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1.  Totally implantable venous power ports of the forearm and the chest: initial clinical experience with port devices approved for high-pressure injections 
The British Journal of Radiology  2012;85(1019):e966-e972.
Objectives
To evaluate the technical success, clinical outcome and safety of percutaneously placed totally implantable venous power ports (TIVPPs) approved for high-pressure injections, and to analyse their value for arterial phase CT scans.
Methods
Retrospectively, we identified 204 patients who underwent TIVPP implantation in the forearm (n=152) or chest (n=52) between November 2009 and May 2011. Implantation via an upper arm (forearm port, FP) or subclavian vein (chest port, CP) was performed under sonographic and fluoroscopic guidance. Complications were evaluated following the standards of the Society of Interventional Radiology. Power injections via TIVPPs were analysed, focusing on adequate functioning and catheter's tip location after injection. Feasibility of automatic bolus triggering, peak injection pressure and arterial phase aortic enhancement were evaluated and compared with 50 patients who had had power injections via classic peripheral cannulas.
Results
Technical success was 100%. Procedure-related complications were not observed. Catheter-related thrombosis was diagnosed in 15 of 152 FPs (9.9%, 0.02/100 catheter days) and in 1 of 52 CPs (1.9%, 0.002/100 catheter days) (p<0.05). Infectious complications were diagnosed in 9 of 152 FPs (5.9%, 0.014/100 catheter days) and in 2 of 52 CPs (3.8%, 0.003/100 catheter days) (p>0.05). Arterial bolus triggering succeeded in all attempts; the mean injection pressure was 213.8 psi. Aortic enhancement did not significantly differ between injections via cannulas and TIVPPs (p>0.05).
Conclusions
TIVPPs can be implanted with high technical success rates, and are associated with low rates of complications if implanted with sonographic and fluoroscopic guidance. Power injections via TIVPPs are safe and result in satisfying arterial contrast. Conventional ports should be replaced by TIVPPs.
doi:10.1259/bjr/33224341
PMCID: PMC3500819  PMID: 22674705
2.  The “dirty chest”—correlations between chest radiography, multislice CT and tobacco burden 
The British Journal of Radiology  2012;85(1012):339-345.
Objectives
Cigarette smoking-induced airway disease commonly results in an overall increase of non-specific lung markings on chest radiography. This has been described as “dirty chest”. As the morphological substrate of this condition is similar to the anthracosilicosis of coal workers, we hypothesised that it is possible to quantify the radiological changes using the International Labour Organization (ILO) classification of pneumoconiosis. The aims of this study were to evaluate whether there is a correlation between the extent of cigarette smoking and increased lung markings on chest radiography and to correlate the chest radiographic scores with findings on CT studies.
Methods
In a prospective analysis a cohort of 85 smokers was examined. The cigarette consumption was evaluated in pack years (defined as 20 cigarettes per day over 1 year). Film reading was performed by two board-certified radiologists. Chest radiographs were evaluated for the presence of thickening of bronchial walls, the presence of linear or nodular opacities, and emphysema. To correlate the smoking habits with the increase of overall lung markings in chest radiography, the ILO profusion score was converted to numbers ranging from zero to nine. Chest radiographs were rated according to the complete set of standard films of the revised ILO classification.
Results
63/85 (74%) of the smokers showed an increase in overall lung markings on chest radiography; 32 (37%) had an ILO profusion score of <1/1, 29 (34%) had an ILO profusion score of <2/2 and 2 (2%) had an ILO score of ≥2/2. There was a significant positive linear correlation between the increase of overall lung markings on chest radiography and the cigarette consumption quantified as pack years (r=0.68). The majority of the heavy smokers (>40 pack years) showed emphysema; there was no significant difference between the prevalence of emphysema as diagnosed by CT (62%) or chest radiography (71%) (p<0.05).The most common findings in CT were thickening of bronchial walls (64%) and the presence of emphysema (62%) and of intralobular opacities (61%). Ground-glass opacities were seen in only 7% of our patients.
Conclusion
Bronchial wall thickening and intralobular opacities as seen in CT showed a positive linear correlation with the increase of overall lung markings on chest radiography.
doi:10.1259/bjr/62694750
PMCID: PMC3486671  PMID: 21937617
3.  Salmonellosis in songbirds in the Canadian Atlantic provinces during winter-summer 1997-98. 
From winter 1997 to summer 1998, an epizootic of salmonellosis affected several species of songbirds over a large area of the eastern North American continent. This article describes the details of this epizootic in the Canadian Atlantic provinces, based on laboratory examination of dead affected birds and on suspected but unconfirmed cases of salmonellosis reported by members of the public. The common redpoll (Carduelis flammea) was the species most often affected, followed by pine siskins (C. pinus), purple finches (Carpodacus purpureus), evening grosbeaks (Coccothraustes vespertinus), and American goldfinches (Carduelis tristis). A poor body condition and necrotizing and fibrinopurulent esophagitis and ingluvitis were the most common gross lesions in these birds. Thirty-four of 35 isolates of Salmonella recovered from these birds were identified as phage type 40. Despite the magnitude of this and previous epizootics of salmonellosis among North American songbirds, the sources of these epizootics and the precise influence of environmental factors on their occurrence remain poorly understood.
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PMCID: PMC1476332  PMID: 10642873
4.  Experimental studies on the pathogenicity of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Mycoplasma arginini for the respiratory tract of goats. 
Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Mycoplasma arginini were the species of Mollicutes most commonly isolated from 175 goats with respiratory disease in Ontario. The pathogenicity of M. ovipneumoniae, strain B321B and M. arginini, strain D53e, was assessed in goats following endobronchial inoculation. One out of three two year old goats developed fever after inoculation with a pure culture of strain B321B, and it had extensive subacute fibrinous pleuritis when necropsied three weeks later. Neither of the remaining goats had lesions in the respiratory tract. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae was recovered from one of the animals four days after inoculation, but not at necropsy from any of the goats, at which time a marked humoral immune response with growth inhibiting antibodies was detected. In a second experiment three four to five week old goats were inoculated with the same strain and three other goats were given placebo treatment. One experimental goat developed fever and coughing, and it had extensive subacute fibrinous pleuritis in the right side and pneumonia. Another goat had focal pneumonia in the left diaphragmatic lobe. Microscopically there was subacute hyperplastic suppurative bronchiolitis, atelectasis and nonsuppurative alveolitis. The infected animals did not clear the mycoplasma and not all of them produced antibodies. Mycoplasma arginini, strain D53e, did not induce lesions in any of four goat kids within 14 days after inoculation but did cause transient elevations in rectal temperature, circulating monocytes, circulating neutrophils and blood fibrinogen. Mycoplasma arginini was infective and immunogenic for all inoculated animals and showed a particular affinity for the tonsil. Thus, this study provides the first evidence that M. ovipneumoniae is pathogenic for goats causing pneumonia and pleuritis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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PMCID: PMC1255160  PMID: 3742358
5.  Isolation of Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides from Polyarthritis and Mastitis of Goats in Canada 
The clinical signs, pathomorphological changes, and microbiological findings in Canadian goats infected with Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides are discussed. The disease affected mainly young goats and was characterized by septicemia and polyarthritis. Mastitis followed by septicemia was seen in two mature goats. The diagnosis was made by culture and identification of the mycoplasma. Infected goats without clinical signs were identified by cultural and serological (complement fixation) techniques. Healthy carriers are presumably able to transmit the infection and may have brought the disease to Canada.
PMCID: PMC1790251  PMID: 17422225
7.  Bluetongue in cattle: a review. 
PMCID: PMC1789385  PMID: 207405

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