The effects of polychlorinated biphenyls were studied in eight germfree pigs. Beginning at fourteen days of age, two pigs each were fed daily 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of polychlorinated biphenyls as Aroclor 1254. Three germfree pigs were negative controls. Clinically the treated pigs had inappetance, a hemorrhagic diarrhea, erythema of the nose and the anus, retarded growth, distended abdomen and at the higher dose levels, incoordination and coma followed by death. Deaths occurred in 11 to 35 days after exposure. At necropsy, the piglets exhibited grossly enlarged mottled liver, erosions of the gastric mucosa, hemorrhages through the mesentery and the intestinal wall, a fibrinous pericarditis, a hypoplastic thymus and congested swollen thyroid glands. The histopathological lesions included hepatic centrolobular necrosis, interstitial myocarditis, endocarditis, myopathy of the muscles, gastric erosions and colitis. All of the organs examined for polychlorinated biphenyls had elevated residue levels which were particularly high in the fat, liver, psoas muscle, brain and kidney and were higher than has been reported in conventional pigs fed approximately equal concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls. The severity of clinical signs, pathological changes and tissue concentrations were directly related to the dose administered and were more pronounced in the germfree pigs than has been described in conventional pigs.