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2.  Morphometric and steroid hormone changes associated with experimental anovulatory follicles in the sow. 
Steroid levels and ovarian follicular morphology were examined in sows on days 19 and 26 (day 5 of next cycle) after injection of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or dexamethasone (DXM). Five sows received DXM (30 micrograms/kg bodyweight, intramuscularly) at 12 h intervals from days 9 to 14. Another five sows were given ACTH (2 IU/kg bodyweight, intramuscularly) from day 17 to day 19 or the end of estrus. Five control sows received no treatment. Ovulation occurred only in control sows and progesterone was significantly elevated at day 26. Estradiol values in ovarian vein blood were low but variable on day 19 in DXM- and ACTH-treated animals. Androstenedione values were lower (p less than 0.05) on both days in sows receiving DXM but not in those given ACTH compared to control values on day 19. Morphometric analysis, based on six follicles in each of three sows from each treatment group, indicated that follicular and antral diameters and granulosa cell numbers did not differ for either hormone treatment group on either day compared to those of control sows on day 19. The mitotic index suggested that cell replication continued. However, pyknotic and karyorrhectic nuclei were also seen in the hormone treatment groups. Follicles and oocytes from both DXM- and ACTH-treated sows showed signs of early degenerative changes including disorganization of cumulus cells and large lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of oocytes. Significant differences from control follicles in granulosa cell density and theca interna cell density suggested an association with the altered steroid hormone secretion.
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PMCID: PMC1263452  PMID: 1653638
3.  The pulmonary clearance of Pasteurella haemolytica in calves infected with bovine virus diarrhea or Mycoplasma bovis. 
Based on current literature which commonly associates bovine virus diarrhea virus and Mycoplasma bovis with "pneumonic pasteurellosis," an investigation was conducted into the effect of these two pathogens on the capacity of bovine lung to clear inhaled Pasteurella haemolytica. There was no significant effect (p less than 0.05) of either bovine virus diarrhea virus or M. bovis on the mean clearance rate of P. haemolytica, nor did the time interval of three, five or seven days between the first inoculation and exposure to P. haemolytica and adversely affect the lung clearance rates. However, it was found that the left lungs and a higher bacterial retention (p less than 0.05) than the right lungs.
PMCID: PMC1320328  PMID: 7127194
4.  Copper-induced skeletal myopathy in rabbits. 
Doses of 1.66 mg Cu/kg/day, as cupric acetate in aqueous solution, were injected intramuscularly into the lateral thigh muscles of rabbits. The rate of loss of Cu from the injection site was estimated from in vivo measurements of 64Cu injected on the 15th day. Biological half-life values were 1.0 h for the first component (accounting for 65.2% of the 64 Cu) and 14.6 h for the second component (34.8% of the 64Cu). For the control group, values were 0.8 h and 62.2%, 14.6 h and 37.8%. Grossly visible lesions of dermatitis were noted on the paws, i.e. at sites removed from the site of injection, in some rabbits injected with Cu acetate two days post injectionem (p.i.). Histologically detectable lesions of acute inflammation were seen as early as 24 hours p.i. at the injection site of rabbits which had been exposed to the Cu once. Multiple injections and longer time periods resulted in lesions of acute and chronic inflammation. Cu was detected by the use of rubeanic acid stain. Signs of muscle degeneration and regeneration were seen as early as three days p.i. in rabbits which had received two injections of Cu. Rabbits which had been killed six days p.i. after a single injection showed chronic inflammatory changes and newly formed myofibres. Rabbits which had been killed 37 days p.i. after 17 injections showed lesions of acute and chronic inflammation of muscle and surrounding connective tissue, as well as signs of muscle regeneration. The gangrene visible grossly was attributed to the ischaemia caused by conglomerations of Cu.
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PMCID: PMC1320128  PMID: 7272848
5.  Experimental polychlorinated biphenyl toxicosis in germfree pigs. 
The effects of polychlorinated biphenyls were studied in eight germfree pigs. Beginning at fourteen days of age, two pigs each were fed daily 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of polychlorinated biphenyls as Aroclor 1254. Three germfree pigs were negative controls. Clinically the treated pigs had inappetance, a hemorrhagic diarrhea, erythema of the nose and the anus, retarded growth, distended abdomen and at the higher dose levels, incoordination and coma followed by death. Deaths occurred in 11 to 35 days after exposure. At necropsy, the piglets exhibited grossly enlarged mottled liver, erosions of the gastric mucosa, hemorrhages through the mesentery and the intestinal wall, a fibrinous pericarditis, a hypoplastic thymus and congested swollen thyroid glands. The histopathological lesions included hepatic centrolobular necrosis, interstitial myocarditis, endocarditis, myopathy of the muscles, gastric erosions and colitis. All of the organs examined for polychlorinated biphenyls had elevated residue levels which were particularly high in the fat, liver, psoas muscle, brain and kidney and were higher than has been reported in conventional pigs fed approximately equal concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls. The severity of clinical signs, pathological changes and tissue concentrations were directly related to the dose administered and were more pronounced in the germfree pigs than has been described in conventional pigs.
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PMCID: PMC1277615  PMID: 96924
6.  Swine dysentery: inoculation of gnotobiotic pigs with Treponema hyodysenteriae and Vibrio coli and a Peptostreptococcus. 
Pure cultures of Treponema hyodysenteriae given orally to conventional pigs resulted in the development of swine dysentery, whereas identical cultures given to gnotobiotic pigs did not produce the disease. Oral inoculation of gnotobiotic pigs with Vibrio coli and/or a peptostreptococcus in addition to T. hyodysenteriae did not result in dysentery. Neutralization of gastric secretions with NaHCO3 immediately prior to inoculation with T. hyodysenteriae increased the period during which treponemes were evident in the feces, as did the inoculation of this organism via the intracecal route. None of the gnotobiotic pigs with a persistent fecal Treponema population developed signs of dysentery. Factors other than those investigated in this work must play a part in the etiology of swine dysentery.
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PMCID: PMC1277593  PMID: 907906
7.  Combined scanning electron and light microscopy of biopsy samples of bovine uterus. 
Uterine biopsies from normal cyclic cows were optimally prepared for examination in a scanning electron microscope. After examination in the scanning electron microscope the same tissues were routinely processed for paraffin sectioning and reexamined with the light microscope. Results indicate that the scanning electron microscope is satisfactory for examination of the fine surface structure of the endometrium and the light microscope for subsurface structures of the bovine uterus.
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PMCID: PMC1277496  PMID: 1175079
9.  The Occurrence of Microthrombi on the Aortic Endothelium of Swine 
Evidence is presented in this report that microthrombi composed chiefly of platelets form on what appears to be morphologically normal swine endothelium and that the pattern of the deposits corresponds to that in analogous flow-chamber models, and to the lesions in the early stages of swine atherosclerosis. Since mural thrombi occur in young swine, it seems reasonable to suggest that this is to some extent a normal process. The cumulative effects of such a process could be a factor in the primary as well as the late stages of atherosclerosis.
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PMCID: PMC1849519  PMID: 13897542

Results 1-9 (9)