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1.  Subsecond Induction of α4 Integrin Clustering by Immobilized Chemokines Stimulates Leukocyte Tethering and Rolling on Endothelial Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 under Flow Conditions 
Leukocyte recruitment to target tissue is initiated by weak rolling attachments to vessel wall ligands followed by firm integrin-dependent arrest triggered by endothelial chemokines. We show here that immobilized chemokines can augment not only arrest but also earlier integrin-mediated capture (tethering) of lymphocytes on inflamed endothelium. Furthermore, when presented in juxtaposition to vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), the endothelial ligand for the integrin very late antigen 4 (VLA-4, α4β1), chemokines rapidly augment reversible lymphocyte tethering and rolling adhesions on VCAM-1. Chemokines potentiate VLA-4 tethering within <0.1 s of contact through Gi protein signaling, the fastest inside-out integrin signaling events reported to date. Although VLA-4 affinity is not altered upon chemokine signaling, subsecond VLA-4 clustering at the leukocyte-substrate contact zone results in enhanced leukocyte avidity to VCAM-1. Endothelial chemokines thus regulate all steps in adhesive cascades that control leukocyte recruitment at specific vascular beds.
PMCID: PMC2193239  PMID: 10952719
adhesion; integrin; endothelium; chemokine; shear flow
2.  The chemokine SDF-1 stimulates integrin-mediated arrest of CD34+ cells on vascular endothelium under shear flow 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1999;104(9):1199-1211.
The chemokine SDF-1 plays a central role in the repopulation of the bone marrow (BM) by circulating CD34+ progenitors, but the mechanisms of its action remain obscure. To extravasate to target tissue, a blood-borne cell must arrest firmly on vascular endothelium. Murine hematopoietic progenitors were recently shown in vivo to roll along BM microvessels that display selectins and integrins. We now show that SDF-1 is constitutively expressed by human BM endothelium. In vitro, human CD34+ cells establish efficient rolling on P-selectin, E-selectin, and the CD44 ligand hyaluronic acid under physiological shear flow. ICAM-1 alone did not tether CD34+ cells under flow, but, in the presence of surface-bound SDF-1, CD34+ progenitors rolling on endothelial selectin rapidly developed firm adhesion to the endothelial surface, mediated by an interaction between ICAM-1 and its integrin ligand, which coimmobilized with SDF-1. Human CD34+ cells accumulated efficiently on TNF-activated human umbilical cord endothelial cells in the absence of SDF-1, but they required immobilized SDF-1 to develop firm integrin-mediated adhesion and spreading. In the absence of selectins, SDF-1 also promoted VLA-4–mediated, Gi protein–dependent tethering and firm adhesion to VCAM-1 under shear flow. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that SDF-1 expressed on vascular endothelium is crucial for translating rolling adhesion of CD34+ progenitors into firm adhesion by increasing the adhesiveness of the integrins VLA-4 and LFA-1 to their respective endothelial ligands, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1.
PMCID: PMC409822  PMID: 10545519

Results 1-2 (2)