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1.  Identification of a mutant bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) in post-arrival outbreaks of IBR in feedlot calves and protection with conventional vaccination. 
Outbreaks of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) have recently been observed in vaccinated feedlot calves in Alberta a few months post-arrival. To investigate the cause of these outbreaks, lung and tracheal tissues were collected from calves that died of IBR during a post-arrival outbreak of disease. Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), the causative agent of IBR, was isolated from 6 out of 15 tissues. Of these 6 isolates, 5 failed to react with a monoclonal antibody specific for one of the epitopes on glycoprotein D, one of the most important antigens of BHV-1. The ability of one of these mutant BHV-1 isolates to cause disease in calves vaccinated with a modified-live IBR vaccine was assessed in an experimental challenge study. After one vaccination, the majority of the calves developed humoral and cellular immune responses. Secondary vaccination resulted in a substantially enhanced level of immunity in all animals. Three months after the second vaccination, calves were either challenged with one of the mutant isolates or with a conventional challenge strain of BHV-1. Regardless of the type of virus used for challenge, vaccinated calves experienced significantly (P < 0.05) less weight loss and temperature rises, had lower nasal scores, and shed less virus than non-vaccinated animals. The only statistically significant (P < 0.05) difference between the 2 challenge viruses was the amount of virus shed, which was higher in non-vaccinated calves challenged with the mutant virus than in those challenged with the conventional virus. These data show that calves vaccinated with a modified-live IBR vaccine are protected from challenge with either the mutant or the conventional virus.
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PMCID: PMC1189653  PMID: 11346260
2.  The effect of intrauterine inoculation with Ureaplasma diversum on bovine fertility. 
To determine the influence of Ureaplasma diversum on bovine fertility 11 uninfected virgin heifers with normal ovarian cyclic activity were randomly allocated to test or control groups. At a synchronized estrus, five test heifers were given an intrauterine broth inoculum containing 1.09 x 10(8) to 1.4 x 10(9) colony forming units of U. diversum and six control animals were infused with sterile ureaplasma broth medium. All animals were artificially inseminated within one hour of infusion. Pregnancy was diagnosed in one of five test heifers and all of six controls by serum progesterone concentrations measured to 25 days postinsemination. The difference in pregnancy rates between the two groups was statistically significant (p = 0.0152). It was concluded that under the conditions of this experiment U. diversum is capable of causing infertility in cattle.
PMCID: PMC1255361  PMID: 3453263
3.  Effects of gonadotrophin releasing hormone on reproductive performance of dairy cows with retained placenta. 
The effects of gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) on the reproductive performance of dairy cows with retained placenta were studied. Three hundred and seventy-eight cows diagnosed as having retained placenta received intramuscular injections of either 2 mL sterile water or 200 micrograms of GnRH in 2 mL sterile water between day 8 and day 14 postpartum. Rectal palpation was performed at the time of treatment and ten to 20 days after treatment in order to determine the rate of uterine involution. Thereafter, monthly rectal examinations were carried out until insemination. Pregnancy diagnosis was made by rectal palpation at 40 days or more after breeding. Using the entire experimental population, there were no significant differences between GnRH-treated and control cows for the rate of uterine involution, the occurrence of reproductive problems, the interval from parturition to first observed estrus, the interval from parturition to first insemination, the interval from parturition to conception, the number of services per conception, the total number of services per cow regardless of conception and the incidence of culling for infertility. When the data for herds in which breeding began earlier in the postpartum period (herds having a mean less than or equal to 80 days from parturition to first service for retained placenta cows) were considered, the GnRH treatment resulted in a significantly shorter (p less than or equal to 0.01) calving to conception interval as compared to control cows. Also, there was a significant reduction (p less than or equal to 0.05) in the total number of services per cow regardless of conception and a significant reduction in the interval from parturition to first service.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMCID: PMC1236082  PMID: 6391640
4.  Reproductive performance in dairy cows following postpartum treatment with gonadotrophin releasing hormone and/or prostaglandin: a field trial. 
Three hundred and five Holstein Friesian cows were given either 250 micrograms gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) or saline on day 15 postpartum followed by 500 micrograms cloprostenol or saline on day 24 postpartum. Four treatment groups were formed using random allocation: Group I -- placebo (Day 15)/placebo (Day 24), Group II -- GnRH (Day 15)/placebo (Day 24), Group III -- placebo (Day 15)/cloprostenol (Day 24), Group IV -- GnRH (Day 15)/cloprostenol (Day 24). Double blind techniques were used during the follow-up period. Rectal palpation, to assess uterine involution and ovarian activity was performed just prior to each treatment and again at 28 days postpartum. In addition blood samples were collected at 15, 24 and 28 days postpartum for measurement of plasma progesterone. There were no significant differences among treatment groups with respect to services per conception, number of heats detected before first service and culling for infertility. Cows treated only with GnRH had an increased calving to first estrus and calving to first breeding interval, and tended to have an increased calving to conception interval. Treatment with cloprostenol significantly decreased calving to conception and calving to first observed estrus intervals. Treatment with GnRH on day 15 postpartum resulted in a significant increase in the subsequent incidence of pyometra and prebreeding anestrus. On the other hand, cloprostenol treatment on day 24 postpartum resulted in a decreased incidence of pyometra, regardless of GnRH treatment and a decreased incidence of prebreeding anestrus in GnRH treated cows compared to cows receiving only GnRH at day 15 postpartum.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMCID: PMC1236054  PMID: 6383577
5.  Occurrence of "Haemophilus somnus" in bovine semen and in the prepuce of bulls and steers. 
Haemophilus somnus was isolated from 40 of 79 unprocessed bovine semen samples, 14 of 23 preputial washings of bulls and three of eight preputial washings of steers. The results indicate nonvenereal colonization of the male urogenital tract. It is suggested that dissemination of H. somnus from the urogenital tract may be of significance in the epizootiology of H. somnus associated diseases.
PMCID: PMC1320285  PMID: 7093816
6.  A quantitative study of the histological morphology of the endometrium of normal and barren mares. 
The density of uterine glands, height of surface epithelium, numbers of hemosiderin laden macrophages, inflammatory cells and layers of periglandular fibrosis were evaluated in uterine biopsies from 40 mares. These features were found to be highly variable in normal equine endometrium. Minor pathological changes appeared to be masked by this normal variability. Atrophy of uterine glands was recognized in mares which had been barren for more than three years. No significant differences were found between barren and normal mares in the height of epithelium, number of hemosiderin laden macrophages, inflammatory cells or layers of collagen surrounding glands in the superficial portion of endometrium. The number of layers of fibrosis surrounding glands in the deep part of lamina propria were found to be correlated with years of barrenness. This finding appears to have prognostic potential.
PMCID: PMC1320187  PMID: 7200386
7.  The genital Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma flora of healthy and diseased dogs. 
The genital mycoplasma and ureaplasma flora was compared in 136 dogs with varied reproductive histories. Mycoplasmas were recovered from 88% of vulvovaginal swabs, 85% preputial swabs and 72% semen samples. Isolation rates were slightly higher from dogs that were infertile or had evidence of genital disease but the differences from those that were fertile or clinically normal were statistically significant only in the male. Ureaplasmas were recovered from half the females sampled. Higher, but not statistically significant isolation rates (75%) were made from infertile females with purulent vulvar discharge versus those that were clinically normal and fertile (40%). In the male dog there was a significantly higher incidence of ureaplasmas in the prepuce of infertile animals (69%) than those that were fertile (0%) (p less than or equal to 0.05). Semen isolations although not significantly higher in infertile males, were all made from ejaculates, with subnormal motility, low sperm counts and/or a high percentage of midpiece and tail abnormalities (bent or tightly coiled).
PMCID: PMC1320213  PMID: 7340908
8.  Pregnancy and Peripheral Plasma Progesterone Levels in Cows Inseminated after Synchronization of Estrus with Prostaglandin F2α 
Fifteen Holstein cows were treated with two doses of 25 mg of a prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α as dinoprost tromethamine) administered intramuscularly 11 days apart. The cows were then divided into three groups and inseminated either at 72, 80 or 72 and 96 hours after the second dose of PGF2α. Thirteen cows ovulated after the second prostaglandin treatment. Eight cows were diagnosed pregnant by rectal palpation 42 days after insemination but only five calved. PGF2α induced luteolysis in cows with active corpora lutea as evidenced by the dramatic decreases in the plasma progesterone concentrations after treatment. In contrast, following PGF2α administration to cows in follicular or late luteal phase the concentrations of plasma progesterone either increased gradually or remained low for several days before increasing to maximal levels. The ovulatory rate after the two doses of PGF2α11 days apart was high. However, the pregnancy rate after this treatment was influenced by other factors including abnormal ovarian function.
PMCID: PMC1789877  PMID: 6945141
9.  The Use of Endometrial Biopsy in the Infertile Mare 
The results of a study on endometrial biopsies obtained from 700 infertile mares are reported. Infiltrative endometritis was present in 51% consisting of a combination of an acute and chronic cellular response in 6%, mild chronic infiltrations in 35% and moderate to severe chronic infiltrations in 10%.
Demonstrable endometrial fibrosis was found in 88% of the mares with the majority having mild (51%) or moderate (35%) changes. The age of the mares and the average number of years barren gradually increased with the severity of endometrial fibrosis, as did the combined incidence of fetal loss (early embryonic death and abortion) during the three year period preceding the biopsy.
A significant decrease in foaling percentage for the year following the biopsy was observed with increasing severity of endometrial fibrosis. Chisquare analysis projected a decrease in foaling rate of 22.8% for each category increase in severity.
The number of years barren and the farm management system used also had a significant effect on foaling probability. The foaling rates for mares that were bred artificially (82%) under strict veterinary supervision using an extender incorporating gentamicin were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than for mares bred in a conventional manner under average management conditions (48%).
It was concluded that endometrial biopsy is a valuable diagnostic and prognostic technique. When the degree of fibrosis is used to predict foaling probability, the number of years barren and the breeding method to be used should also be considered to arrive at a more accurate prediction.
PMCID: PMC1789874  PMID: 7026016
10.  Experimental bovine genital ureaplasmosis. I. Granular vulvitis following vulvar inoculation. 
Granular vulvitis was reproduced in ten virgin heifers following vulvar inoculation with strains of ureaplasma previously isolated from natural cases. The disease appeared one to three days postinoculation and was characterized by vulvar swabs but not from the upper mucopurulent discharge. At necropsy 13 to 41 days later, ureaplasmas were recovered consistently from vulvar swabs but not from the upper reproductive tract. It was concluded that some strains of ureaplasma are pathogenic and should be viewed as a cause of bovine granular vulvitis.
PMCID: PMC1320070  PMID: 7427772
11.  Experimental Bovine Genital Ureaplasmosis II. Granular Vulvitis, Endometritis and Salpingitis Following Uterine Inoculation 
Twenty-three virgin Holstein heifers received uterine inoculations with ureaplasma and were necropsied one to thirteen days later. Three heifers inoculated intracervically were necropsied on days 3, 5 and 11.
Granular vulvitis was produced on average by 3.6 days in fourteen of sixteen uterine inoculated heifers monitored for four or more days. Two cervically inoculated heifers monitored for over four days also developed granular vulvitis by the fourth day.
At necropsy, ureaplasma was recovered from 94% of uterine horn cultures for the first four days postinoculation and 50% during days 5 to 7. Thereafter all uterine cultures were negative. The percentage of positive ureaplasma recoveries from uterine tube flushings was lower than for uterine horns but remained positive for a longer period. By day 7, three of four uterine tube flushings were still positive. No bacterial pathogens were isolated from the uterine horns or uterine tube flushings.
On histopathology 50% of uterine inoculated heifers had endometritis up to six days postinoculation and a slightly higher percentage (58%) had salpingitis. Endometritis was not found in any heifers after day 6. Residual salpingitis was present in one heifer on day 7. Endometritis was present in cervically inoculated heifers necropsied on days 3 and 5 but not on day 11. Salpingitis was not found in any of the three cervically inoculated animals.
The study concluded that some strains of ureaplasma are pathogenic for the upper reproductive tract of the cow and should be considered significant when isolated from cases of granular vulvitis, endometritis or salpingitis.
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PMCID: PMC1320071  PMID: 7427773
12.  Bovine Granular Vulvitis Associated with Ureaplasma Infection 
A granular vulvitis syndrome associated with ureaplasma infection was first recognized in Ontario dairy herds in 1972.
The acute form of the disease was characterized by a purulent vulvar discharge, an inflamed hyperemic vulvar mucosa and varying degrees of granularity. In the chronic form, there was an absence of a purulent discharge and a gradual decline in the severity of the hyperemia and granularity. Epithelial inclusion cysts were observed in the vulvar epithelium of approximately 10% of affected cows.
A seasonal variation in the incidence of the disease was observed. Herd morbidities during the summer months reached a low of 37% and increased to 75% during the winter months with constant housing.
When widespread in herds, the acute form of the disease had a significant effect on fertility. In four herds examined, first service conceptions dropped on average by 27%.
The chronic form of the disease had a less detrimental effect on fertility with first service conceptions being reduced on average by 13%.
Intrauterine infusions of a tetracycline 24 hours postbreeding were found to be of value in improving conception rates in acutely affected herds.
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PMCID: PMC1789526  PMID: 427710
13.  Clinical efficacy and tolerance of meloxicam in dogs with chronic osteoarthritis. 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  2000;41(4):296-300.
A clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug meloxicam in dogs with chronic osteoarthritis. Forty clinical cases were enrolled in the 2-phase study. Phase 1 compared therapeutic efficacy and tolerance of meloxicam or placebo for 1 week. Phase 2 involved a 4-week evaluation of the drug's clinical efficacy and tolerance. Clinical efficacy was evaluated by using a scoring system that assessed specific lameness, general stiffness, painful rise, exercise intolerance, and behavior. Evaluations demonstrated significant reductions (P < 0.05) in clinical signs of osteoarthritis following 4 weeks of drug therapy. Side effects were minimal in extent and duration. The drug was accepted without problems in the majority of cases. The findings of this investigation suggest that the efficacy, tolerance, and formulation of meloxicam oral suspension make it well suited for the treatment of chronic osteoarthritis in the dog.
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PMCID: PMC1476158  PMID: 10769766
17.  The putative neuraminyllactose-binding hemagglutinin HpaA of Helicobacter pylori CCUG 17874 is a lipoprotein. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1995;177(21):6049-6057.
The ability of certain strains of Helicobacter pylori to cause sialic acid-sensitive agglutination of erythrocytes has been attributed to the HpaA protein (D.G. Evans, T.K. Karjalainen, D. J. Evans, Jr., D. Y. Graham, and C.H. Lee, J. Bacteriol. 175:674-683, 1993), the gene for which has been cloned and sequenced. On the basis of the hydropathy plot of HpaA and the presence of a potential lipoprotein signal sequence and modification site, and because of the similarities of these features with those of the cell envelope lipoprotein Lpp20 of H. pylori, we examined the possibility that HpaA was also a lipoprotein. Posttranslational processing of the HpaA protein expressed by the cloned gene was sensitive to globomycin, an inhibitor of the lipoprotein-specific signal peptidase II. Antibodies raised to the putative sialic acid-binding region of HpaA failed to bind to the surface of H. pylori cells in immunoelectron microscopy but instead were observed to have labeled the cytoplasm when thin sections were examined. This antibody recognized a 29,000-M(r) protein in Western blots (immunoblots) of cell extracts of H. pylori and Escherichia coli cells expressing the cloned hpaA gene. Determination of the sequence of hpaA from strain CCUG 17874 indicated significant differences from that determined by Evans and coworkers in the above-mentioned study, including extension of the gene into the open reading frame 3 downstream of hpaA to produce a protein with an M(r) of 26,414. Localization of HpaA indicated that it was predominantly located in the cytoplasmic fraction of the cell in both E. coli and H. pylori. HpaA was not observed in the sarkosyl-insoluble outer membrane fraction. An isogenic mutant generated by insertional inactivation of hpaA was unaffected in its ability to bind four different human cell lines as well as fixed sections of gastric tissue and had hemagglutination properties identical to those of the wild type. The data collectively suggest that HpaA is a nonessential lipoprotein internal to the H. pylori cell and that it is not involved in adhesion.
PMCID: PMC177441  PMID: 7592366
18.  Isolation and characterization of a conserved porin protein from Helicobacter pylori. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1995;177(19):5447-5452.
Helicobacter pylori is a causative agent of gastritis in humans and is correlated with gastric ulcer formation. Infections with this bacterium have proven difficult to treat with antimicrobial agents. To better understand how this bacterium transports compounds such as antimicrobial agents across its outer membrane, identification of porin proteins is important. We have recently identified a family of H. pylori porins (HopA to HopD) (M. M. Exner, P. Doig, T. J. Trust, and R. E. W. Hancock, Infect. Immun. 63:1567-1572, 1995). Here, we report on an unrelated porin species (HopE) from this bacterium. This protein had a apparent molecular mass of 31 kDa and was seen to form 50- and 90-kDa aggregates that were designated putative dimeric and trimeric forms, respectively. The protein was purified to homogeneity and, with a model planar lipid membrane system, was shown to act as a nonselective pore with a single channel conductance in 1.0 M KCl of 1.5 nS, similarly to other bacterial nonspecific porins. An internal peptide sequence of HopE shared homology with the P2 porin of Haemophilus influenzae. HopE was also shown to be antigenic in vivo as assessed by sera taken from H. pylori-infected individuals and was immunologically conserved with both patient sera and specific monoclonal antibodies. From these data, it appears that HopE is a major nonselective porin of H. pylori. The implications of these findings are discussed.
PMCID: PMC177350  PMID: 7559328
19.  Stimulation of interleukin-8 production in epithelial cell lines by Helicobacter pylori. 
Infection and Immunity  1995;63(5):1732-1738.
Following exposure to Helicobacter pylori cells, epithelial cell lines secreted interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 but not tumor necrosis factor alpha. Purified IL-6 alone did not stimulate IL-8 production from the cell lines tested, indicating that IL-6 was not an intermediary in IL-8 induction. Enhanced IL-8 secretion occurred in a time- and dose-dependent manner. None of 12 antibiotics tested exhibited a significant effect on IL-8-inducing activity, suggesting that preformed antigens were responsible for stimulating IL-8 secretion in vitro. Live bacterial cells caused the highest level of stimulation. Proteinase-digested and heated (56 or 100 degrees C) cells had significantly reduced stimulatory activities. Purified H. pylori lipopolysaccharide, but not exopolysaccharide, stimulated low-level secretion of IL-8, but only at high concentrations, while a water-extracted H. pylori antigen preparation was strongly stimulatory for HEp-2 cells. No reduction in IL-8-stimulatory activity was observed for H. pylori mutants negative for urease activity, production of a major lipoprotein, and motility. The noncytotoxic strain CCUG 915 stimulated lower IL-8 levels than other isolates. However, the otherwise isogenic cytotoxin-negative mutant 17874 delta vacA (S. H. Phadnis, D. Ilver, L. Janzon, S. Normark, and T. U. Westblom, Infect. Immun. 62:1557-1565, 1994) had the same IL-8-stimulatory ability as the parent strain, suggesting that surface proteins other than the vacuolating cytotoxin are involved in IL-8 stimulation.
PMCID: PMC173217  PMID: 7729879
20.  Isolation and characterization of a family of porin proteins from Helicobacter pylori. 
Infection and Immunity  1995;63(4):1567-1572.
Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to identify heat-modifiable outer membrane proteins, which were candidates for porins, from Helicobacter pylori membrane preparations. Four such proteins with apparent molecular masses of 48, 49, 50, and 67 kDa were isolated. The four proteins copurified together after selective detergent solubilizations followed by anion-exchange chromatography, and each protein was ultimately purified to homogeneity by gel purification. These proteins were then tested for pore-forming ability with a planar lipid bilayer model membrane system. All four proteins appeared to be present as monomers, and they formed pores with low single-channel conductances in 1.0 M KCl of 0.36, 0.36, 0.30, and 0.25 nS, respectively, for the 48-, 49-, 50-, and 67-kDa proteins which we propose to designate HopA, HopB, HopC, and HopD. N-terminal amino acid sequence analyses showed a high degree of homology among all four proteins, and it appears that these proteins constitute a family of related porins in H. pylori.
PMCID: PMC173190  PMID: 7534278
21.  Identification of surface-exposed outer membrane antigens of Helicobacter pylori. 
Infection and Immunity  1994;62(10):4526-4533.
Despite the potential significance of surface-localized antigens in the colonization by and disease processes of Helicobacter pylori, few such components have been unequivocally identified and/or characterized. To further investigate the surface of this bacterium, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to a sarcosine-insoluble outer membrane fraction prepared from H. pylori NCTC 11637 were raised. MAbs were selected on the basis of their surface reactivity to whole cells by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunofluorescence, and immunoelectron microscopy. By use of this selection protocol, 14 surface-reactive MAbs were chosen. These MAbs were used to identify six protein antigens (molecular masses, 80, 60, 51, 50, 48, and 31 kDa), all of which were localized within or associated with the outer membrane. Two of the MAbs recognized the core region of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Only these two anti-LPS MAbs also recognized the flagellar sheath, indicating a structural difference between the sheath and outer membrane. Three of the protein antigens (80, 60, and 51 kDa) were strain specific, while the other three antigens were present in other strains of H. pylori. Both the 51- and 48-kDa antigens were heat modifiable and likely are porins. A conserved 31-kDa protein may represent another species of porin. A method involving sucrose density ultracentrifugation and Triton extraction that allows the preparation of H. pylori outer membranes with minimal inner membrane contamination is described. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed that the protein content of the H. pylori outer membrane is similar structurally to those of other species of Helicobacter but markedly different from those of taxonomically related Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli. H. pylori also appeared to lack peptidoglycan-associated proteins.
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PMCID: PMC303139  PMID: 7927718
22.  Partial characterization of a Candida albicans fimbrial adhesin. 
Infection and Immunity  1994;62(7):2834-2842.
Candida albicans is the primary etiologic agent of candidiasis, a disease that can vary from superficial mucosal lesions to life-threatening systemic or disseminated diseases. Strains of C. albicans have been reported to possess long, thin filamentous protein cell surface appendages termed fimbriae (R.B. Gardiner, M. Canton, and A. W. Day, Bot. Gaz. 143:534-541, 1982). These fimbriae were isolated, purified, and partially characterized. The major structural subunit of the fimbriae is a glycoprotein which consists of 80 to 85% carbohydrate (consisting primarily of D-mannose) and 10 to 15% protein. The molecular weight of the glycosylated fimbrial subunit is approximately 66,000, while unglycosylated protein has an approximate molecular weight of 8,644. The fimbriae function as adhesins mediating C. albicans binding to human buccal epithelial cells. Amino acid analysis of the purified fimbrial subunit indicates that the fimbrial subunit is composed of 50% hydrophobic amino acid residues. The N terminus of the fimbrial subunit is blocked to N-terminal sequencing.
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PMCID: PMC302889  PMID: 8005673
23.  Thin, aggregative fimbriae mediate binding of Salmonella enteritidis to fibronectin. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1993;175(1):12-18.
The binding of human fibronectin and Congo red by an autoaggregative Salmonella enteritidis strain was found to be dependent on its ability to produce thin, aggregative fimbriae, named SEF 17 (for Salmonella enteritidis fimbriae with an apparent fimbrin molecular mass of 17 kDa). Two other fimbrial types produced by S. enteritidis, SEF 14 and SEF 21, were not responsible for the aggregative phenotype or for fibronectin binding. SEF 17-negative TnphoA mutants which retained the ability to produce SEF 14 and SEF 21 were unable to bind human fibronectin or Congo red and lost the ability to autoaggregate. Only purified SEF 17 but not purified SEF 14 or SEF 21 bound fibronectin in a solid-phase binding assay. Furthermore, only SEF 17 was able to inhibit fibronectin binding to S. enteritidis whole cells in a direct competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. These results indicate that SEF 17 are the fimbriae responsible for binding fibronectin by this enteropathogen.
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PMCID: PMC196092  PMID: 8093237
24.  The Helicobacter pylori 19.6-kilodalton protein is an iron-containing protein resembling ferritin. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1993;175(2):557-560.
The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori has been shown to produce a 19.6-kDa protein with apparent binding activity for erythrocytes, human buccal epithelial cells, and laminin. In this report we demonstrate that it is an iron-binding protein, resembling ferritin both structurally and biochemically. Also, because its binding activity for laminin, erythrocytes, and buccal cells was abolished by low concentrations of Tween 20, binding is likely nonspecific.
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PMCID: PMC196173  PMID: 8419304
25.  Structural comparison of urease and a GroEL analog from Helicobacter pylori. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1992;174(22):7470-7473.
Electron microscopy of purified protein preparations indicated that Helicobacter pylori urease consisted of circular particles that are 13 nm in diameter, some of which showed indications of threefold rotational symmetry. A GroEL analog of H. pylori (Hp60K) appeared as a disc-shaped molecule with a diameter similar to that of urease but possessed sevenfold rotational symmetry. In a side-view projection, Hp60K appeared as two or four discs stacked side by side.
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PMCID: PMC207446  PMID: 1358875

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