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1.  Identification of a mutant bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) in post-arrival outbreaks of IBR in feedlot calves and protection with conventional vaccination. 
Outbreaks of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) have recently been observed in vaccinated feedlot calves in Alberta a few months post-arrival. To investigate the cause of these outbreaks, lung and tracheal tissues were collected from calves that died of IBR during a post-arrival outbreak of disease. Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), the causative agent of IBR, was isolated from 6 out of 15 tissues. Of these 6 isolates, 5 failed to react with a monoclonal antibody specific for one of the epitopes on glycoprotein D, one of the most important antigens of BHV-1. The ability of one of these mutant BHV-1 isolates to cause disease in calves vaccinated with a modified-live IBR vaccine was assessed in an experimental challenge study. After one vaccination, the majority of the calves developed humoral and cellular immune responses. Secondary vaccination resulted in a substantially enhanced level of immunity in all animals. Three months after the second vaccination, calves were either challenged with one of the mutant isolates or with a conventional challenge strain of BHV-1. Regardless of the type of virus used for challenge, vaccinated calves experienced significantly (P < 0.05) less weight loss and temperature rises, had lower nasal scores, and shed less virus than non-vaccinated animals. The only statistically significant (P < 0.05) difference between the 2 challenge viruses was the amount of virus shed, which was higher in non-vaccinated calves challenged with the mutant virus than in those challenged with the conventional virus. These data show that calves vaccinated with a modified-live IBR vaccine are protected from challenge with either the mutant or the conventional virus.
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PMCID: PMC1189653  PMID: 11346260
2.  Clinical efficacy and tolerance of meloxicam in dogs with chronic osteoarthritis. 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  2000;41(4):296-300.
A clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug meloxicam in dogs with chronic osteoarthritis. Forty clinical cases were enrolled in the 2-phase study. Phase 1 compared therapeutic efficacy and tolerance of meloxicam or placebo for 1 week. Phase 2 involved a 4-week evaluation of the drug's clinical efficacy and tolerance. Clinical efficacy was evaluated by using a scoring system that assessed specific lameness, general stiffness, painful rise, exercise intolerance, and behavior. Evaluations demonstrated significant reductions (P < 0.05) in clinical signs of osteoarthritis following 4 weeks of drug therapy. Side effects were minimal in extent and duration. The drug was accepted without problems in the majority of cases. The findings of this investigation suggest that the efficacy, tolerance, and formulation of meloxicam oral suspension make it well suited for the treatment of chronic osteoarthritis in the dog.
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PMCID: PMC1476158  PMID: 10769766
6.  The putative neuraminyllactose-binding hemagglutinin HpaA of Helicobacter pylori CCUG 17874 is a lipoprotein. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1995;177(21):6049-6057.
The ability of certain strains of Helicobacter pylori to cause sialic acid-sensitive agglutination of erythrocytes has been attributed to the HpaA protein (D.G. Evans, T.K. Karjalainen, D. J. Evans, Jr., D. Y. Graham, and C.H. Lee, J. Bacteriol. 175:674-683, 1993), the gene for which has been cloned and sequenced. On the basis of the hydropathy plot of HpaA and the presence of a potential lipoprotein signal sequence and modification site, and because of the similarities of these features with those of the cell envelope lipoprotein Lpp20 of H. pylori, we examined the possibility that HpaA was also a lipoprotein. Posttranslational processing of the HpaA protein expressed by the cloned gene was sensitive to globomycin, an inhibitor of the lipoprotein-specific signal peptidase II. Antibodies raised to the putative sialic acid-binding region of HpaA failed to bind to the surface of H. pylori cells in immunoelectron microscopy but instead were observed to have labeled the cytoplasm when thin sections were examined. This antibody recognized a 29,000-M(r) protein in Western blots (immunoblots) of cell extracts of H. pylori and Escherichia coli cells expressing the cloned hpaA gene. Determination of the sequence of hpaA from strain CCUG 17874 indicated significant differences from that determined by Evans and coworkers in the above-mentioned study, including extension of the gene into the open reading frame 3 downstream of hpaA to produce a protein with an M(r) of 26,414. Localization of HpaA indicated that it was predominantly located in the cytoplasmic fraction of the cell in both E. coli and H. pylori. HpaA was not observed in the sarkosyl-insoluble outer membrane fraction. An isogenic mutant generated by insertional inactivation of hpaA was unaffected in its ability to bind four different human cell lines as well as fixed sections of gastric tissue and had hemagglutination properties identical to those of the wild type. The data collectively suggest that HpaA is a nonessential lipoprotein internal to the H. pylori cell and that it is not involved in adhesion.
PMCID: PMC177441  PMID: 7592366
7.  Isolation and characterization of a conserved porin protein from Helicobacter pylori. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1995;177(19):5447-5452.
Helicobacter pylori is a causative agent of gastritis in humans and is correlated with gastric ulcer formation. Infections with this bacterium have proven difficult to treat with antimicrobial agents. To better understand how this bacterium transports compounds such as antimicrobial agents across its outer membrane, identification of porin proteins is important. We have recently identified a family of H. pylori porins (HopA to HopD) (M. M. Exner, P. Doig, T. J. Trust, and R. E. W. Hancock, Infect. Immun. 63:1567-1572, 1995). Here, we report on an unrelated porin species (HopE) from this bacterium. This protein had a apparent molecular mass of 31 kDa and was seen to form 50- and 90-kDa aggregates that were designated putative dimeric and trimeric forms, respectively. The protein was purified to homogeneity and, with a model planar lipid membrane system, was shown to act as a nonselective pore with a single channel conductance in 1.0 M KCl of 1.5 nS, similarly to other bacterial nonspecific porins. An internal peptide sequence of HopE shared homology with the P2 porin of Haemophilus influenzae. HopE was also shown to be antigenic in vivo as assessed by sera taken from H. pylori-infected individuals and was immunologically conserved with both patient sera and specific monoclonal antibodies. From these data, it appears that HopE is a major nonselective porin of H. pylori. The implications of these findings are discussed.
PMCID: PMC177350  PMID: 7559328
8.  Stimulation of interleukin-8 production in epithelial cell lines by Helicobacter pylori. 
Infection and Immunity  1995;63(5):1732-1738.
Following exposure to Helicobacter pylori cells, epithelial cell lines secreted interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 but not tumor necrosis factor alpha. Purified IL-6 alone did not stimulate IL-8 production from the cell lines tested, indicating that IL-6 was not an intermediary in IL-8 induction. Enhanced IL-8 secretion occurred in a time- and dose-dependent manner. None of 12 antibiotics tested exhibited a significant effect on IL-8-inducing activity, suggesting that preformed antigens were responsible for stimulating IL-8 secretion in vitro. Live bacterial cells caused the highest level of stimulation. Proteinase-digested and heated (56 or 100 degrees C) cells had significantly reduced stimulatory activities. Purified H. pylori lipopolysaccharide, but not exopolysaccharide, stimulated low-level secretion of IL-8, but only at high concentrations, while a water-extracted H. pylori antigen preparation was strongly stimulatory for HEp-2 cells. No reduction in IL-8-stimulatory activity was observed for H. pylori mutants negative for urease activity, production of a major lipoprotein, and motility. The noncytotoxic strain CCUG 915 stimulated lower IL-8 levels than other isolates. However, the otherwise isogenic cytotoxin-negative mutant 17874 delta vacA (S. H. Phadnis, D. Ilver, L. Janzon, S. Normark, and T. U. Westblom, Infect. Immun. 62:1557-1565, 1994) had the same IL-8-stimulatory ability as the parent strain, suggesting that surface proteins other than the vacuolating cytotoxin are involved in IL-8 stimulation.
PMCID: PMC173217  PMID: 7729879
9.  Isolation and characterization of a family of porin proteins from Helicobacter pylori. 
Infection and Immunity  1995;63(4):1567-1572.
Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to identify heat-modifiable outer membrane proteins, which were candidates for porins, from Helicobacter pylori membrane preparations. Four such proteins with apparent molecular masses of 48, 49, 50, and 67 kDa were isolated. The four proteins copurified together after selective detergent solubilizations followed by anion-exchange chromatography, and each protein was ultimately purified to homogeneity by gel purification. These proteins were then tested for pore-forming ability with a planar lipid bilayer model membrane system. All four proteins appeared to be present as monomers, and they formed pores with low single-channel conductances in 1.0 M KCl of 0.36, 0.36, 0.30, and 0.25 nS, respectively, for the 48-, 49-, 50-, and 67-kDa proteins which we propose to designate HopA, HopB, HopC, and HopD. N-terminal amino acid sequence analyses showed a high degree of homology among all four proteins, and it appears that these proteins constitute a family of related porins in H. pylori.
PMCID: PMC173190  PMID: 7534278
10.  Identification of surface-exposed outer membrane antigens of Helicobacter pylori. 
Infection and Immunity  1994;62(10):4526-4533.
Despite the potential significance of surface-localized antigens in the colonization by and disease processes of Helicobacter pylori, few such components have been unequivocally identified and/or characterized. To further investigate the surface of this bacterium, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to a sarcosine-insoluble outer membrane fraction prepared from H. pylori NCTC 11637 were raised. MAbs were selected on the basis of their surface reactivity to whole cells by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunofluorescence, and immunoelectron microscopy. By use of this selection protocol, 14 surface-reactive MAbs were chosen. These MAbs were used to identify six protein antigens (molecular masses, 80, 60, 51, 50, 48, and 31 kDa), all of which were localized within or associated with the outer membrane. Two of the MAbs recognized the core region of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Only these two anti-LPS MAbs also recognized the flagellar sheath, indicating a structural difference between the sheath and outer membrane. Three of the protein antigens (80, 60, and 51 kDa) were strain specific, while the other three antigens were present in other strains of H. pylori. Both the 51- and 48-kDa antigens were heat modifiable and likely are porins. A conserved 31-kDa protein may represent another species of porin. A method involving sucrose density ultracentrifugation and Triton extraction that allows the preparation of H. pylori outer membranes with minimal inner membrane contamination is described. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed that the protein content of the H. pylori outer membrane is similar structurally to those of other species of Helicobacter but markedly different from those of taxonomically related Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli. H. pylori also appeared to lack peptidoglycan-associated proteins.
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PMCID: PMC303139  PMID: 7927718
11.  Partial characterization of a Candida albicans fimbrial adhesin. 
Infection and Immunity  1994;62(7):2834-2842.
Candida albicans is the primary etiologic agent of candidiasis, a disease that can vary from superficial mucosal lesions to life-threatening systemic or disseminated diseases. Strains of C. albicans have been reported to possess long, thin filamentous protein cell surface appendages termed fimbriae (R.B. Gardiner, M. Canton, and A. W. Day, Bot. Gaz. 143:534-541, 1982). These fimbriae were isolated, purified, and partially characterized. The major structural subunit of the fimbriae is a glycoprotein which consists of 80 to 85% carbohydrate (consisting primarily of D-mannose) and 10 to 15% protein. The molecular weight of the glycosylated fimbrial subunit is approximately 66,000, while unglycosylated protein has an approximate molecular weight of 8,644. The fimbriae function as adhesins mediating C. albicans binding to human buccal epithelial cells. Amino acid analysis of the purified fimbrial subunit indicates that the fimbrial subunit is composed of 50% hydrophobic amino acid residues. The N terminus of the fimbrial subunit is blocked to N-terminal sequencing.
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PMCID: PMC302889  PMID: 8005673
12.  Thin, aggregative fimbriae mediate binding of Salmonella enteritidis to fibronectin. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1993;175(1):12-18.
The binding of human fibronectin and Congo red by an autoaggregative Salmonella enteritidis strain was found to be dependent on its ability to produce thin, aggregative fimbriae, named SEF 17 (for Salmonella enteritidis fimbriae with an apparent fimbrin molecular mass of 17 kDa). Two other fimbrial types produced by S. enteritidis, SEF 14 and SEF 21, were not responsible for the aggregative phenotype or for fibronectin binding. SEF 17-negative TnphoA mutants which retained the ability to produce SEF 14 and SEF 21 were unable to bind human fibronectin or Congo red and lost the ability to autoaggregate. Only purified SEF 17 but not purified SEF 14 or SEF 21 bound fibronectin in a solid-phase binding assay. Furthermore, only SEF 17 was able to inhibit fibronectin binding to S. enteritidis whole cells in a direct competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. These results indicate that SEF 17 are the fimbriae responsible for binding fibronectin by this enteropathogen.
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PMCID: PMC196092  PMID: 8093237
13.  The Helicobacter pylori 19.6-kilodalton protein is an iron-containing protein resembling ferritin. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1993;175(2):557-560.
The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori has been shown to produce a 19.6-kDa protein with apparent binding activity for erythrocytes, human buccal epithelial cells, and laminin. In this report we demonstrate that it is an iron-binding protein, resembling ferritin both structurally and biochemically. Also, because its binding activity for laminin, erythrocytes, and buccal cells was abolished by low concentrations of Tween 20, binding is likely nonspecific.
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PMCID: PMC196173  PMID: 8419304
14.  Structural comparison of urease and a GroEL analog from Helicobacter pylori. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1992;174(22):7470-7473.
Electron microscopy of purified protein preparations indicated that Helicobacter pylori urease consisted of circular particles that are 13 nm in diameter, some of which showed indications of threefold rotational symmetry. A GroEL analog of H. pylori (Hp60K) appeared as a disc-shaped molecule with a diameter similar to that of urease but possessed sevenfold rotational symmetry. In a side-view projection, Hp60K appeared as two or four discs stacked side by side.
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PMCID: PMC207446  PMID: 1358875
15.  Production of a conserved adhesin by the human gastroduodenal pathogen Helicobacter pylori. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1992;174(8):2539-2547.
An adhesin protein with an approximate subunit molecular weight of 19,600 has been purified from the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. The protein was loosely associated with the cell surface and was removed by gentle stirring or shearing. Released aggregates of the 19.6-kDa protein were removed from suspension by ultracentrifugation and separated from contaminating membranes by washing in 1.0% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The SDS-insoluble protein was purified further by Mono Q anion-exchange column chromatography. Electron microscopy of the purified adhesin demonstrated that it formed amorphous aggregates similar to the material attached to the bacterial cells and that the aggregates were morphologically distinct from typical fimbriae. Western blot (immunoblot) analysis with antiserum raised against the purified protein from one strain reacted with a protein with a similar subunit molecular weight present in all nine strains of H. pylori examined, but the protein was not present in other Helicobacter species examined. The N-terminal sequences of the 19.6-kDa protein purified from three different strains of H. pylori were identical for the first 28 amino acids, with the 10 amino-terminal residues showing limited sequence homology with the TcpA pilus protein of Vibrio cholerae. The H. pylori 19.6-kDa protein associated both with human and rabbit erythrocytes and with human buccal epithelial cells. Polystyrene microspheres coated with the protein agglutinated human, horse, and rabbit erythrocytes, suggesting that this protein species could mediate adhesion between H. pylori and eucaryotic cells. This ability to act as an adhesin may make this protein an important virulence factor for H. pylori and hence a potential target for a vaccine and therapy.
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PMCID: PMC205892  PMID: 1556073
16.  Binding of nonmucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa to normal human intestinal mucin and respiratory mucin from patients with cystic fibrosis. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1992;89(2):657-665.
Lung infections due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas cepacia are common in patients with cystic fibrosis. Initial colonization is due to nonmucoid P. aeruginosa, while later mucoid variants emerge and are associated with chronic infection. P. cepacia colonization tends to be more prevalent in older patients. The present study was conducted to discover whether highly purified mucins (from cystic fibrosis sputum and control intestinal secretions) exhibited specific binding of nonmucoid P. aeruginosa. In vitro solid phase microtiter binding assays (with or without a blocking agent) as well as solution phase assays were conducted. Bacteria bound to both mucins via bacterial pili, but no differences in binding capacity were noted between the mucins. Unlike P. cepacia (described in the accompanying manuscript) there was also no preferential binding of P. aeruginosa to mucins versus bovine serum albumin, casein, gelatin, or a host of structurally unrelated proteins and glycoproteins. Carbohydrate hapten inhibition studies did not suggest the existence of specific mucin carbohydrate receptors for P. aeruginosa. In solid phase assays a low concentration (0.05 M) of tetramethylurea abolished P. aeruginosa bacterial binding to both mucins as well as to BSA, whereas in solution phase assays mucin binding to bacteria was not completely disrupted by tetramethylurea. Specific monoclonal antipilus antibodies did not inhibit binding to a greater extent than did Fab fragments of normal mouse IgG. Binding of strains PAO1 and PAK (and isolated PAK pili) to buccal epithelial cells was not influenced by the presence of mucin in binding assay mixtures. Our findings do not support the widely held notion that specific mucin receptors are responsible for the attachment of P. aeruginosa pili, nor do they support the idea that there is a competitive interference by mucins of bacterial binding to respiratory cells. In patients with cystic fibrosis, it would seem unlikely therefore that initial colonization of the lungs by P. aeruginosa is due to a 'selective tropism' of these bacteria for respiratory mucin.
PMCID: PMC442899  PMID: 1737853
17.  High-affinity binding of the basement membrane proteins collagen type IV and laminin to the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. 
Infection and Immunity  1991;59(12):4398-4404.
The ability of 16 isolates of the human gastroduodenal pathogen Helicobacter pylori to bind 125I-radiolabelled tissue proteins was quantitated by liquid-phase assay. While capable of binding generally low levels of collagen types I and II, vitronectin, and fibronectin (average binding, 8%; highest binding, 23%), the various H. pylori isolates were good binders of the basement membrane proteins collagen type IV and laminin (average binding, 27%; highest binding, 60%). Campylobacter species tested bound lower levels of collagen type IV and laminin (average binding, 12%; highest binding, 17%). Trypsin and proteinase K treatment of H. pylori cells markedly reduced the binding of collagen type IV and laminin, as did heat treatment, suggesting that the binding of basement membrane proteins is mediated by bacterial surface proteins. Binding of both basement membrane proteins was rapid and saturable. 125I-collagen type IV binding to H. pylori 915 was inhibited by preincubation with unlabelled collagen type IV but was not inhibited by laminin or a number of other proteins. Once bound, radiolabelled collagen type IV but was not displaced by an excess of unlabelled collagen type IV, indicating that the binding interaction was of high affinity. Binding of laminin was partially reversible, and analysis in a solid-phase nonradiolabel assay showed that the interaction was of high affinity, with a Kd of 7.9 nM. This interaction was affected by salt, indicating the presence of a hydrophobic component in the ability of H. pylori to bind laminin.
PMCID: PMC259055  PMID: 1937798
18.  Macromolecular structure and aggregation states of Helicobacter pylori urease. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1991;173(18):5663-5667.
Urease purified from Helicobacter pylori by differential ultracentrifugation and fast pressure liquid chromatography was composed of subunits with apparent molecular weights (MrS) of 66,000 and 30,000. Electron microscopy of this purified material demonstrated that it formed disc-shaped macromolecular aggregates that were approximately 13 nm in diameter and 3 nm thick. Images of both negatively stained and shadowed preparations indicated that the discs tended to stack to form pairs and then these pairs further aggregated to form four-disc stacks. This stacking of subunits explains the heterogeneity observed previously in the molecular weight of urease preparations. In some negatively stained preparations there were also some smaller (approximately 8-nm-diameter) annular units present, which may represent individual urease units or possibly an aggregate of one of the two subunits from which urease is constructed.
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PMCID: PMC208295  PMID: 1885543
19.  Inhibition of pilus-mediated adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to human buccal epithelial cells by monoclonal antibodies directed against pili. 
Infection and Immunity  1990;58(1):124-130.
The Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAK pilus is capable of mediating the binding of this strain to human respiratory epithelial cells. We have produced monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to the PAK pilus in order to elucidate the location of the binding domain of the pilus for human buccal epithelial cells (BECs). Four MAbs are described. MAbs PK41C and PK34C were found to react with P. aeruginosa pilins produced by a large number of strains. The epitope recognized by PK41C was determined to lie within the N-terminal region of the pilin and is likely constituted by amino acid residues 22 through 33. The epitope for PK34C was located in the C-terminal region of the pilin and was partially dependent on an intact intrachain disulfide bridge between cysteine residues 129 and 142. PK99H and PK3B were found to react specifically with PAK pilin. The epitope for PK99H was also localized in the C-terminal region of the pilin protein and appears to reside between amino acid residues 130 and 138. The epitope for PK3B was not localized by using the methods of this study, but it is likely dependent on the three-dimensional structure of the pilin. Fab fragments of PK99H inhibited adhesion of strains PAK and 492c to BECs, but the adherence of five other strains was not affected. Fab fragments of PK34C inhibited adhesion of all piliated strains examined. Fab fragments from both of these antibodies inhibited PAK pilus binding to BECs. Fab fragments of PK41C and PK3B had no effect on P. aeruginosa binding to BECs. These results confirm that the C-terminal region of the pilin has adhesin qualities and that a conserved epitope lies within this region.
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PMCID: PMC258418  PMID: 1967166
20.  Characterization of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa pilus adhesin: confirmation that the pilin structural protein subunit contains a human epithelial cell-binding domain. 
Infection and Immunity  1989;57(12):3720-3726.
Previous studies have suggested that the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAK pilus adhesin moiety resides in an epithelial cell-binding domain located in the C-terminal region of the PAK pilin structural protein. Synthetic peptides Ac17red (a synthetic peptide with a sequence identical to that of PAK pilin residues 128 to 144, with the Cys-129 and Cys-142 residues being in the reduced state) and Ac17ox (a synthetic peptide with a sequence identical to that of PAK pilin residues 128 to 144, with a formed disulfide bridge between the amino acid residues Cys-129 and Cys-142), which should contain the epithelial cell-binding domain, were synthesized. Ac17red and Ac17ox both bound to buccal epithelial cells (BECs) and to ciliated tracheal epithelial cells (TECs). Ac17ox had a Km of 6.40 microM for binding to BECs, while Ac17red had a Km of 9.87 microM. Ac17red bound to the same receptor sites that purified pili did and competitively inhibited the binding of purified PAK pili to BECs. BEC glycoproteins with molecular masses of 82, 55 to 51, and 40 kilodaltons immobilized on nitrocellulose exhibited periodate-sensitive receptor activity for Ac17red; similar activity has been found for PAK pili. Ac17red, Ac17ox, and PAK pili bound to the cilia and luminal portions of the cytoplasmic membrane of human TECs, the same regions to which P. aeruginosa whole cells bind. PAK pilin has an epithelial cell-binding domain that resides in the C-terminal region of the protein.
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PMCID: PMC259896  PMID: 2572560
21.  Role of pili in adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to human respiratory epithelial cells. 
Infection and Immunity  1988;56(6):1641-1646.
The ability of pili from Pseudomonas aeruginosa K (PAK) to act as an adhesin to human respiratory epithelial cells was examined using an in vitro adhesion assay. Equilibrium analysis of PAK binding to human buccal epithelial cells (BECs) and tracheal epithelial cells (TECs) by means of a Langmuir adsorption isotherm revealed that the maximum numbers of binding sites per epithelial cell (N) were 255 for BECs and 236 for TECs, with apparent association constants (Ka) of 2.8 x 10(-9) and 5.8 x 10(-9) ml/CFU, respectively. Trypsinization of the BECs before the binding assay increased N to 605 and decreased the Ka to 1.7 x 10(-9) ml/CFU. Addition of homologous pili to the binding assay with BECs or TECs or the addition of anti-pilus Fab fragments inhibited PAK adherence. Binding of purified pili to BECs was shown to reach saturation. Purified pili and PAK competed for the same receptor on the BEC surface. Further, by using peptide fragments of PAK pilin (derived from the native pili or produced synthetically) in the binding assay for PAK to BECs, we have presumptively identified the pilus binding domain in the C-terminal region of the pilin and shown that the C-terminal disulfide bridge is important in maintaining the functionality of the binding domain.
PMCID: PMC259449  PMID: 2897336
22.  The effect of intrauterine inoculation with Ureaplasma diversum on bovine fertility. 
To determine the influence of Ureaplasma diversum on bovine fertility 11 uninfected virgin heifers with normal ovarian cyclic activity were randomly allocated to test or control groups. At a synchronized estrus, five test heifers were given an intrauterine broth inoculum containing 1.09 x 10(8) to 1.4 x 10(9) colony forming units of U. diversum and six control animals were infused with sterile ureaplasma broth medium. All animals were artificially inseminated within one hour of infusion. Pregnancy was diagnosed in one of five test heifers and all of six controls by serum progesterone concentrations measured to 25 days postinsemination. The difference in pregnancy rates between the two groups was statistically significant (p = 0.0152). It was concluded that under the conditions of this experiment U. diversum is capable of causing infertility in cattle.
PMCID: PMC1255361  PMID: 3453263
23.  Characterization of the binding of Pseudomonas aeruginosa alginate to human epithelial cells. 
Infection and Immunity  1987;55(6):1517-1522.
The alginate produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been reported to play a role in the adhesion of this bacterium to epithelial cell surfaces, although some controversy concerning this role exists. To clarify this controversy, we investigated the ability of alginate to bind to human buccal epithelial cells (BECs) and human tracheal epithelial cells (TECs). Alginate from P. aeruginosa 492c bound to both BECs and TECs. Alginate from strain 492c was found to be multivalent and thus capable of agglutinating both BECs and TECs. The multivalency of alginate complicated the determination of the number of alginate-specific receptors on the BEC and the apparent association constant (Ka). By using the analysis of Hogg and Winzor (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 843:159-163, 1985), an average valency of 2.6 BEC binding domains per alginate molecule was determined, and the maximum binding capacity per BEC was calculated to be 5.8 X 10(-4) micrograms, with a Ka of 4.1 X 10(-2) ml/micrograms. The binding of alginate to immobilized BECs (where only 50% of the BEC surface is exposed) yielded values of 2.52 X 10(-4) micrograms of alginate per BEC for the maximum binding capacity per BEC and a Ka of 3.30 X 10(-2) ml/micrograms. The alginate-specific site on the BEC surface was trypsin sensitive. Alginate from P. aeruginosa 492a did not bind to BECs, differing substantially from that of strain 492c. The data presented here demonstrate that alginate purified from some strains of P. aeruginosa may bind to TECs and BECs in a defined, specific manner, whereas alginate from other strains does not, reflecting structural diversity in P. aeruginosa alginates.
PMCID: PMC260545  PMID: 3106225
24.  Effects of gonadotrophin releasing hormone on reproductive performance of dairy cows with retained placenta. 
The effects of gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) on the reproductive performance of dairy cows with retained placenta were studied. Three hundred and seventy-eight cows diagnosed as having retained placenta received intramuscular injections of either 2 mL sterile water or 200 micrograms of GnRH in 2 mL sterile water between day 8 and day 14 postpartum. Rectal palpation was performed at the time of treatment and ten to 20 days after treatment in order to determine the rate of uterine involution. Thereafter, monthly rectal examinations were carried out until insemination. Pregnancy diagnosis was made by rectal palpation at 40 days or more after breeding. Using the entire experimental population, there were no significant differences between GnRH-treated and control cows for the rate of uterine involution, the occurrence of reproductive problems, the interval from parturition to first observed estrus, the interval from parturition to first insemination, the interval from parturition to conception, the number of services per conception, the total number of services per cow regardless of conception and the incidence of culling for infertility. When the data for herds in which breeding began earlier in the postpartum period (herds having a mean less than or equal to 80 days from parturition to first service for retained placenta cows) were considered, the GnRH treatment resulted in a significantly shorter (p less than or equal to 0.01) calving to conception interval as compared to control cows. Also, there was a significant reduction (p less than or equal to 0.05) in the total number of services per cow regardless of conception and a significant reduction in the interval from parturition to first service.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMCID: PMC1236082  PMID: 6391640
25.  Reproductive performance in dairy cows following postpartum treatment with gonadotrophin releasing hormone and/or prostaglandin: a field trial. 
Three hundred and five Holstein Friesian cows were given either 250 micrograms gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) or saline on day 15 postpartum followed by 500 micrograms cloprostenol or saline on day 24 postpartum. Four treatment groups were formed using random allocation: Group I -- placebo (Day 15)/placebo (Day 24), Group II -- GnRH (Day 15)/placebo (Day 24), Group III -- placebo (Day 15)/cloprostenol (Day 24), Group IV -- GnRH (Day 15)/cloprostenol (Day 24). Double blind techniques were used during the follow-up period. Rectal palpation, to assess uterine involution and ovarian activity was performed just prior to each treatment and again at 28 days postpartum. In addition blood samples were collected at 15, 24 and 28 days postpartum for measurement of plasma progesterone. There were no significant differences among treatment groups with respect to services per conception, number of heats detected before first service and culling for infertility. Cows treated only with GnRH had an increased calving to first estrus and calving to first breeding interval, and tended to have an increased calving to conception interval. Treatment with cloprostenol significantly decreased calving to conception and calving to first observed estrus intervals. Treatment with GnRH on day 15 postpartum resulted in a significant increase in the subsequent incidence of pyometra and prebreeding anestrus. On the other hand, cloprostenol treatment on day 24 postpartum resulted in a decreased incidence of pyometra, regardless of GnRH treatment and a decreased incidence of prebreeding anestrus in GnRH treated cows compared to cows receiving only GnRH at day 15 postpartum.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMCID: PMC1236054  PMID: 6383577

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