Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) accounts for nearly three million deaths annually, with approximately 5% of deaths in Canada attributed to COPD in 2004. Mortality rates among individuals with COPD or asthma, however, are not extensively studied in North America. Certainly, follow-up of individuals with respiratory diseases can shed light on mortality risks and contribute valuable information to prevent premature death. Accordingly, this retrospective study investigated mortality rates and examined risk factors for premature death among patients diagnosed with respiratory diseases identified from two lung function testing databases of two respiratory clinics in Ontario during the 1990s.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma are common; however, mortality rates among individuals with these diseases are not well studied in North America.
To investigate mortality rates and risk factors for premature death among subjects with COPD.
Subjects were identified from the lung function testing databases of two academic respiratory disease clinics in Hamilton and Toronto, Ontario. Mortality was ascertained by linkage to the Ontario mortality registry between 1992 and 2002, inclusive. Standardized mortality ratios were computed. Poisson regression of standardized mortality ratios and proportional hazards regression were performed to examine the multivariate effect of risk factors on the standardized mortality ratios and mortality hazards.
Compared with the Ontario population, all-cause mortality was approximately doubled among subjects with COPD, but was lower than expected among subjects with asthma. The risk of mortality in patients with COPD was related to cigarette smoking, to the presence of comorbid conditons of ischemic heart disease and diabetes, and to Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease severity scores. Individuals living closer to traffic sources showed an elevated risk of death compared with those who lived further away from traffic sources.
Mortality rates among subjects diagnosed with COPD were substantially elevated. There were several deaths attributed to asthma among subjects in the present study; however, overall, patients with asthma demonstrated lower mortality rates than the general population. Subjects with COPD need to be managed with attention devoted to both their respiratory disorders and related comorbidities.
Asthma; Cohort study; COPD; Mortality; Risk factors
Long-acting bronchodilators have been shown to improve multiple clinical outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) including lung function, symptoms, dyspnea, quality of life, and exacerbations. Indacaterol is a novel, inhaled, long-acting β2-agonist providing 24-hour bronchodilation with once-daily dosing. It is currently approved for the maintenance treatment of COPD to be administered as 150 or 300 μg once-daily doses as licensed in many countries and 75 μg as licensed in the US by means of a single-dose dry powder inhaler. The data from clinical development support a favorable safety and tolerability profile within the β2-agonist drug class, with no relevant issues identified. Current evidence indicates that indacaterol is suitable for use as first-line monotherapy in COPD patients with moderate disease (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] stage II) and beyond that do not require an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) as per GOLD guidelines, or in combination with an ICS in severe or very severe patients with repeated exacerbations. Data from trials with the novel once-daily β2-agonist, indacaterol, indicate superior bronchodilation and clinical efficacy over twice-daily long-acting β2-agonists and at least equipotent bronchodilation as once-daily tiotropium. Bronchodilators are central in the symptomatic management of COPD. It is likely that once-daily dosing of a bronchodilator would be a significant convenience and probably a compliance-enhancing advantage, leading to improved overall clinical outcomes in patients with COPD.
indacaterol; onset of action; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; bronchodilators; once-daily; long-acting β2-agonists
For optimal efficacy, an inhaler should deliver doses consistently and be easy for patients to use with minimal instruction. The delivery characteristics, patients’ correct use, and preference of two single-dose dry powder inhalers (Breezhaler and HandiHaler) were evaluated in two complementary studies. The first study examined aerodynamic particle size distribution, using inhalation profiles of seven patients with moderate to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The second was an open-label, two-period, 7-day crossover study, evaluating use of the inhalers with placebo capsules by 82 patients with mild to severe COPD. Patients’ correct use of the inhalers was assessed after reading written instructions on Day 1, and after training and 7 days of daily use. Patients’ preference was assessed after completion of both study periods. Patient inhalation profiles showed average peak inspiratory flows of 72 L/minute through Breezhaler and 36 L/minute through HandiHaler. For Breezhaler and HandiHaler, fine particle fractions were 27% and 10%, respectively. In the second study, correct use of Breezhaler and HandiHaler was achieved by >77% of patients for any step after 7 days; 61% of patients showed an overall preference for Breezhaler and 31% for HandiHaler (P = 0.01).
Breezhaler is a low-resistance inhaler suitable for use by patients with a range of disease severities. Most patients used both inhalers correctly after 7 days, but more patients showed an overall preference for the Breezhaler compared with the HandiHaler. These are important factors for optimum dose delivery and successful COPD management.
Breezhaler; HandiHaler; COPD; use; preference; dose delivery
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an organism that reportedly has a strong relationship to asthma. However, asthma severity and location of airway obstruction have not been compared between asthmatic patients with and without evidence for remote mycoplasma infection.
The aim of this research was to study the relationship between previous M. pneumoniae infections in asthmatic patients and presence of any predilection for the involvement of central or peripheral airways, the severity of the disease, and asthma control.
Sixty-two patients with asthma were assessed by a validated asthma control test (ACT). All patients underwent spirometry and lung volume studies by body plethysmography. The forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), total lung capacity (TLC), residual volume (RV), and functional residual capacity (FRC) were measured. An oropharyngeal swab was obtained for polymerase chain reaction analysis to detect the mycoplasma antigen. Moreover, blood samples were obtained to measure the titration of antimycoplasma immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies. The asthmatic patients with a positive IgG for mycoplasma and negative PCR and negative IgM antibody were considered to have remote history of mycoplasma infection. The relationship between the asthma control using ACT score and pulmonary function variables were compared in patients with and without evidence for remote mycoplasma infection.
The incidence of postnasal drip was higher among the patients with asthma who had no evidence for remote mycoplasma infection (61.3% vs 32%, P = 0.035). The median ACT score was 16.5 (11–22) and 20 (13.75–24) in patients with and without remote M. pneumoniae infection, respectively (P > 0.05). In addition, the medians of the predicted values of the pulmonary function test parameters (FEV1, FEV1/FVC, FRC, FRC/TLC, RV/TLC, maximal mean expiratory flow 25%–75%, forced expiratory flow [FEF] 50%, and FEF 75%) and actual values of 5 Hz and 20 Hz resistance were not different between asthmatic patients with and without evidence of mycoplasma infection (P > 0.05).
The present study revealed that the asthma control status and parameters of lung function tests did not differ between asthmatic patients with and without evidence of chronic M. pneumoniae infection. The latter indicates the similar location of airway obstruction and comparable severity of asthma between the two groups.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae; asthma; asthma control test; airway; pulmonary function test
Alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is characterized by low blood levels of alpha1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha1-PI) and may lead to emphysema. Alpha1-PI protects pulmonary tissue from damage caused by the action of proteolytic enzymes. Augmentation therapy with Prolastin® (Alpha1-Proteinase Inhibitor [Human]) to increase the levels of alpha1-PI has been used to treat individuals with AAT deficiency for over 20 years. Modifications to the Prolastin manufacturing process, incorporating additional purification and pathogen-reduction steps, have led to the development of an alpha1-PI product, designated Prolastin®-C (Alpha1-Proteinase inhibitor [Human]). The pharmacokinetic comparability of Prolastin-C to Prolastin was assessed in subjects with AAT deficiency.
In total, 24 subjects were randomized to receive 60 mg/kg of functionally active Prolastin-C or Prolastin by weekly intravenous infusion for 8 weeks before crossover to the alternate treatment for another 8 weeks. Pharmacokinetic plasma samples were drawn over 7 days following last dose in the first treatment period and over 10 days following the last dose in the second period. The primary end point for pharmacokinetic comparability was area under the plasma concentration versus time curve over 7 days post dose (AUC0-7 days) of alpha1-PI determined by potency (functional activity) assay. The crossover phase was followed by an 8-week open-label treatment phase with Prolastin-C only.
Mean AUC0-7 days was 155.9 versus 152.4 mg*h/mL for Prolastin-C and Prolastin, respectively. The geometric least squares mean ratio of AUC0-7 days for Prolastin-C versus Prolastin had a point estimate of 1.03 and a 90% confidence interval of 0.97-1.09, demonstrating pharmacokinetic equivalence between the 2 products. Adverse events were similar for both treatments and occurred at a rate of 0.117 and 0.078 per infusion for Prolastin-C (double-blind treatment phase only) and Prolastin, respectively (p = 0.744). There were no treatment-emergent viral infections in any subject for human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B or C, or parvovirus B19 during the course of the study.
Prolastin-C demonstrated pharmacokinetic equivalence and a comparable safety profile to Prolastin.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00295061
Patients with chronic pulmonary diseases are at increased risk of hypoxemia when travelling by air. Screening guidelines, predictive equations based on ground level measurements and altitude simulation laboratory procedures have been recommended for determining risk but have not been rigorously evaluated and compared.
To determine the adequacy of screening recommendations that identify patients at risk of hypoxemia at altitude, to evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of published predictive equations, and to analyze other possible predictors of the need for in-flight oxygen.
The charts of 27 consecutive eligible patients referred for hypoxia altitude simulation testing before flight were reviewed. Patients breathed a fraction of inspired oxygen of 0.15 for 20 min. This patient population was compared with the screening recommendations made by six official bodies and compared the partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) obtained during altitude simulation with the PaO2 predicted by 16 published predictive equations.
Of the 27 subjects, 25% to 33% who were predicted to maintain adequate oxygenation in flight by the British Thoracic Society, Aerospace Medical Association or American Thoracic Society guidelines became hypoxemic during altitude simulation. The 16 predictive equations were markedly inaccurate in predicting the PaO2 measured during altitude simulation; only one had a positive predictive value of greater than 30%. Regression analysis identified PaO2 at ground level (r=0.50; P=0.009), diffusion capacity (r=0.56; P=0.05) and per cent forced expiratory volume in 1 s (r=0.57; P=0.009) as having predictive value for hypoxia at altitude.
Current screening recommendations for determining which patients require formal assessment of oxygen during flight are inadequate. Predictive equations based on sea level variables provide poor estimates of PaO2 measured during altitude simulation.
Altitude; COPD; Flight; Hypoxemia; Hypoxia altitude simulation test; Normobaric challenge; Recommendations
The use of a combination inhaler containing budesonide and formoterol as both maintenance and quick relief therapy (SMART) has been recommended as an improved method of using inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β agonist (ICS/LABA) therapy. Published double-blind trials show that budesonide/formoterol therapy delivered in SMART fashion achieves better asthma outcomes than budesonide monotherapy or lower doses of budesonide/formoterol therapy delivered in constant dosage. Attempts to compare budesonide/formoterol SMART therapy with regular combination ICS/LABA dosing using other compounds have been confounded by a lack of blinding and unspecified dose adjustment strategies. The asthma control outcomes in SMART-treated patients are poor; it has been reported that only 17.1% of SMART-treated patients are controlled. In seven trials of 6–12 months duration, patients using SMART have used quick reliever daily (weighted average 0.92 inhalations/day), have awakened with asthma symptoms once every 7–10 days (weighted average 11.5% of nights), have suffered asthma symptoms more than half of days (weighted average 54.0% of days) and have had a severe exacerbation rate of one in five patients per year (weighted average 0.22 severe exacerbations/patient/year). These poor outcomes may reflect the recruitment of a skewed patient population. Although improvement from baseline has been attributed to these patients receiving additional ICS therapy at pivotal times, electronic monitoring has not been used to test this hypothesis nor the equally plausible hypothesis that patients who are non-compliant with maintenance medication have used budesonide/formoterol as needed for self-treatment of exacerbations. Although the long-term consequences of SMART therapy have not been studied, its use over 1 year has been associated with significant increases in sputum and biopsy eosinophilia. At present, there is no evidence that better asthma treatment outcomes can be obtained by moment-to-moment symptom-driven use of ICS/LABA therapy than conventional physician-monitored and adjusted ICS/LABA therapy.
Budesonide; formoterol; compliance; asthma control; exacerbation; study design; asthma; asthma guidelines; asthma pharmacology; perception of asthma/breathlessness
In patients with asthma, smoking has been associated with accelerated decline in pulmonary function, poor disease control and reduced responsiveness to corticosteroids.
To assess the influence of current and former smoking on self-reported asthma control and health care use in a large population of asthma patients.
The present analysis was conducted following a telephone survey of adult Canadians aged 18 to 54 years who had physician-diagnosed asthma and a smoking history of less than 20 pack-years.
Of 893 patients, 268 were former smokers and 108 were current smokers. Daytime and nighttime symptoms, absenteeism from work or school, emergency care use for asthma in the past year, and use of a short-acting bronchodilator without controller medication were reported more frequently by current smokers than non-smokers and former smokers. Former smokers were not significantly different from nonsmokers with respect to most asthma outcomes.
Current smokers with asthma show evidence of poorer asthma control and greater acute care needs than lifelong nonsmokers or former smokers. These observations stress the importance of smoking cessation to help achieve asthma control.
Asthma; Asthma control; Asthma management; Smoking
Vasoconstrictors that bind to phospholipase C–coupled receptors elevate inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). IP3 is generally considered to elevate intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in arterial myocytes and induce vasoconstriction via a single mechanism: by activating sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)-localized IP3 receptors, leading to intracellular Ca2+ release. We show that IP3 also stimulates vasoconstriction via a SR Ca2+ release–independent mechanism. In isolated cerebral artery myocytes and arteries in which SR Ca2+ was depleted to abolish Ca2+ release (measured using D1ER, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer–based SR Ca2+ indicator), IP3 activated 15 pS sarcolemmal cation channels, generated a whole-cell cation current (ICat) caused by Na+ influx, induced membrane depolarization, elevated [Ca2+]i, and stimulated vasoconstriction. The IP3-induced ICat and [Ca2+]i elevation were attenuated by cation channel (Gd3+, 2-APB) and IP3 receptor (xestospongin C, heparin, 2-APB) blockers. TRPC3 (canonical transient receptor potential 3) channel knockdown with short hairpin RNA and diltiazem and nimodipine, voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel blockers, reduced the SR Ca2+ release–independent, IP3-induced [Ca2+]i elevation and vasoconstriction. In pressurized arteries, SR Ca2+ depletion did not alter IP3-induced constriction at 20 mm Hg but reduced IP3-induced constriction by ≈39% at 60 mm Hg. [Ca2+]i elevations and constrictions induced by endothelin-1, a phospholipase C–coupled receptor agonist, were both attenuated by TRPC3 knockdown and xestospongin C in SR Ca2+-depleted arteries. In summary, we describe a novel mechanism of IP3-induced vasoconstriction that does not occur as a result of SR Ca2+ release but because of IP3 receptor–dependent ICat activation that requires TRPC3 channels. The resulting membrane depolarization activates voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, leading to a myocyte [Ca2+]i elevation, and vasoconstriction.
vascular smooth muscle; voltage-dependent calcium channels; TRPC channels; endothelin-1
Chronic exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) may contribute to premature mortality, but few studies to date have addressed this topic.
In this study we assessed the association between TRAP and mortality in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
We collected nitrogen dioxide samples over two seasons using duplicate two-sided Ogawa passive diffusion samplers at 143 locations across Toronto. We calibrated land use regressions to predict NO2 exposure on a fine scale within Toronto. We used interpolations to predict levels of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and ozone levels. We assigned predicted pollution exposures to 2,360 subjects from a respiratory clinic, and abstracted health data on these subjects from medical billings, lung function tests, and diagnoses by pulmonologists. We tracked mortality between 1992 and 2002. We used standard and multilevel Cox proportional hazard models to test associations between air pollution and mortality.
After controlling for age, sex, lung function, obesity, smoking, and neighborhood deprivation, we observed a 17% increase in all-cause mortality and a 40% increase in circulatory mortality from an exposure contrast across the interquartile range of 4 ppb NO2. We observed no significant associations with other pollutants.
Exposure to TRAP was significantly associated with increased all-cause and circulatory mortality in this cohort. A high prevalence of cardiopulmonary disease in the cohort probably limits inference of the findings to populations with a substantial proportion of susceptible individuals.
air pollution; GIS; mortality; nitrogen dioxide; traffic air pollution; Toronto
Pulmonary disease in otherwise healthy patients can occur by secondary exposure to nontuberculous mycobacteria from hot tubs. The pathology of hot tub lung may be related to an infection, a hypersensitivity reaction or both. Previous reports of hot tub lung have highlighted distinct pathological features that have distinguished this entity from classic hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Two cases of hot tub lung in Ontario, which presented at very different time points in their disease course, are reported; one patient presented more fulminantly with a clinical picture resembling subacute hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and the other presented with chronic disease. Both cases exhibited clinical, radiological and pathological findings closely mimicking classic subacute and chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis.
Hot tub; Hypersensitivity pneumonitis; Nontuberculous mycobacteria
Exogenous carbohydrate oxidation was assessed in 6 male Category 1 and 2 cyclists who consumed CytoMax™ (C) or a leading sports drink (G) before and during continuous exercise (CE). C contained lactate-polymer, fructose, glucose and glucose polymer, while G contained fructose and glucose. Peak power output and VO2 on a cycle ergometer were 408±13 W and 67.4±3.2 mlO2·kg−1·min−1. Subjects performed 3 bouts of CE with C, and 2 with G at 62% VO2peak for 90 min, followed by high intensity (HI) exercise (86% VO2peak) to volitional fatigue. Subjects consumed 250 ml fluid immediately before (−2 min) and every 15 min of cycling. Drinks at −2 and 45 min contained 100 mg of [U-13C]-lactate, -glucose or -fructose. Blood, pulmonary gas samples and 13CO2 excretion were taken prior to fluid ingestion and at 5,10,15,30,45,60,75, and 90 min of CE, at the end of HI, and 15 min of recovery. HI after CE was 25% longer with C than G (6.5±0.8 vs. 5.2±1.0 min, P<0.05). 13CO2 from the −2 min lactate tracer was significantly elevated above rest at 5 min of exercise, and peaked at 15 min. 13CO2 from the −2 min glucose tracer peaked at 45 min for C and G. 13CO2 increased rapidly from the 45 min lactate dose, and by 60 min of exercise was 33% greater than glucose in C or G, and 36% greater than fructose in G. 13CO2 production following tracer fructose ingestion was greater than glucose in the first 45 minutes in C and G. Cumulative recoveries of tracer during exercise were: 92%±5.3% for lactate in C and 25±4.0% for glucose in C or G. Recoveries for fructose in C and G were 75±5.9% and 26±6.6%, respectively. Lactate was used more rapidly and to a greater extent than fructose or glucose. CytoMax significantly enhanced HI.
Two Canadian studies showed that 55% of patients with asthma had daily symptoms (in 1996) and that 57% of patients suffered from poorly controlled asthma (in 1999).
To assess the state of asthma control of adult Canadians, and asthma knowledge and practices of Canadian physicians actively involved in the care of patients with asthma.
Telephone interviews were conducted with adults 18 to 54 years of age who had been diagnosed with asthma at least six months before the survey, who did not have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and who had a smoking history of fewer than 20 pack-years. Physicians were surveyed by telephone and mail. The surveys took place between April and August 2004.
Almost all (97%) of the 893 patients believed that they had controlled asthma; however, only 47% had controlled disease according to symptom-based guideline criteria. Just 39% of 463 physicians based their treatment recommendations on the Canadian asthma guidelines most or all of the time, despite having a high awareness of them. Only 11% of patients had written action plans, and one-half of patients with action plans did not use them regularly. Almost three-quarters of patients expressed concerns about taking inhaled corticosteroids.
Since the last major national survey, guideline implementation has not resulted in significant changes in asthma-related morbidity. Effective means of knowledge transfer should be developed and implemented to improve the translation of guideline recommendations into care.
Adults; Antiasthmatic agents; Asthma; Canada; Health surveys; Self care
A novel anti-immunoglobulin E (anti-IgE) therapy for asthma, omalizumab, has been approved for use in Canada.
To review the basic and clinical data for omalizumab, and to examine its possible role for asthma management in Canada.
A literature search from 1960 to 2006 was conducted in MEDLINE to identify studies of omalizumab. In addition, abstracts from recent respiratory and allergy scientific meetings were sought, and any unpublished data were requested from the manufacturer. A consensus panel of respiratory and allergy specialists reviewed and summarized the data, and derived a set of recommendations for omalizumab use.
Omalizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody designed to bind to the C epsilon 3 domain of the IgE molecule, forming soluble immune complexes that are cleared by the reticuloendothelial system. Subcutaneous injections, given at two- or fourweek intervals at the recommended dose, result in a rapid decrease in free circulating IgE levels. In two phase III clinical trials of 1405 adult and adolescent patients with moderate to severe asthma maintained on moderate doses of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), omalizumab reduced exacerbation rates compared with placebo, and was associated with improved symptoms and a greater corticosteroid-sparing effect. In a trial of 419 patients with severe disease that was uncontrolled despite the use of high-dose ICS and concurrent long-acting beta2-agonists, severe exacerbations were 50% less frequent in omalizumab-treated patients than in control subjects. Retrospective analyses have identified the characteristics of patients most likely to respond to omalizumab treatment.
Omalizumab may be considered as a potential adjunctive therapy in atopic patients with severe asthma uncontrolled by conventional therapy with optimal doses of ICS and appropriate adjunctive therapy (eg, long-acting beta2-agonists). Typically, patients are identified by the need for frequent short course or continuous oral corticosteroids. Therapy should be initiated only after review by a specialist to confirm the diagnosis and that conventional therapy is optimal.
Asthma severity; Atopy; IgE; Monoclonal antibodies
Un nouveau traitement anti-immunoglobuline E (anti-IgE) contre l’asthme, l’omalizumab, a été approuvé au Canada.
Passer en revue les données fondamentales et cliniques sur l’omalizumab et examiner le rôle possible de ce médicament dans la prise en charge de l’asthme au Canada.
Une recherche documentaire a été effectuée dans MEDLINE afin de repérer les études menées de 1960 à 2006 sur l’omalizumab. La recherche a également porté sur les résumés de réunions scientifiques récentes dans le domaine des maladies respiratoires et des allergies; par ailleurs, toute donnée non publiée a été demandée au fabricant. Après avoir revu et résumé les données, un comité mixte constitué de spécialistes des maladies respiratoires et des allergies a rédigé un ensemble de recommandations relatives à l’utilisation de l’omalizumab.
L’omalizumab est un anticorps monoclonal humanisé qui se lie au domaine C epsilon 3 de la molécule d’IgE pour former des complexes immuns solubles qui sont éliminés par le système réticulo-endothélial. L’administration d’injections sous-cutanées espacées de deux ou de quatre semaines à la dose recommandée entraîne une diminution rapide des taux d’IgE circulantes libres. Lors de deux essais cliniques de phase III menés auprès de 1 405 adultes et adolescents atteints d’asthme modéré à grave qui recevaient des doses moyennes stables de corticostéroïdes en inhalation (CSI), l’omalizumab a diminué les taux d’exacerbation par rapport au placebo et a été associé à une amélioration des symptômes ainsi qu’à une épargne plus importante des corticostéroïdes. Dans un essai mené auprès de 419 patients atteints d’asthme grave non maîtrisé malgré l’utilisation de doses élevées de CSI et de la prise concomitante d’agonistes bêta-2 à action prolongée, les exacerbations graves étaient de 50 % moins fréquentes chez les patients traités par l’omalizumab que chez les sujets témoins. Des analyses rétrospectives ont permis d’identifier les caractéristiques des patients les plus susceptibles de répondre au traitement par l’omalizumab.
L’omalizumab pourrait être envisagé comme traitement d’appoint dans les cas atopiques d’asthme grave non maîtrisé avec des traitements classiques par des doses optimales de CSI et un traitement d’appoint approprié (p. ex. : agonistes bêta-2 à action prolongée). En général, les patients sont classés en fonction de leur recours – traitement court et fréquent ou continu et oral – aux corticostéroïdes. Il ne faut amorcer le traitement qu’après avoir consulté un spécialiste pour confirmer le diagnostic et s’assurer que le traitement classique est optimal.
anticorps monoclonaux; atopie; gravité de l’asthme; IgE
To determine whether asthma control in Canada had improved since the last major survey in 1999 by exploring how well patients’ asthma was controlled, how much they knew about asthma control, and how they used health care resources.
National telephone survey of patients between April and August 2004.
Eight hundred ninety-three adults 18 to 54 years old diagnosed with asthma more than 6 months before the survey.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
Patients’ control of their asthma, patients’ knowledge about asthma, the frequency and duration of periods of worsening asthma, and patients’ use of health care resources to manage those periods.
In total, 26 210 households listed in a consumer database were contacted. Excluding ineligible households and households with a language barrier, a member of 13% of the households completed the 35-minute survey. Based on definitions in Canadian guidelines, 53% of patients had symptomatic uncontrolled asthma. In the previous year, almost all asthma patients had experienced worsening of symptoms that lasted on average 13.6 days for patients with uncontrolled asthma and 8.0 days for patients with controlled asthma (P < .02). Markedly more patients with uncontrolled asthma used health care resources for episodes of asthma than patients with controlled asthma did (72% vs 15% for urgent office visits, P < .01; 32% vs 3% for emergency department visits, P < .01; and 7% vs 0% for hospitalizations, P < .01) in the year before the survey. Patients were confused about the differences between reliever and controller medications. One third of patients claimed that no one had taught them about asthma medications, and one quarter said they had received no training on how to recognize the early signs of asthma worsening.
Asthma control and management remained suboptimal in Canada and relatively unchanged since the previous major survey in 1999.
Temporal and spatial regulation of the actin cytoskeleton is vital for cell migration. Here, we show that an epithelial cell actin-binding protein, villin, plays a crucial role in this process. Overexpression of villin in doxycyline-regulated HeLa cells enhanced cell migration. Villin-induced cell migration was modestly augmented by growth factors. In contrast, tyrosine phosphorylation of villin and villin-induced cell migration was significantly inhibited by the src kinase inhibitor 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (PP2) as well as by overexpression of a dominant negative mutant of c-src. These data suggest that phosphorylation of villin by c-src is involved in the actin cytoskeleton remodeling necessary for cell migration. We have previously shown that villin is tyrosine phosphorylated at four major sites. To further investigate the role of tyrosine phosphorylated villin in cell migration, we used phosphorylation site mutants (tyrosine to phenylalanine or tyrosine to glutamic acid) in HeLa cells. We determined that tyrosine phosphorylation at residues 60, 81, and 256 of human villin played an essential role in cell migration as well as in the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. Collectively, these studies define how biophysical events such as cell migration are actuated by biochemical signaling pathways involving tyrosine phosphorylation of actin binding proteins, in this case villin.
Community levels of air pollution have been associated with variability in mortality rates, but previous studies have inferred exposure to pollutants on a citywide basis. We investigated mortality in relation to neighbourhood levels of income and air pollution in an urban area.
We identified 5228 people in the Hamilton–Burlington area of southern Ontario who had been referred for pulmonary function testing between 1985 and 1999. Nonaccidental deaths that occurred in this group between 1992 and 1999 were ascertained from the Ontario Mortality Registry. Mean household income was estimated by linking the subjects' postal codes with the 1996 census. Mean neighbourhood levels of total suspended particulates and sulfur dioxide were estimated by interpolation from data from a network of sampling stations. We used proportional hazards regression models to compute mortality risk in relation to income and pollutant levels, while adjusting for pulmonary function, body mass index and diagnoses of chronic disease. Household incomes and pollutant levels were each divided into 2 risk categories (low and high) at the median.
Mean pollutant levels tended to be higher in lower-income neighbourhoods. Both income and pollutant levels were associated with mortality differences. Compared with people in the most favourable category (higher incomes and lower particulate levels), those with all other income–particulate combinations had a higher risk of death from nonaccidental causes (lower incomes and higher particulate levels: relative risk [RR] 2.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.67–4.13; lower incomes and lower particulate levels: RR 1.82, 95% CI 1.30–2.55; higher incomes and higher particulate levels: RR 1.33, 95% CI 1.12–1.57). Similar results were observed for sulfur dioxide. The relative risk was lower at older ages.
Mortality rates varied by neighbourhood of residence in this cohort of people whose lung function was tested. Two of the broader determinants of health — income and air pollution levels — were important correlates of mortality in this population.