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1.  TAp63 Regulates VLA-4 Expression and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cell Migration to the Bone Marrow in a CD74-Dependent Manner 
The hallmark of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the relentless accumulation of mature lymphocytes, mostly due to their decreased apoptosis. CD74 was recently shown to serve as a survival receptor on CLL cells. In this study, we show that stimulation of CD74 with its natural ligand, migration inhibitory factor, initiates a signaling cascade that results in upregulation of TAp63, which directly regulates CLL survival. In addition, TAp63 expression elevates the expression of the integrin VLA-4, particularly during the advanced stage of the disease. Blocking of CD74, TAp63, or VLA-4 inhibits the in vivo homing of CLL cells to the bone marrow (BM). Thus, CD74 and its target genes TAp63 and VLA-4 facilitate migration of CLL cells back to the BM, where they interact with the supportive BM environment that rescues them from apoptosis. These results could form the basis of novel therapeutic strategies aimed at blocking homing of CLL cells in their return to the BM and attenuating their survival.
doi:10.4049/jimmunol.0904149
PMCID: PMC3129539  PMID: 20357260
2.  Lymphocyte Crawling and Transendothelial Migration Require Chemokine Triggering of High-Affinity LFA-1 Integrin 
Immunity  2009;30(3):384-396.
Summary
Endothelial chemokines are instrumental for integrin-mediated lymphocyte adhesion and transendothelial migration (TEM). By dissecting how chemokines trigger lymphocyte integrins to support shear-resistant motility on and across cytokine-stimulated endothelial barriers, we found a critical role for high-affinity (HA) LFA-1 integrin in lymphocyte crawling on activated endothelium. Endothelial-presented chemokines triggered HA-LFA-1 and adhesive filopodia at numerous submicron dots scattered underneath crawling lymphocytes. Shear forces applied to endothelial-bound lymphocytes dramatically enhanced filopodia density underneath crawling lymphocytes. A fraction of the adhesive filopodia invaded the endothelial cells prior to and during TEM and extended large subluminal leading edge containing dots of HA-LFA-1 occupied by subluminal ICAM-1. Memory T cells generated more frequent invasive filopodia and transmigrated more rapidly than their naive counterparts. We propose that shear forces exerted on HA-LFA-1 trigger adhesive and invasive filopodia at apical endothelial surfaces and thereby promote lymphocyte crawling and probing for TEM sites.
doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2008.12.020
PMCID: PMC2803105  PMID: 19268609
3.  A LAD-III syndrome is associated with defective expression of the Rap-1 activator CalDAG-GEFI in lymphocytes, neutrophils, and platelets 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  2007;204(7):1571-1582.
Leukocyte and platelet integrins rapidly alter their affinity and adhesiveness in response to various activation (inside-out) signals. A rare leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD), LAD-III, is associated with severe defects in leukocyte and platelet integrin activation. We report two new LAD cases in which lymphocytes, neutrophils, and platelets share severe defects in β1, β2, and β3 integrin activation. Patients were both homozygous for a splice junction mutation in their CalDAG-GEFI gene, which is a key Rap-1/2 guanine exchange factor (GEF). Both mRNA and protein levels of the GEF were diminished in LAD lymphocytes, neutrophils, and platelets. Consequently, LAD-III platelets failed to aggregate because of an impaired αIIbβ3 activation by key agonists. β2 integrins on LAD-III neutrophils were unable to mediate leukocyte arrest on TNFα-stimulated endothelium, despite normal selectin-mediated rolling. In situ subsecond activation of neutrophil β2 integrin adhesiveness by surface-bound chemoattractants and of primary T lymphocyte LFA-1 by the CXCL12 chemokine was abolished. Chemokine inside-out signals also failed to stimulate lymphocyte LFA-1 extension and high affinity epitopes. Chemokine-triggered VLA-4 adhesiveness in T lymphocytes was partially defective as well. These studies identify CalDAG-GEFI as a critical regulator of inside-out integrin activation in human T lymphocytes, neutrophils, and platelets.
doi:10.1084/jem.20070058
PMCID: PMC2118641  PMID: 17576779
4.  α4β1-dependent adhesion strengthening under mechanical strain is regulated by paxillin association with the α4-cytoplasmic domain 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2005;171(6):1073-1084.
The capacity of integrins to mediate adhesiveness is modulated by their cytoplasmic associations. In this study, we describe a novel mechanism by which α4-integrin adhesiveness is regulated by the cytoskeletal adaptor paxillin. A mutation of the α4 tail that disrupts paxillin binding, α4(Y991A), reduced talin association to the α4β1 heterodimer, impaired integrin anchorage to the cytoskeleton, and suppressed α4β1-dependent capture and adhesion strengthening of Jurkat T cells to VCAM-1 under shear stress. The mutant retained intrinsic avidity to soluble or bead-immobilized VCAM-1, supported normal cell spreading at short-lived contacts, had normal α4-microvillar distribution, and responded to inside-out signals. This is the first demonstration that cytoskeletal anchorage of an integrin enhances the mechanical stability of its adhesive bonds under strain and, thereby, promotes its ability to mediate leukocyte adhesion under physiological shear stress conditions.
doi:10.1083/jcb.200503155
PMCID: PMC2171310  PMID: 16365170
5.  Subsecond Induction of α4 Integrin Clustering by Immobilized Chemokines Stimulates Leukocyte Tethering and Rolling on Endothelial Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 under Flow Conditions 
Leukocyte recruitment to target tissue is initiated by weak rolling attachments to vessel wall ligands followed by firm integrin-dependent arrest triggered by endothelial chemokines. We show here that immobilized chemokines can augment not only arrest but also earlier integrin-mediated capture (tethering) of lymphocytes on inflamed endothelium. Furthermore, when presented in juxtaposition to vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), the endothelial ligand for the integrin very late antigen 4 (VLA-4, α4β1), chemokines rapidly augment reversible lymphocyte tethering and rolling adhesions on VCAM-1. Chemokines potentiate VLA-4 tethering within <0.1 s of contact through Gi protein signaling, the fastest inside-out integrin signaling events reported to date. Although VLA-4 affinity is not altered upon chemokine signaling, subsecond VLA-4 clustering at the leukocyte-substrate contact zone results in enhanced leukocyte avidity to VCAM-1. Endothelial chemokines thus regulate all steps in adhesive cascades that control leukocyte recruitment at specific vascular beds.
PMCID: PMC2193239  PMID: 10952719
adhesion; integrin; endothelium; chemokine; shear flow
6.  The chemokine SDF-1 stimulates integrin-mediated arrest of CD34+ cells on vascular endothelium under shear flow 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1999;104(9):1199-1211.
The chemokine SDF-1 plays a central role in the repopulation of the bone marrow (BM) by circulating CD34+ progenitors, but the mechanisms of its action remain obscure. To extravasate to target tissue, a blood-borne cell must arrest firmly on vascular endothelium. Murine hematopoietic progenitors were recently shown in vivo to roll along BM microvessels that display selectins and integrins. We now show that SDF-1 is constitutively expressed by human BM endothelium. In vitro, human CD34+ cells establish efficient rolling on P-selectin, E-selectin, and the CD44 ligand hyaluronic acid under physiological shear flow. ICAM-1 alone did not tether CD34+ cells under flow, but, in the presence of surface-bound SDF-1, CD34+ progenitors rolling on endothelial selectin rapidly developed firm adhesion to the endothelial surface, mediated by an interaction between ICAM-1 and its integrin ligand, which coimmobilized with SDF-1. Human CD34+ cells accumulated efficiently on TNF-activated human umbilical cord endothelial cells in the absence of SDF-1, but they required immobilized SDF-1 to develop firm integrin-mediated adhesion and spreading. In the absence of selectins, SDF-1 also promoted VLA-4–mediated, Gi protein–dependent tethering and firm adhesion to VCAM-1 under shear flow. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that SDF-1 expressed on vascular endothelium is crucial for translating rolling adhesion of CD34+ progenitors into firm adhesion by increasing the adhesiveness of the integrins VLA-4 and LFA-1 to their respective endothelial ligands, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1.
PMCID: PMC409822  PMID: 10545519

Results 1-6 (6)