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author:("mccrae, B M")
1.  Experimental studies on the pathogenicity of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Mycoplasma arginini for the respiratory tract of goats. 
Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Mycoplasma arginini were the species of Mollicutes most commonly isolated from 175 goats with respiratory disease in Ontario. The pathogenicity of M. ovipneumoniae, strain B321B and M. arginini, strain D53e, was assessed in goats following endobronchial inoculation. One out of three two year old goats developed fever after inoculation with a pure culture of strain B321B, and it had extensive subacute fibrinous pleuritis when necropsied three weeks later. Neither of the remaining goats had lesions in the respiratory tract. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae was recovered from one of the animals four days after inoculation, but not at necropsy from any of the goats, at which time a marked humoral immune response with growth inhibiting antibodies was detected. In a second experiment three four to five week old goats were inoculated with the same strain and three other goats were given placebo treatment. One experimental goat developed fever and coughing, and it had extensive subacute fibrinous pleuritis in the right side and pneumonia. Another goat had focal pneumonia in the left diaphragmatic lobe. Microscopically there was subacute hyperplastic suppurative bronchiolitis, atelectasis and nonsuppurative alveolitis. The infected animals did not clear the mycoplasma and not all of them produced antibodies. Mycoplasma arginini, strain D53e, did not induce lesions in any of four goat kids within 14 days after inoculation but did cause transient elevations in rectal temperature, circulating monocytes, circulating neutrophils and blood fibrinogen. Mycoplasma arginini was infective and immunogenic for all inoculated animals and showed a particular affinity for the tonsil. Thus, this study provides the first evidence that M. ovipneumoniae is pathogenic for goats causing pneumonia and pleuritis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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PMCID: PMC1255160  PMID: 3742358
5.  Strongylus vulgaris in the tunica media of arteries of ponies and treatment with ivermectin. 
A preliminary investigation was made into the effect of fourth-stage Strongylus vulgaris larvae sequestered in the tunica media of ileocolic arteries of pony foals treated with ivermectin. The foals had been reared parasite-free, inoculated with infective larvae and given orally a placebo or ivermectin paste. Two foals received subsequently one or two further inoculations with larvae and treatment with ivermectin. Arteriography was used to identify the lesions in the ileocolic artery following inoculation and their regression following treatment. At necropsy, foals were examined for lesions and larvae grossly and histologically. Ivermectin was highly effective against fourth-stage larvae and those present in the media appeared not to unduly affect the integrity of the ileocolic artery. Increased numbers of larvae were not found in the media of foals receiving repeat inoculations and repeat treatments. Larvae were not found in the media of foals treated with a placebo. The major pathological changes in the arterial wall of all foals were attributed to infection with S. vulgaris and there was no strong tendency for the damaged arteries to return to normal after the S. vulgaris were removed.
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PMCID: PMC1255309  PMID: 3607653
6.  Strongylus equinus: development and pathological effects in the equine host. 
The development and pathological effects of Strongylus equinus were studied in 17 pony foals and one horse foal raised in isolation and examined at necropsy from seven days to 40 wk postinfection (PI). Following inoculation of 15000 +/- 6% or 16000 +/- 6% infective larvae by stomach tube foals were monitored for clinical signs and selected blood changes. Larvae penetrated the wall of the ileum, cecum and colon. The molt to the fourth stage occurred mostly in the wall of the ventral colon before 2 wk PI and larvae attained the liver mainly via the peritoneal cavity as early as eight days PI and persisted in the liver until 17 wk PI. Following active migration within the liver, invasion of the pancreas was accomplished at least by 7 wk PI with maximum numbers at 17 wk. The fourth molt occurred about 15 wk PI and preadults were present in the wall of the ventral colon at 30 wk PI and in the lumen of the colon at 40 wk. Strongylus equinus tends to wander retroperitoneally to the flanks, perirenal fat, diaphragm, omentum and occasionally to the lungs. Between 1 and 4 wk PI small raised hemorrhagic areas were present on the serosa of the ileum and colon. Small white foci on the surface of the liver at 1 wk PI were followed by tortuous tracks 3 wk later. Pathological changes in the pancreas were evident at three months PI and more severe by four months. Granulomas containing larvae were common in the flanks, diaphragm, omentum and occasionally beneath the pleura of the lungs. Clinical signs were correlated with invasion of the pancreas, the fourth molt, maximum globulin values and high eosinophil counts.
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PMCID: PMC1236195  PMID: 4075237
7.  Evaluation of ivermectin against later fourth-stage Strongylus vulgaris in ponies at two and five weeks after treatment. 
The efficacy of ivermectin against later fourth-stage Strongylus vulgaris larvae was studied in pony foals at 14 and 35 days after treatment. These foals had been reared parasite-free, inoculated with 500 infective larvae and 56 days later given either ivermectin at 200 micrograms/kg or a placebo intramuscularly. At necropsy, foals were examined for lesions and larvae grossly and histologically. Ivermectin was found to be highly effective (98.6%) against later fourth-stage larvae in five foals which were examined at 35 days after treatment, but not in five others examined at 14 days (72.5%). In some foals larvae were found in the tunica media of the ileocolic arteries. The conformation of these larvae appeared normal, but there were degenerative changes which suggested that they were dying or dead. Questions as to how the larvae attained that site and the consequences of their presence there were raised.
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PMCID: PMC1236080  PMID: 6391639
8.  Pathogenicity of immature Fascioloides magna in white-tailed deer. 
The pathogenesis of early prepatent Fascioloides magna infection was investigated in seven fawns (Odocoileus virginianus) given 500 metacercariae and examined at one, two, three, five, eight, 12 and 13 weeks postinoculation. Blood samples were taken from eight inoculated deer every two weeks up to 16 weeks postinoculation. Eosinophilia with a mild transitory anemia were the main clincopathological features. Postmortem examination at two weeks postinoculation revealed extensive migration of immature flukes. Subcapsular tracks in the liver, nodules on the blind sacs of the rumen, as well as retroperitoneal granulomas on flanks and necrotic tracks on the diaphragm were found. Evidence of penetration of flukes into the lung was found at two weeks postinoculation and there was early granuloma formation at three weeks postinoculation. Flukes migrating into tissues other than the liver were destroyed in large granulomas, although remnants of degenerating parasites were not found. At eight weeks postinoculation, widespread granuloma formation characterized the infection with this lesion present in nodes along the gastrointestinal tract, in the mesentery, flanks, psoas muscles, diaphragm, between the ribs and in the lungs. By 12 weeks postinoculation subcapsular tracks were observed in the liver.
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PMCID: PMC1320100  PMID: 7448629
9.  Evaluation of Pyrantel Pamoate, Nitramisole and Avermectin B1aAgainst Migrating Strongylus vulgaris Larvae‡ 
Trials were conducted in ponies to evaluate the efficacy of pyrantel pamoate (Strongid-T®) and two newer anthelmintics not yet commercially available, nitramisole and avermectin B1a, against migrating Strongylus vulgaris larvae. Ponies were removed from their mares within 24-48 hr after birth and reared in isolation, worm free. Between six and 14 weeks of age they were infected with 2000 or 2500 infective S. vulgaris larvae. Subsequently, they were monitored daily for clinical signs until the experiment terminated at 28 days postinfection. All ponies showed increased body temperature and reduced appetite within the first week of infection. All anthelmintics were administered on day 7 and in addition pyrantel pamoate was given on day 8 postinfection. The anthelmintics were in liquid formulation. Nitramisole and pyrantel pamoate were given by stomach tube and avermectin B1a by subcutaneous injection.
Following administration of these compounds toxic reactions were not observed. All anthelmintics caused a reduction in body temperature and increased appetite and effected a clinical cure. In ponies which were not treated with an anthelmintic, temperatures remained elevated and appetites never returned completely to normal. These ponies also showed variable degrees of lethargy, depression, recumbency and colic and the majority died between two and three weeks postinfection. At necropsy, these control ponies showed variable degrees of adhesions involving the abdominal organs, necrosis of the ileum and cecum and severe arteritis and thrombosis of the major abdominal arteries and their branches.
Although pyrantel pamoate, used at eight times the therapeutic dose for intestinal nematodes in the horse, effected a clinical cure it did not produce a radical cure. At necropsy, ponies treated with pyrantel pamoate had arteritis and thrombosis of the cranial mesenteric artery and its major branches. Nitramisole and avermectin B1a were able to effect both a clinical and radical cure.
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PMCID: PMC1320039  PMID: 7397601
10.  Strongylus edentatus: development and lesions from ten weeks postinfection to patency. 
Pony foals inoculated with infective Strongylus edentatus larvae were examined at necropsy from ten to 72 weeks postinfection. At ten weeks postinfection larvae were visible retroperitoneally in the liver and flanks and were recovered from the ligaments of the liver. The fourth molt was detected at 16 weeks postinfection and larvae were also recovered from the wall of the cecum at this time. By 40 weeks adult S. edentatus containing eggs were found in the contents of the cecum and colon. While many larvae migrate to remote parts of the body, it is likely that only those that attain the base of the cecum are successful in establishing in the cecum and colon as adult forms. By 36 weeks postinfection no larvae were found in the liver and up to this time none were found in the peritoneal cavity. Larvae were not recovered from the parenchyma of the lungs. Adhesions and disruption of omental architecture were frequent changes observed throughout infection. Casts of necrotic eosinophils enclosing tracks and larvae were observed beneath the intima of major veins of the cecum and colon. The liver was rough and the capsule thickened at 16 and 20 weeks postinfection and the flanks remained edematous until 36 weeks postinfection.
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PMCID: PMC1277649  PMID: 688075
11.  Arteriography in ponies with Strongylus vulgaris arteritis. 
Radiographs of the aorta and abdominal arteries were obtained from a normal anesthetized pony following catheterization of a femoral artery for nonselective, semiselective or selective arteriography. The arteries had smooth borders and regular diameters and the branches of the cranial mesenteric artery could be followed distally on the angiogram through to the smaller branches proximal to the bowel wall. Following arteriography, the pony walked normally and there were minimal alterations of the levels of serum muscle enzymes and blood lactate. The procedures for arteriography were repeated in three days. At that time the femoral artery was patent and satisfactory angiograms were obtained. Similiarly, radiographs were obtained from two ponies artificially infected with Strongylus vulgaris. The cranial msenteric artery and some of its branches, the right renal artery and segments of the aorta had irregular borders and were enlarged. Branches of the cranial mesenteric artery could not be followed distally because the flow of the contrast material was blocked. Following the above procedures, euthanasia of all ponies was expedited and the findings of arteritis, thrombosis and dilatation of arteries at necropsy compared favorably with interpretations from the radiographs. At least in the pony, arteriography can be a valuable research and diagnostic tool for the demonstration of lesions associated with verminous arteritis.
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PMCID: PMC1277710  PMID: 861832
12.  Strongylus vulgaris in the horse: a review. 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  1976;17(6):150-157.
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PMCID: PMC1697226  PMID: 779947
13.  The development of Ascaris suum in calves. 
To determine the development of Ascaris suum after a primary and a secondary infection, 18 calves were inoculated with 2,000,000 infective eggs and examined from 18 hours to 13 days postinfection. At 18 hours larvae were recovered from the wall of the abomasum, duodenum and jejunum. They were found in small intestine lymph nodes on the third day, in the liver at five days and were most abundant in the lungs on days 7 and 9. The pattern of recovery of larvae from the lung between days 5 and 13 postinfection was similar after a primary or a secondary infection. Slower growth of larvae following a secondary infection was the only evidence of resistance to A. suum. There were no pathological changes observed in the alimentary canal. White foci were found on the surface of the liver as early as the third day. The rapid decline in the number of A. suum in the lungs after the ninth day was considered to be related to immobilization or death of larvae soon after the reaction to them commences.
PMCID: PMC1277471  PMID: 1139416
14.  Suppression of the pathogenic effects of Strongylus edentatus larvae with thiabendazole. 
Four pony foals were inoculated with Strongylus edentatus infective larvae and on days 3 and 4 postinfection two of the ponies were treated with thiabendazole, each at the rate of 440 mg/kg of body weight. Total circulating eosinophil counts in untreated ponies increased to over 1700 per cu mm after the second week postinfection. In the treated ponies as well as in an uninfected untreated pony eosinophil counts did not increase beyond 100 per cu mm. At necropsy on day 35 postinfection the cecum, colon and omentum of treated ponies were normal and few tracks were present on the surface of the liver. In untreated ponies nodules were observed on the serosal surface of the cecum and right ventral colon and white foci and tracks were numerous on the surface of the liver. A total of 53 fourth stage larvac was recovered from the livers of the thiabendazole treated ponies and 1194 from the untreated ones.
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PMCID: PMC1277455  PMID: 1139410
15.  Experimentally induced Fasciola hepatica infection in white-tailed deer. II. Pathological features. 
Six white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and six sheep were inoculated with metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica. Two animals of each species were given 100, 500 or 2500 metacercariae. One animal in each inocluated group was killed and examined at six weeks postinoculation and the remainder at 15 weeks postinoculation. At six weeks postinoculation the parietal surface of the livers from inoculated deer was covered with gray fibrous plaques and rust colored patches. Fibroplasia with mononuclear cell infiltration characterized Glisson's capsule on the parietal surface. Granulomas were found in the hepatic parenchyma and on the dorsal surface of the lung. Fresh and healing tracks were occasionally found in the liver. In the sheep fibrinous exudate and numerous subcapsular tracks were found on both surfaces of the liver. Inflammatory changes in portal areas and numerous fresh and healing tracks in the hepatic parenchyma were prominent features. At 15 weeks postinoculation inflammatory changes in Glisson's capsule of inoculated deer were less marked than at six weeks but portal fibrosis and hyperplasia of bile duct epithelium were more advanced. A zone of hemorrhage surrounded ducts that contained mature F. hepatica in one deer. The livers from the sheep were rough, pitted and covered with fibrous tags and adhesions to the diaphragm and greater omentum were common. Hemorrhagic tracks were common in the sheep given 500 and 2500 metacercariae. Portal fibrosis and hyperplasia of bile duct epithelium were seen in the sheep (100 metacercariae) that harbored mature F. hepatica.
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PMCID: PMC1277437  PMID: 1125834
16.  Experimentally induced Faciola hepatica infection in white-tailed deer. I. Clinicopathological and parasitological features. 
Six white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and six sheep were inoculated with metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica. Two animals of each species were given 100, 500 or 2500 metacercariae. Clinicopathological features of these infections were determined by analyses of blood samples collected each week from inoculated deer and sheep as well as from two noninoculated animals of each species. One animal in each inoculated group was killed and examined at six weeks postinoculation and the remainder at 15 weeks postinoculation. Compared with the values obtained from noninoculated controls, eosinophilia, hyperproteinemia and hyperglobulinemia occured in inoculated deer. There were no other significant changes in hematological values or in serum aspartate aminotransferase levels. Marked leukocytosis and eosinophilia, with hyperproteinemia, hyperglobulinemia, hypoalbuminemia, elevated serum aspartate aminotransferase levels and mild macrocytic normochromic anemia characterized the infection in lambs. Although approximately 29% of the inoculum was recovered from the hepatic parenchyma of the sheep, F. hepatica was found in only one of six inoculated deer. A patent infection was established in this deer and constitutes the second report of mature F. hepatica in this host.
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PMCID: PMC1277436  PMID: 1125833
17.  Early Pathological Changes Associated with Fasciola hepatica Infection in White-tailed Deer 
Three white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were inoculated with 1000 metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica and examined on days 7, 14, and 28 postinoculation to determine the early response of a resistant host to this infection. It was concluded that only small numbers of the metacercariae penetrated the intestinal wall into the peritoneal cavity. Flukes that migrated to the liver penetrated through Glisson's capsule, primarily on the parietal surface. Marked fibroplasia and cellular infiltration of the capsule were induced and flukes were killed and destroyed in granulomas immediately beneath the capsule. Migration in hepatic parenchyma was minimal and immature flukes or migratory tracks were not found. There were infiltrations of eosinophils and mononuclear cells, bile duct hyperplasia and fibroplasia in portal areas. A few flukes penetrated through the diaphragm within 14 days postinoculation and on day 28 granulomas were observed on the dorsal surface of the lung where F. hepatica had penetrated this organ. The early reaction of Glisson's capsule to F. hepatica infection in white-tailed deer has not been described in cattle, sheep or swine infected with this fluke.
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PMCID: PMC1319868  PMID: 4277445
18.  Early Development of and Pathology Associated with Strongylus edentatus 
Pony foals inoculated with infective Strongylus edentatus larvae were monitored for clinical signs and selected blood changes and were examined at necropsy from two to 56 days postinfection. Larvae penetrated the intestine and reached the liver intravenously before 40 hours postinfection. Occasional thrombi and larval tracks associated with the intima of cecal and colic veins suggested aberrant paths. Larvae in the liver doubled in width between seven and 15 days postinfection and a sudden increment in circulating eosinophils occurred between 11 and 15 days. These changes were probably associated with the third molt. At 30 days fourth stage larvae were migrating in the liver; at 42 days they were present in the hepatorenal ligament.
White foci were observed in the liver from two to 56 days. They contained mononuclear cells and eosinophils and later necrotic cores of eosinophils. By one month foci were overshadowed by tortuous tracks of migrating larvae. Aberrant larvae in the lungs were confined in granulomas. Massive granulomas in the wall of the cecum and colon contained small larvae which were probably inhibited by antibody associated with the third molt. Severe disruption of omental architecture and adhesions involving the intestine occurred several weeks after infection.
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PMCID: PMC1319985  PMID: 4274818
21.  Reinfection of Yearling Calves with Ascaris suum 
Naturally occuring outbreaks of Ascaris suum infection in calves have usually beeen found in animals nine to 12 months of age. The circumstances surrounding these outbreaks suggest that yearling calves are either particularly susceptible to a primary exposure to A. suum or react strongly to A. summ after sensitization early in life to this or some related ascarid. To determine the effect of reinfection with A. suum nine to 12 months after varying levels of exposure to this nematode, six calves were inoculated with 200,000 to 9,000,000 eggs. Neither death nor, in general, severe clinical signs resulted from reinfection. All calves were examined 15 days after reinfection with pathological changes noted only in the lungs and consisting of emphysema, alveolar wall thickening as well as accumulations of fibrin, eosinophils and hemorrhage in the lumina of alveoli. The findings suggested that exposure to A. suum early in life is not a factor in the development of disease in calves infected at one year of age. It was also found that the eosinophilia that develops following a primary infection with A. suum evidently persists for at least one year.
PMCID: PMC1319718  PMID: 4265549
23.  Ascaris suum Infection in Calves III. Pathology 
Gross changes in the lungs of Ascaris suum- infected calves consisted of atelectasis and hemorrhagic foci, edema and emphysema, frequently with bullae. Prominent microscopic lung lesions were edema and emphysema of the interlobular septa with large numbers of eosinophils within and around lymphatics, peribronchiolar lymphoid nodules and parasitic granulomas. Many of the microscopic features were consistent with those found in atypical interstitial pneumonia. Changes in the alveoli were atelectasis, the exudation of plasma proteins, mononuclear cells and eosinophils, and alveolar wall thickening. Lesions found later included fibrosis and fetalization of the alveolar walls. Plasma cells and neutrophils were not common. Challenge with Toxocara canis after sensitization with A. suum resulted in the lungs developing a few areas of atelectasis. Migration of T. canis to lungs of calves is slower than A. suum. A. suum larvae were always found in bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli of calves that died. Lesions were observed in the liver but not the kidney of A. suum infected calves; both lung and liver lesions tended to resolve with time.
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PMCID: PMC1319499  PMID: 4248444
24.  Ascaris suum Infection in Calves II. Circulating and Marrow Eosinophil Responses 
An increment in the number of circulating eosinophils occurred between the 11th and 14th days after infection with Ascaris suum and this increase was generally greater after a challenge infection. Continual infection with small numbers of A. suum eggs over prolonged periods resulted in circulating eosinophil levels which fluctuated and were dose-dependent. The per cent marrow eosinophils always increased after a primary infection and a greater increase usually followed a challenge infection. The maximum increment of marrow eosinophils occurred between the tenth and 12th days and preceded the rise in circulating eosinophils by 36 hours. Antihistamine therapy did not alter eosinophil responses to A. suum. Circulating eosinophilia was not usually reflected by drastic changes in differential white cell counts. However, an increase in total white cell count often followed infection with A. suum and frequently parallelled changes in eosinophil counts. Hemoglobin and P.C.V. values remained within normal limits in A. summ infected calves.
PMCID: PMC1319498  PMID: 4394226
25.  Ascaris suum Infection in Calves I. Clinical Signs 
Clinical signs consistent with those of atypical interstitial pneumonia (AIP) were induced in calves sensitized with infective Ascaris suum eggs at seven to 20 weeks of age and challenged at three-week intervals one or more times. These signs usually appeared on the sixth or seventh day postinfection and reached maximum severity between the tenth and 13th days following infection. Prominent signs were: dyspnea, often with expiratory grunt, coughing, mouth breathing and emphysema as well as increased respiration and heart rates. In general, the intensity of signs was dependent upon dose size, although a single small dose resulted in acute signs and death in one calf. Intermittent coughing and vesicular sounds were induced in calves given A. suum eggs continually over prolonged periods. No respiratory abnormalities resulted from challenge with Toxocara canis after sensitization with A. suum. Antihistamine therapy did not alter the clinical signs in A. suum infected calves.
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PMCID: PMC1319497  PMID: 4394225

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