Colon cancer patients with the same stage show diverse clinical behavior due to tumor heterogeneity. We aimed to discover distinct classes of tumors based on microarray expression patterns, to analyze whether the molecular classification correlated with the histopathological stages or other clinical parameters and to study differences in the survival.
Hierarchical clustering was performed for class discovery in 88 colon tumors (stages I to IV). Pathways analysis and correlations between clinical parameters and our classification were analyzed. Tumor subtypes were validated using an external set of 78 patients. A 167 gene signature associated to the main subtype was generated using the 3-Nearest-Neighbor method. Coincidences with other prognostic predictors were assesed.
Hierarchical clustering identified four robust tumor subtypes with biologically and clinically distinct behavior. Stromal components (p < 0.001), nuclear β-catenin (p = 0.021), mucinous histology (p = 0.001), microsatellite-instability (p = 0.039) and BRAF mutations (p < 0.001) were associated to this classification but it was independent of Dukes stages (p = 0.646). Molecular subtypes were established from stage I. High-stroma-subtype showed increased levels of genes and altered pathways distinctive of tumour-associated-stroma and components of the extracellular matrix in contrast to Low-stroma-subtype. Mucinous-subtype was reflected by the increased expression of trefoil factors and mucins as well as by a higher proportion of MSI and BRAF mutations. Tumor subtypes were validated using an external set of 78 patients. A 167 gene signature associated to the Low-stroma-subtype distinguished low risk patients from high risk patients in the external cohort (Dukes B and C:HR = 8.56(2.53-29.01); Dukes B,C and D:HR = 1.87(1.07-3.25)). Eight different reported survival gene signatures segregated our tumors into two groups the Low-stroma-subtype and the other tumor subtypes.
We have identified novel molecular subtypes in colon cancer with distinct biological and clinical behavior that are established from the initiation of the tumor. Tumor microenvironment is important for the classification and for the malignant power of the tumor. Differential gene sets and biological pathways characterize each tumor subtype reflecting underlying mechanisms of carcinogenesis that may be used for the selection of targeted therapeutic procedures. This classification may contribute to an improvement in the management of the patients with CRC and to a more comprehensive prognosis.
Colon cancer; Microarray gene expression; Molecular classification; Stroma; Survival
Autoimmune diseases with elevated circulating autoantibodies drive tissue damage and the onset of disease. The Fcγ receptors bind IgG subtypes modulating the clearance of circulating immune complexes (CIC). The inner ear damage in Ménière's disease (MD) could be mediated by an immune response driven by CIC. We examined single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in the CD16A and CD32 genes in patients with MD which may determine a Fcγ receptor with lower binding to CIC.
The functional CD16A (FcγRIIIa*559A > C, rs396991) and CD32A (FcγRIIa*519A > G, rs1801274) SNPs were analyzed using PCR-based TaqMan Genotyping Assay in two cohorts of 156 mediterranean and 112 Galicia patients in a case-control study. Data were analyzed by χ2 with Fisher's exact test and Cochran-Armitage trend test (CATT). CIC were measured by ELISA for C1q-binding CIC.
Elevated CIC were found in 7% of patients with MD during the intercrisis period. No differences were found in the allelic frequency for rs396991 or rs1801274 in controls subjects when they were compared with patients with MD from the same geographic area. However, the frequency of AA and AC genotypes of CD16A (rs396991) differed among mediterranean and Galicia controls (Fisher's test, corrected p = 6.9 × 10-4 for AA; corrected p = 0.02 for AC). Although genotype AC of the CD16A receptor was significantly more frequent in mediterranean controls than in patients, [Fisher's test corrected p = 0.02; OR = 0.63 (0.44-0.91)], a genetic additive effect for the allele C was not observed (CATT, p = 0.23). Moreover, no differences were found in genotype frequencies for rs396991 between patients with MD and controls from Galicia (CATT, p = 0.14). The allelic frequency of CD32 (rs1801274) was not different between patients and controls either in mediterranean (p = 0.51) or Galicia population (p = 0.11).
Elevated CIC are not found in most of patients with MD. Functional polymorphisms of CD16A and CD32 genes are not associated with onset of MD.
Angiogenesis plays an essential role in tumor growth and metastasis, and is a major target in cancer therapy. VEGFR and PDGFR are key players involved in this process. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of genetic variants in these receptors and its potential clinical implications in colorectal cancer (CRC).
VEGFR2, PDGFRα and PDGFRβ mutations were evaluated by sequencing their tyrosine kinase domains in 8 CRC cell lines and in 92 samples of patients with CRC. Correlations with clinicopathological features and survival were analyzed.
Four SNPs were identified, three in PDGFRα [exon 12 (A12): c.1701A>G; exon 13 (A13): c.1809G>A; and exon 17 (A17): c.2439+58C>A] and one in PDGFRβ [exon 19 (B19): c.2601A>G]. SNP B19, identified in 58% of tumor samples and in 4 cell lines (LS174T, LS180, SW48, COLO205), was associated with higher PDGFR and pPDGFR protein levels. Consistent with this observation, 5-year survival was greater for patients with PDGFR B19 wild type tumors (AA) than for those harboring the G-allele genotype (GA or GG) (51% vs 17%; p=0.073). Multivariate analysis confirmed SNP B19 (p=0.029) was a significant prognostic factor for survival, independent of age (p=0.060) or TNM stage (p<0.001).
PDGFRβ exon 19 c.2601A>G SNP is commonly encountered in CRC patients and is associated with increased pathway activation and poorer survival. Implications regarding its potential influence in response to PDGFR-targeted agents remain to be elucidated.
VEGFR; PDGFR; SNP; Colorectal cancer; Angiogenesis; Prognosis
Arm/Rmt methyltransferases have emerged recently in pathogenic bacteria as enzymes that confer high-level resistance to 4,6-disubstituted aminoglycosides through methylation of the G1405 residue in the 16S rRNA (like ArmA and RmtA to -E). In prokaryotes, nucleotide methylations are the most common type of rRNA modification, and they are introduced posttranscriptionally by a variety of site-specific housekeeping enzymes to optimize ribosomal function. Here we show that while the aminoglycoside resistance methyltransferase RmtC methylates G1405, it impedes methylation of the housekeeping methyltransferase RsmF at position C1407, a nucleotide that, like G1405, forms part of the aminoglycoside binding pocket of the 16S rRNA. To understand the origin and consequences of this phenomenon, we constructed a series of in-frame knockout and knock-in mutants of Escherichia coli, corresponding to the genotypes rsmF+, ΔrsmF, rsmF+
rmtC+, and ΔrsmF rmtC+. When analyzed for the antimicrobial resistance pattern, the ΔrsmF bacteria had a decreased susceptibility to aminoglycosides, including 4,6- and 4,5-deoxystreptamine aminoglycosides, showing that the housekeeping methylation at C1407 is involved in intrinsic aminoglycoside susceptibility in E. coli. Competition experiments between the isogenic E. coli strains showed that, contrary to expectation, acquisition of rmtC does not entail a fitness cost for the bacterium. Finally, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry allowed us to determine that RmtC methylates the G1405 residue not only in presence but also in the absence of aminoglycoside antibiotics. Thus, the coupling between housekeeping and acquired methyltransferases subverts the methylation architecture of the 16S rRNA but elicits Arm/Rmt methyltransferases to be selected and retained, posing an important threat to the usefulness of aminoglycosides worldwide.
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) has been the causative agent for sporadic epidemics and equine epizootics throughout the Americas since the 1930s. In 1969, an outbreak of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) spread rapidly from Guatemala and through the Gulf Coast region of Mexico, reaching Texas in 1971. Since this outbreak, there have been very few studies to determine the northward extent of endemic VEEV in this region. This study reports the findings of serologic surveillance in the Gulf Coast region of Mexico from 2003–2010. Phylogenetic analysis was also performed on viral isolates from this region to determine whether there have been substantial genetic changes in VEEV since the 1960s. Based on the findings of this study, the Gulf Coast lineage of subtype IE VEEV continues to actively circulate in this region of Mexico and appears to be responsible for infection of humans and animals throughout this region, including the northern State of Tamaulipas, which borders Texas.
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) has been responsible for hundreds of thousands of human and equine cases of severe disease in the Americas. In 1969, an outbreak of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) spread rapidly from Guatemala and through the Gulf Coast region of Mexico, reaching Texas in 1971. Since this outbreak, there has been very little done to understand the ecology of VEEV in this region. Here, we present that the results of recent field studies that focus on confirming the continued existence of enzootic VEEV in the Gulf Coast region of Mexico. We performed serological analyses of sera collected between 2003 and 2010 from humans, cattle, horses, and dogs in various regions along the Gulf Coast of Mexico, and these data were complemented by wildcaught rodent serosurveys. Additionally, phylogenetic analyses were performed on VEEV isolates from this region to determine whether there have been substantial genetic changes in these viruses since the 1960s.
Obesity is associated with a low-grade chronic inflammation state. As a consequence, adipose tissue expresses pro-inflammatory cytokines that propagate inflammatory responses systemically elsewhere, promoting whole-body insulin resistance and consequential islet β-cell exhaustation. Thus, insulin resistance is considered the early stage of type 2 diabetes. However, there is evidence of obese individuals that never develop diabetes indicating that the mechanisms governing the association between the increase of inflammatory factors and type 2 diabetes are much more complex and deserve further investigation. We studied for the first time the differences in insulin signalling and inflammatory pathways in blood and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of 20 lean healthy donors and 40 equal morbidly obese (MO) patients classified in high insulin resistance (high IR) degree and diabetes state. We studied the changes in proinflammatory markers and lipid content from serum; macrophage infiltration, mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines and transcription factors, activation of kinases involved in inflammation and expression of insulin signalling molecules in VAT. VAT comparison of these experimental groups revealed that type 2 diabetic-MO subjects exhibit the same pro-inflammatory profile than the high IR-MO patients, characterized by elevated levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, JNK1/2, ERK1/2, STAT3 and NFκB. Our work rules out the assumption that the inflammation should be increased in obese people with type 2 diabetes compared to high IR obese. These findings indicate that some mechanisms, other than systemic and VAT inflammation must be involved in the development of type 2 diabetes in obesity.
Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease, is currently recognized as a complex of six lineages or Discrete Typing Units (DTU): TcI-TcVI. Recent studies have identified a divergent group within TcI - TcIDOM. TcIDOM. is associated with a significant proportion of human TcI infections in South America, largely absent from local wild mammals and vectors, yet closely related to sylvatic strains in North/Central America. Our aim was to examine hypotheses describing the origin of the TcIDOM genotype. We propose two possible scenarios: an emergence of TcIDOM in northern South America as a sister group of North American strain progenitors and dispersal among domestic transmission cycles, or an origin in North America, prior to dispersal back into South American domestic cycles. To provide further insight we undertook high resolution nuclear and mitochondrial genotyping of multiple Central American strains (from areas of México and Guatemala) and included them in an analysis with other published data.
Mitochondrial sequence and nuclear microsatellite data revealed a cline in genetic diversity across isolates grouped into three populations: South America, North/Central America and TcIDOM. As such, greatest diversity was observed in South America (Ar = 4.851, π = 0.00712) and lowest in TcIDOM (Ar = 1.813, π = 0.00071). Nuclear genetic clustering (genetic distance based) analyses suggest that TcIDOM is nested within the North/Central American clade.
Declining genetic diversity across the populations, and corresponding hierarchical clustering suggest that emergence of this important human genotype most likely occurred in North/Central America before moving southwards. These data are consistent with early patterns of human dispersal into South America.
Trypanosoma cruzi; Maxicircle; Microsatellite; Chagas Disease; Phylogeography; Population genetics; TcI
Induction of apoptosis is a promising strategy that could lead to the discovery of new molecules active in cancer chemotherapy. This property is generally observed when cells are treated with agents that target microtubules, dynamic structures that play a crucial role in cell division. Small molecules such as benzo[b]furans are attractive as inhibitors of tubulin polymerization. A new class of inhibitors of tubulin polymerization based on the 2-(3′,4′,5′-trimethoxybenzoyl)benzo[b]furan molecular skeleton, with the amino group placed at different positions on the benzene ring, were synthesized and evaluated for antiproliferative activity, inhibition of tubulin polymerization, and cell-cycle effects. The methoxy substitution pattern on the benzene portion of the benzo[b]furan moiety played an important role in affecting antiproliferative activity. In the series of 5-amino derivatives, the greatest inhibition of cell growth oc curred if the methoxy substituent is placed at the C6 position, whereas C7 substitution decreases potency. The most promising compound in this series is 2-(3′,4′,5′-trimethoxybenzoyl)-3-methyl-5-amino-6-methoxybenzo[b]furan (3h), which inhibits cancer cell growth at nanomolar concentrations (IC50=16–24 nm), and interacts strongly with tubulin by binding to the colchicine site. Sub-G1 apoptotic cells in cultures of HL-60 and U937 cells were observed by flow cytometric analysis after treatment with 3h in a concentration-dependent manner. We also show that compound 3h induces apoptosis by activation of caspase-3, -8, and -9, and this is associated with cytochrome c release from mitochondria. The introduction of an α-bromoacryloyl group increased antiproliferative activity with respect to the parent amino derivatives.
antiproliferative agents; apoptosis; caspase activation; colchicine binding site; tubulin
Objective. To determine whether a quantitative tool could be used to measure social emotional competence and whether the development of social emotional competence through a pharmacy practicum course is possible.
Design. First-year pharmacy students completed the Social Emotional Development Inventory (SED-I) online and then participated in a series of mock patient consultations on smoking cessation and nonprescription medication.
Assessment. The 212 students enrolled in the course completed the SED-I. Evaluation of students’ performance in the clinical cases using a patient counseling assessment form showed that students’ social emotional competencies significantly improved. Observer ratings for “influence” and “connection” on the assessment form predicted student performance in the clinical cases.
Conclusions. Role-play exercises in which students engage in patient consultations can be used to develop social emotional competence in pharmacy students, and the SED-I and a patient counseling assessment form can be used to assess learning and improvement in this area.
pharmacy education; professional practice; emotional intelligence; patient simulation
We explored the effect of treatment with ivabradine, a pure heart rate-slowing agent, on recurrent hospitalizations for worsening heart failure (HF) in the SHIFT trial.
Methods and results
SHIFT was a double-blind clinical trial in which 6505 patients with moderate-to-severe HF and left ventricular systolic dysfunction, all of whom had been hospitalized for HF during the preceding year, were randomized to ivabradine or to placebo on a background of guideline-recommended HF therapy (including maximized β-blockade). In total, 1186 patients experienced at least one additional HF hospitalization during the study, 472 suffered at least two, and 218 suffered at least 3. Patients with additional HF hospitalizations had more severe disease than those without. Ivabradine was associated with fewer total HF hospitalizations [902 vs. 1211 events with placebo; incidence rate ratio, 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.65–0.87, P = 0.0002] during the 22.9-month median follow-up. Ivabradine-treated patients evidenced lower risk for a second or third additional HF hospitalization [hazard ratio (HR): 0.66, 95% CI, 0.55–0.79, P < 0.001 and HR: 0.71, 95% CI, 0.54–0.93, P = 0.012, respectively]. Similar observations were made for all-cause and cardiovascular hospitalizations.
Treatment with ivabradine, on a background of guidelines-based HF therapy, is associated with a substantial reduction in the likelihood of recurrent hospitalizations for worsening HF. This benefit can be expected to improve the quality of life and to substantially reduce health-care costs.
Heart failure; Hospitalization; Ivabradine; Left ventricular systolic dysfunction; Heart rate
The aims of this study were to check whether different biomarkers of inflammatory, apoptotic, immunological or lipid pathways had altered their expression in the occluded popliteal artery (OPA) compared with the internal mammary artery (IMA) and femoral vein (FV) and to examine whether glycemic control influenced the expression of these genes. The study included 20 patients with advanced atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus, 15 of whom had peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD), from whom samples of OPA and FV were collected. PAOD patients were classified based on their HbA1c as well (HbA1c ≤ 6.5) or poorly (HbA1c > 6.5) controlled patients. Controls for arteries without atherosclerosis comprised 5 IMA from patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM). mRNA, protein expression and histological studies were analyzed in IMA, OPA and FV. After analyzing 46 genes, OPA showed higher expression levels than IMA or FV for genes involved in thrombosis (F3), apoptosis (MMP2, MMP9, TIMP1 and TIM3), lipid metabolism (LRP1 and NDUFA), immune response (TLR2) and monocytes adhesion (CD83). Remarkably, MMP-9 expression was lower in OPA from well-controlled patients. In FV from diabetic patients with HbA1c ≤6.5, gene expression levels of BCL2, CDKN1A, COX2, NDUFA and SREBP2 were higher than in FV from those with HbA1c >6.5.
The atherosclerotic process in OPA from diabetic patients was associated with high expression levels of inflammatory, lipid metabolism and apoptotic biomarkers. The degree of glycemic control was associated with gene expression markers of apoptosis, lipid metabolism and antioxidants in FV. However, the effect of glycemic control on pro-atherosclerotic gene expression was very low in arteries with established atherosclerosis.
Atherosclerosis; Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Glycemic control; Metabolic pathways; Vascular system
The objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of self reported criteria of Metabolic Syndrome (MS) in the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) cohort using their medical records as the gold standard.
We selected 336 participants and we obtained MS related data according to Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF). Then we compared information on the self reported diagnosis of MS and MS diagnosed in their medical records. We calculated the proportion of confirmed MS, the proportion of confirmed non-MS and the intraclass correlation coefficients for each component of the MS.
From those 336 selected participants, we obtained sufficient data in 172 participants to confirm or reject MS using ATP III criteria. The proportion of confirmed MS was 91.2% (95% CI: 80.7- 97.1) and the proportion of confirmed non-MS was 92.2% (95% CI: 85.7-96.4) using ATP III criteria. The proportion of confirmed MS using IDF criteria was 100% (95% CI: 87.2-100) and the proportion of confirmed non-MS was 97.1% (95% CI: 85.1-99.9). Kappa Index was 0.82 in the group diagnosed by ATP III criteria and 0.97 in the group diagnosed by IDF criteria. Intraclass correlation coefficients for the different component of MS were: 0.93 (IC 95%:0.91- 0.95) for BMI; 0.96 (IC 95%: 0.93-0.98) for waist circumference; 0.75 (IC 95%: 0.66-0.82) for fasting glucose; 0.50 (IC 95%:0.35-0.639) for HDL cholesterol; 0.78 (IC 95%: 0.70-0.84) for triglycerides; 0.49 (IC 95%:0.34-0.61) for systolic blood pressure and 0.55 (IC 95%: 0.41-0.65) for diastolic blood pressure.
Self-reported MS based on self reported components of the SM in a Spanish cohort of university graduates was sufficiently valid as to be used in epidemiological studies.
Pulmonary artery aneurysms are a rare condition, frequently associated with pulmonary hypertension. However, the evolution and treatment of this pathology is still not clear.
The authors report a case of a 65-year old patient with pulmonary artery aneurysm associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Due to a positive vasoreactivity test, treatment with calcium channel blockers was started with near normalization of the right cardiac pressures. Nevertheless, after 20 months of treatment, the pulmonary artery aneurysm size remained unchanged with an associated severe pulmonary regurgitation and causing extrinsic compression of the main left coronary artery. Surgical correction was successfully performed.
This is the first case report of a pulmonary artery aneurysm described to be associated with vasoreactive pulmonary hypertension in a living patient. Although medical therapy for pulmonary hypertension was started, surgical correction of the aneurysm was executed in order to prevent its future complications.
Mammalian DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) is essential for maintaining DNA methylation patterns after cell division. Disruption of DNMT1 catalytic activity results in whole genome cytosine demethylation of CpG dinucleotides, promoting severe dysfunctions in somatic cells and during embryonic development. While these observations indicate that DNMT1-dependent DNA methylation is required for proper cell function, the possibility that DNMT1 has a role independent of its catalytic activity is a matter of controversy. Here, we provide evidence that DNMT1 can support cell functions that do not require the C-terminal catalytic domain. We report that PCNA and DMAP1 domains in the N-terminal region of DNMT1 are sufficient to modulate E-cadherin expression in the absence of noticeable changes in DNA methylation patterns in the gene promoters involved. Changes in E-cadherin expression are directly associated with regulation of β-catenin-dependent transcription. Present evidence suggests that the DNMT1 acts on E-cadherin expression through its direct interaction with the E-cadherin transcriptional repressor SNAIL1.
Three IL-10 gene promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms -1082G > A, -819C > T and -592C > A and the haplotypes they define in Caucasians, GCC, ACC, ATA, associated with different IL-10 production rates, have been linked to schizophrenia in some populations with conflicting results. On the basis of the evidence of the sex-dependent effect of certain genes in many complex diseases, we conducted a sex-stratified case-control association study to verify the linkage of the IL-10 gene promoter SNPs and haplotypes with schizophrenia and the possible sex-specific genetic effect in a Spanish schizophrenic population.
241 DSM-IV diagnosed Spanish schizophrenic patients and 435 ethnically matched controls were genotyped for -1082G > A and -592C > A SNPs. Chi squared tests were performed to assess for genetic association of alleles, genotypes and haplotypes with the disease.
The -1082A allele (p = 0.027), A/A (p = 0.008) and ATA/ATA (p = 0.003) genotypes were significantly associated with schizophrenia in females while neither allelic nor genotypic frequencies reached statistical significance in the male population.
Our results highlight the hypothesis of an imbalance towards an inflammatory syndrome as the immune abnormality of schizophrenia. Anyway, a better understanding of the involvement of the immune system would imply the search of immune abnormalities in endophenotypes in whose sex and ethnicity might be differential factors. It also reinforces the need of performing complex gene studies based on multiple cytokine SNPs, including anti and pro-inflammatory, to clarify the immune system abnormalities direction in the etiology of schizophrenia.
A series of 1-aryl-5-(3′,4′,5′-trimethoxyphenyl) derivatives and their related 1-(3′,4′,5′-trimethoxyphenyl)-5-aryl-1,2,4-triazoles, designed as cis-restricted combretastatin analogues, were synthesized and evaluated for antiproliferative activity, inhibitory effects on tubulin polymerization, cell cycle effects, and apoptosis induction. Their activity was greater than, or comparable with, that of the reference compound CA-4. Flow cytometry studies showed that HeLa and Jurkat cells treated with the most active compounds 4l and 4o were arrested in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle in a concentration dependent manner. This effect was accompanied by apoptosis of the cells, mitochondrial depolarization, generation of reactive oxygen species, activation of caspase-3, and PARP cleavage. Compound 4l was also shown to have potential antivascular activity, since it induced endothelial cell shape change in vitro and disrupted the sprouting of endothelial cells in the chick aortic ring assay.
Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have recently identified CLU, PICALM and CR1 as novel genes for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD).
In a three-stage analysis of new and previously published GWAS on over 35000 persons (8371 AD cases), we sought to identify and strengthen additional loci associated with AD and confirm these in an independent sample. We also examined the contribution of recently identified genes to AD risk prediction.
Design, Setting, and Participants
We identified strong genetic associations (p<10−3) in a Stage 1 sample of 3006 AD cases and 14642 controls by combining new data from the population-based Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium (1367 AD cases (973 incident)) with previously reported results from the Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGEN) and Mayo AD GWAS. We identified 2708 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with p-values<10−3, and in Stage 2 pooled results for these SNPs with the European AD Initiative (2032 cases, 5328 controls) to identify ten loci with p-values<10−5. In Stage 3, we combined data for these ten loci with data from the Genetic and Environmental Risk in AD consortium (3333 cases, 6995 controls) to identify four SNPs with a p-value<1.7×10−8. These four SNPs were replicated in an independent Spanish sample (1140 AD cases and 1209 controls).
Main outcome measure
We showed genome-wide significance for two new loci: rs744373 near BIN1 (OR:1.13; 95%CI:1.06–1.21 per copy of the minor allele; p=1.6×10−11) and rs597668 near EXOC3L2/BLOC1S3/MARK4 (OR:1.18; 95%CI1.07–1.29; p=6.5×10−9). Associations of CLU, PICALM, BIN1 and EXOC3L2 with AD were confirmed in the Spanish sample (p<0.05). However, CLU and PICALM did not improve incident AD prediction beyond age, sex, and APOE (improvement in area under receiver-operating-characteristic curve <0.003).
Two novel genetic loci for AD are reported that for the first time reach genome-wide statistical significance; these findings were replicated in an independent population. Two recently reported associations were also confirmed, but these loci did not improve AD risk prediction, although they implicate biological pathways that may be useful targets for potential interventions.
genome-wide association study; genetic epidemiology; genetics; dementia; Alzheimer’s disease; cohort study; meta-analysis; risk
In a continuing study of hybrid compounds containing the α-bromoacryloyl moiety as potential anticancer drugs, we synthesized a novel series of hybrids 4a–h, in which this moiety was linked to a 1,5-diaryl-1,4-pentadien-3-one system. Many of the conjugates prepared (4b, 4c, 4e and 4g) demonstrated pronounced, submicromolar antiproliferative activity against four cancer cell lines. Moreover, compound 4b induced apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway and activated caspase-3 in a concentration-dependent manner.
Antiproliferative activity; Apoptosis; Antitumor agents; Hybrid compounds
During May 2009–April 2010, we analyzed 692 samples of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus from patients in Mexico. We detected the H275Y substitution of the neuraminidase gene in a specimen from an infant with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 who was treated with oseltamivir. This virus was susceptible to zanamivir and resistant to adamantanes and oseltamivir.
Oseltamivir; influenza; neuraminidase; G1N1; pandemic; viruses; Mexico; expedited; dispatch
The biological importance of microtubules in mitosis and cell division makes them an interesting target for the development of anticancer agents. Small molecules such as benzo[b]furans are attractive as inhibitors of tubulin polymerization. Thus, a new class of inhibitors of tubulin polymerization based on the 2-(3′,4′,5′-trimethoxybenzoyl)-benzo[b]furan molecular skeleton, with electron-donating (Me, OMe or OH) or electron-withdrawing (F, Cl and Br) substituents on the benzene ring, was synthesized and evaluated for antiproliferative activity, inhibition of tubulin polymerization and cell cycle effects. Adding a methyl group at the C-3 position resulted in increased activity. The most promising compound in this series was 2-(3′,4′,5′-trimethoxybenzoyl)-3-methyl-6-ethoxy-benzo[b]furan, which inhibits cancer cell growth at nanomolar concentrations and interacts strongly with tubulin by binding to the colchicine site.
Benzo[b]furan derivatives; Antitubulin agents; Combretastatin-A4; Colchicine; Antiproliferative agents
Background and Aims
Several studies have demonstrated overweight and obesity are strong independent risk factor of GERD symptoms and esophageal erosions. Our aim was to analyze the joint effect of BMI with the grade of esophageal damage over symptoms’ intensity of GERD.
We used a questionnaire with a Likert scale for severity of symptoms related to GERD. The distal portion of the esophagus was evaluated to determine the presence of mucosal injury, classified by Los Angeles criteria (LA).
We included 917 subjects (53.76% females) with average age 36.8 ± 7 years. Males had higher BMI than females (26.8 ± 3.5 vs. 25.2 ± 4.5, p <0.001). Severe damage (C–D ulcers) was associated with overweight (BMI 25–30), severity of heartburn, retching, halitosis, regurgitation, and chest oppression. BMI >30 had high score for heartburn and retching, but low score for nausea, compared with lower weight. The model with interaction showed a non-linear association between BMI and LA. Overweight (but not obese) patients with damage scored C–D had the highest score for intensity of heartburn and retching.
BMI and LA do not have additive effects on the severity of symptoms of GERD. Those with BMI between 25 and 30 had severe symptoms score, but those with BMI >30 showed lower scores. These findings could explain controversial results found in other studies.
Gastroesophageal reflux; Endoscopy; Heartburn; Obesity; Esophageal disease; Pain sensation