amount of clustering when BMI values were randomly assigned. To evaluate predictors of spatial clustering, we estimated two linear models to estimate BMI residuals. First we included individual factors (demographic and socioeconomic characteristics). Then we added contextual factors (neighborhood deprivation, food environment) that may be associated with BMI. We assessed the amount of clustering that remained using BMI residuals.
Results
Global Moran’s I indicated significant clustering of extreme BMI values; however, after accounting for individual socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, there was no longer significant clustering. Twelve percent of the sample clustered in extreme high or low BMI clusters, whereas, only 2.67% of the sample was clustered when BMI values were randomly assigned. After accounting for individual characteristics, we found clustering of 3.8% while accounting for neighborhood characteristics resulted in 6.0% clustering of BMI. After additional adjustment of neighborhood characteristics, clustering was reduced to 3.4%, effectively accounting for spatial clustering of BMI.
Conclusions
We found substantial clustering of extreme high and low BMI values in Northern California among adults with diabetes. Individual characteristics explained somewhat more of clustering of the BMI values than did neighborhood characteristics. These findings, although cross-sectional, may suggest that selection into neighborhoods as the primary explanation of why individuals with extreme BMI values live close to one another. Further studies are needed to assess causes of extreme BMI clustering, and to identify any community level role to influence behavior change.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1476-072X-13-48) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/1476-072X-13-48
PMCID: PMC4320620  PMID: 25471753
Body mass index; Diabetes; Spatial clustering; Moran’s I; Spatial autocorrelation; Neighborhood characteristics; Geographical epidemiology
23.  Prenatal Exposure to Traffic-related Air Pollution and Risk of Early Childhood Cancers 
American Journal of Epidemiology  2013;178(8):1233-1239.
Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy has been linked to the risk of childhood cancer, but the evidence remains inconclusive. In the present study, we used land use regression modeling to estimate prenatal exposures to traffic exhaust and evaluate the associations with cancer risk in very young children. Participants in the Air Pollution and Childhood Cancers Study who were 5 years of age or younger and diagnosed with cancer between 1988 and 2008 were had their records linked to California birth certificates, and controls were selected from birth certificates. Land use regression–based estimates of exposures to nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and nitrogen oxides were assigned based on birthplace residence and temporally adjusted using routine monitoring station data to evaluate air pollution exposures during specific pregnancy periods. Logistic regression models were adjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, educational level, parity, insurance type, and Census-based socioeconomic status, as well as child's sex and birth year. The odds of acute lymphoblastic leukemia increased by 9%, 23%, and 8% for each 25-ppb increase in average nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and nitrogen oxide levels, respectively, over the entire pregnancy. Second- and third-trimester exposures increased the odds of bilateral retinoblastoma. No associations were found for annual average exposures without temporal components or for any other cancer type. These results lend support to a link between prenatal exposure to traffic exhaust and the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and bilateral retinoblastoma.
doi:10.1093/aje/kwt129
PMCID: PMC3792733  PMID: 23989198
air pollution; epidemiology; leukemia; neoplasms; retinoblastoma
24.  Determinants of Manganese in Prenatal Dentin of Shed Teeth from CHAMACOS Children Living in an Agricultural Community 
Environmental science & technology  2013;47(19):11249-11257.
Manganese (Mn) is an essential nutrient, but overexposure can be neurotoxic. Over 800 000 kg of Mn-containing fungicides are applied each year in California. Manganese levels in teeth are a promising biomarker of perinatal exposure. Participants in our analysis included 207 children enrolled in the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS), a longitudinal birth cohort study in an agricultural area of California. Mn was measured in teeth using laser-ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Our purpose was to determine environmental and lifestyle factors related to prenatal Mn levels in shed teeth. We found that storage of farmworkers’ shoes in the home, maternal farm work, agricultural use of Mn-containing fungicides within 3 km of the residence, residence built on Antioch Loam soil and Mn dust loading (μg/m2 of floor area) during pregnancy were associated with higher Mn levels in prenatal dentin (p < 0.05). Maternal smoking during pregnancy was inversely related to Mn levels in prenatal dentin (p < 0.01). Multivariable regression models explained 22–29% of the variability of Mn in prenatal dentin. Our results suggest that Mn measured in prenatal dentin provides retrospective and time specific levels of fetal exposure resulting from environmental and occupational sources.
doi:10.1021/es4018688
PMCID: PMC4167759  PMID: 24053404
25.  Long-Term Fine Particulate Matter Exposure and Mortality From Diabetes in Canada 
Diabetes Care  2013;36(10):3313-3320.
OBJECTIVE
Recent studies suggest that chronic exposure to air pollution can promote the development of diabetes. However, whether this relationship actually translates into an increased risk of mortality attributable to diabetes is uncertain.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We evaluated the association between long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and diabetes-related mortality in a prospective cohort analysis of 2.1 million adults from the 1991 Canadian census mortality follow-up study. Mortality information, including ∼5,200 deaths coded as diabetes being the underlying cause, was ascertained by linkage to the Canadian Mortality Database from 1991 to 2001. Subject-level estimates of long-term exposure to PM2.5 were derived from satellite observations. The hazard ratios (HRs) for diabetes-related mortality were related to PM2.5 and adjusted for individual-level and contextual variables using Cox proportional hazards survival models.
RESULTS
Mean PM2.5 exposure levels for the entire population were low (8.7 µg/m3; SD, 3.9 µg/m3; interquartile range, 6.2 µg/m3). In fully adjusted models, a 10-µg/m3 elevation in PM2.5 exposure was associated with an increase in risk for diabetes-related mortality (HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.37–1.62). The monotonic change in risk to the population persisted to PM2.5 concentration <5 µg/m3.
CONCLUSIONS
Long-term exposure to PM2.5, even at low levels, is related to an increased risk of mortality attributable to diabetes. These findings have considerable public health importance given the billions of people exposed to air pollution and the worldwide growing epidemic of diabetes.
doi:10.2337/dc12-2189
PMCID: PMC3781571  PMID: 23780947

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