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1.  Treatment efficacy and tolerability of intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) - RIVM strain: induction and maintenance protocol in high grade and recurrent low grade non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) 
BMC Urology  2014;14:11.
BCG-RIVM strain was used in many treatment protocols for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer only as induction courses. Cho et al. (Anticancer Res 2012) compared BCG-RIVM induction and 'standard' maintenance (Lamm et al., J Urol. 2000) to mitomycin C. They found no statistically significant differences regarding disease recurrence and progression. The purpose of our study was to determine the efficacy & tolerability of this specific BCG RIVM strain, using six-weekly, induction course and single monthly instillations as maintenance for one year, in high risk recurrent, multifocal low grade and multifocal high grade pTa/pT1, CIS transitional cell carcinoma of bladder.
From 2003 - 2012, BCG-naive patients treated with intravesical BCG-RIVM for high-risk multifocal NMIBC were identified. Transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) and re-staging TURBT within six weeks, was done for accurate staging and complete elimination of disease. A six-weekly induction course, started 2-3 weeks after the last TURBT, followed by monthly maintenance protocol for one year. Recurrence, progression, cystectomy free survivals, cancer specific and over-all survival were determined.
Sixty evaluable patients - median age 63, median follow-up 3.98 years. Forty-two patients (70%) completed BCG-RIVM treatment as planned. BCG termination was necessary in 18 patients (30%). Recurrence occurred in 16 patients (26.7%) at a median follow-up of 24.2 months while progression occurred in five patients (8.3%) at a median follow-up of 33 months. Recurrence-free survival and progression-free survival rates were 73% and 92% respectively. Cystectomy was performed in seven patients (12%) with a cystectomy-free survival of 88%. There were no cancer specific deaths. Two patients died of other causes (3.3%). The overall survival rate was 97%.
Our study is the first to show the clinical efficacy and tolerability of BCG-RIVM strain in the management of high risk NMIBC when given in a schedule of six-weekly induction with monthly maintenance for one year. Our maintenance protocol, achieved equivalent recurrence-free, progression-free, disease specific survival and overall survival to the reported literature and the more intense three-years South West Oncology Group (SWOG) protocol.
PMCID: PMC3909512  PMID: 24468269
Bladder cancer; BCG-RIVM; Intravesical; Maintenance
2.  Bladder preservation by concurrent chemoradiation for muscle-invasive bladder cancer: Applicability in low-income countries 
Radical cystectomy is the standard treatment for patients with muscle-invasive urinary bladder cancer; however, is associated with major treatment – related morbidity. Furthermore, a significant proportion of patients are deemed unsuitable for surgery due to inoperability, advanced age, and/or comorbid conditions. As such, several groups have explored effectiveness of less radical therapeutic strategies that aim at bladder preservation. Nonetheless, there is scarcity of reports assessing the applicability of urinary bladder-sparing outside developed countries.
Determine the achievable outcomes for patients with muscle-invasive urinary bladder cancer treated via bladder-sparing techniques in a low income country.
Materials and methods
Fourteen consecutive patients with a diagnosis of muscle-invasive urinary bladder cancer (clinical stage; T2-3N0M0) were treated via a bladder-sparing approach at King Hussein Cancer Center (Amman, Jordan) between 2005 and 2009. Records were electronically retrieved and retrospectively analyzed and included 11 males and 3 females from 41 to 74 years of age (median age, 61). Initial therapy consisted of trans-urethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) followed by induction chemotherapy then irradiation (4500cGy) with concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy. Urological evaluation directed additional therapy in a proportion of patients with irradiation (up to 6400 cGy) in patients who achieved CR.
Eleven patients were evaluable for pathological response at time of re-staging; of whom 8 (73%) achieved CR and 3 (27%) achieved partial response (PR). In all but one patient; combined-modality treatment was well tolerated. After a median follow-up of 18.5 months (range, 3–48 months); 5 of 8 (62.5%) patients with CR were alive.
Bladder-sparing strategies via concurrent chemoradiation for muscle-invasive bladder cancer results in an acceptable rate of complete pathological response with adequate short-term outcomes. This approach appears applicable in low-income countries.
PMCID: PMC3863137  PMID: 24376977
Urinary bladder; Cancer; TURBT; Low-income; Bladder-preservation; CR, complete response; PR, partial response; TURBT, transurethral resection of bladder tumor; TCCB, transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder; cCRT, concurrent chemoradiation
3.  Stage I seminoma: treatment outcome at King Hussein Cancer Center in Jordan 
BMC Urology  2012;12:10.
The aim of this report is to address treatment outcomes of patients with early-stage seminoma in a single institution with special reference to patients with history of surgical violation of the scrotum.
Seventy four patients with pure seminoma were treated at King Hussein Cancer Center (Amman, Jordan) between 2003 and 2010. All patients underwent orchiectomy. All but 3 patients received adjuvant radiotherapy. Patients who underwent surgical violation of the scrotum prior to referral were managed by further excision or irradiation of the scrotal scar. The follow-up ranged from 1 to 200 months (mean, 33 months).
At the time of follow-up; all but one patient remain alive. The 3-year relapse-free survival for the entire cohort was 95.9%. Three patients developed relapse, all of whom received adjuvant irradiation following inguinal orchiectomy and initially harbored tumors larger than 4 cm upon pathological examination. Median time to relapse was 14 months (range, 8–25 months). None were associated with elevated tumor markers prior to detection of relapse. All but one patient were successfully salvaged by chemotherapy.
Our results confirm the excellent prognosis of patients with early-stage seminoma treated by orchiectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy in a developing country. Although all patients who developed relapse demonstrated adverse pathological findings upon initial assessment, no consistent predictor of relapse was found. Scrotal scar re-excision or irradiation in patients with prior history of surgical violation of the scrotum are effective measures in preventing local failure.
PMCID: PMC3419628  PMID: 22531005

Results 1-3 (3)