Recent exposure to azoles is an important risk factor for infection with fluconazole-resistant Candida spp., but little is known about the role of antibacterial drug exposure in the emergence of drug-resistant Candida. We did a prospective nationwide surveillance study of candidemia in Israel and analyzed the propensity score-adjusted association between antifungal and antibacterial drug exposure and bloodstream infection with C. glabrata and fluconazole-resistant Candida isolates. Four hundred forty-four episodes of candidemia (450 Candida isolates, 69 [15%] C. glabrata isolates, and 38 [8.5%] fluconazole-resistant isolates) from 18 medical centers in Israel were included. C. glabrata bloodstream infection was strongly associated with recent metronidazole exposure (odds ratio [OR], 3.2; P < 0.001). Infection with a fluconazole-resistant isolate was associated with exposure to carbapenems, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, clindamycin, and colistin (odds ratio, 2.8; P = 0.01). The inclusion of antibacterial drug exposure in a multivariable model significantly enhanced the model's predictive accuracy for fluconazole-resistant Candida bloodstream infection. Our findings may be relevant to the selection of empirical antifungal treatment and broaden the scope of antibiotic-associated collateral damage.
To determine whether rapid emergence of Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis in Israel resulted from an increase in different biotypes or spread of 1 clone, we characterized 87 serovar Infantis isolates on the genotypic and phenotypic levels. The emerging strain comprised 1 genetic clone with a distinct pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profile and a common antimicrobial drug resistance pattern.
Bacteria; Salmonella; enteric infections; foodborne infections; Salmonella enterica; Infantis; serovars; antibicrobial resistance; Israel; dispatch
The genetically distinct biotype 3 has penetrated Israeli freshwaters and is causing severe illness in persons who handle tilapia or carp.
During 1996–1997, a new Vibrio vulnificus biotype 3, which caused severe soft tissue infection after fishbone injury, emerged in Israel. We conducted a follow-up study from 1998 through 2005 to assess changing trends, outcomes, and molecular relatedness of the implicated strains. A total of 132 cases (71% confirmed and 29% suspected) of V. vulnificus biotype 3 infection were found. Most infections (95%) were related to percutaneous fish exposure, mainly tilapia (83%) or common carp (13%). Bacteremia, altered immune status, and history of ischemic heart disease were identified as independent risk factors for death, which reached a prevalence of 7.6%. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of strains from 1998 through 2005 and from 1996 through 1997 showed a high degree of homogeneity and were distinct from those of V. vulnificus biotype 1. Infections caused by V. vulnificus biotype 3 continue affect the public’s health in Israel.
Vibrio infections; epidemiology; microbiology; prevention; molecular biology; Israel; tilapia; carp; perspective
Candida spp. are important causes of nosocomial bloodstream infections. Around 80% of patients with candidemia have an indwelling central venous catheter (CVC). Determining whether the CVC is the source of candidemia has implications for patient management. We assessed whether the time to detection of Candida species in peripheral blood (time to positivity [TTP]) can serve as a marker for catheter-related candidemia. Prospective surveillance of Candida bloodstream infection was conducted in two medical centers. TTP was recorded by the BacT/Alert automated system. Sixty-four candidemia episodes were included. Fifty patients (78%) had an indwelling CVC. Thirteen patients (20.3%) had definite catheter-related candidemia. TTP was shorter for definite catheter-related candidemia (17.3 ± 2 h) than that for candidemia from other sources (38.2 ± 3 h; P < 0.001). A TTP cutoff of 30 h was 100% sensitive and 51.4% specific for catheter-related candidemia (area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve of 0.76). We conclude that TTP in peripheral blood is a sensitive but nonspecific marker for catheter-related candidemia and that a TTP of more than 30 h can help exclude an intravascular catheter as the possible source of candidemia.
Fatal Rickettsia conorii subsp. israelensis Infection, Israel
Underdiagnosis of fatal spotted fever may be attributed to nonspecific clinical features and insensitive acute-phase serologic studies. We describe the importance of molecular and immunohistochemical methods in establishing the postmortem diagnosis of locally acquired Israeli spotted fever due to Rickettsia conorii subsp. israelensis in a traveler returning to Israel from India.
PCR; Israel; epidemiology; Rickettsia infections; Rickettsia conorii; genetics; pathogenicity; travel; dispatch
Salmonella enterica serovar Virchow is highly prevalent in humans and farm animals in Israel. In addition to high rates of resistance to multiple antibiotics, this serovar exhibits a high incidence of resistance to nalidixic acid. More than 90% of Salmonella serovar Virchow isolates of human and poultry origin obtained from 1997 to 2004 were resistant to nalidixic acid (MIC ≥ 128 μg/ml), with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (MIC between 0.125 and 0.250 μg/ml). Most isolates belonged to two predominant, closely related pulsed-field gel electrophoresis image types. Investigation of the mechanisms of quinolone resistance revealed that this pathogen probably emerged from a parental clone that overproduced the AcrAB efflux pump and had a single point mutation in gyrA leading to the Asp87Tyr substitution. The close resemblance between human and poultry isolates points to poultry as a likely source of Salmonella serovar Virchow in the food chain.
We studied the 2-year death rate of 246 adults discharged from hospital after experiencing acute West Nile Virus infection in Israel during 2000. The age- and sex-adjusted death rates were significantly higher than in the general population. This excess was greater for men. Significant adverse prognostic factors were age, male sex, diabetes mellitus, and dementia.
West Nile virus; mortality; follow-up; prognostic factors; dispatch
Specimens from a patient of the 2000 Israel West Nile virus epidemic were analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Products corresponding to E, NS3, and NS5 sequences were amplified from cerebellar but not from cortical samples. Phylogenetic analyses indicated a closer relationship of this isolate to 1996 Romanian and 1999 Russian than to 1998-99 Israeli or 1999 New York isolates.
West Nile virus; WNV; encephalitis; Israel; polymerase chain reaction; PCR; brain tissue; phylogenetic analysis
Listeria monocytogenes, an uncommon foodborne pathogen, is increasingly recognized as a cause of life-threatening disease. A marked increase in reported cases of listeriosis during 1998 motivated a retrospective nationwide survey of the infection in Israel. From 1995 to 1999, 161 cases were identified; 70 (43%) were perinatal infections, with a fetal mortality rate of 45%. Most (74%) of the 91 nonperinatal infections involved immunocompromised patients with malignancies, chronic liver disease, chronic renal failure, or diabetes mellitus. The common clinical syndromes in these patients were primary bacteremia (47%) and meningitis (28%). The crude case-fatality rate in this group was 38%, with a higher death rate in immunocompromised patients.
Listeria monocytogenes; listeriosis; epidemiology; neonatal infection; foodborne disease; immuonocompromised hosts
The first case of human disease due to the thermophilic ascomycete Thermoascus taitungiacus (the teleomorph of Paecilomyces taitungiacus) is presented. T. taitungiacus was recovered from four dialysate fluid specimens of a 57-year-old patient undergoing chronic peritoneal dialysis. Identification was based upon cylindrical conidia, reddish orange nonostiolate ascomata, lack of growth at 20°C, thermotolerance, and ascospores that appeared pale yellow, elliptical, thick walled, and predominately echinulate by light microscopy but irregularly verrucose by scanning electron microscopy.