We underwent protein assay for Myc expression in 76 human gastric cancer tissues using immunohistochemistry. Expression of Myc protein was analyzed according to proliferative indices measured by flow cytometry. Levels of Myc protein expression was evaluated by correlating with biologic and clinical parameters. In 36 (47.4%) of 76 primary gastric cancers, overexpression of Myc was observed. We could observe expression of Myc protein in a significant portion of early gastric cancer (42.9%). Expression of Myc protein was demonstrated to be more frequent in poorly differentiated cancer cells (p=0.043). However, expression of Myc protein had little influence over progress or extent of the disease. Expression of Myc protein was significantly correlated with increased proliferative activity (p=0.032) and patients with high levels of Myc expression had poor disease-free survival. In a certain proportion of human gastric cancer, Myc protein may function as a regulator of cancer cell growth and expression of Myc may represent an aggressive phenotype of gastric cancer.
To compare the effectiveness of intravitreal injection of bevacizumab and ranibizumab in patients with treatment-naïve polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV).
A total of 66 and 60 eyes of 121 consecutive patients who received intravitreal bevacizumab (1.25 mg) or ranibizumab (0.5 mg) injection for treatment of PCV were retrospectively reviewed. After initial three loading injections by month, injection was performed as needed. Main outcome measures included best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), foveal center thickness (FCT) as assessed by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and change in polypoidal lesion on indocyanine green angiography (ICGA).
At 12 months, average number of injections was 4.72±1.84 in the bevacizumab group and 5.52±1.54 in the ranibizumab group. Mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution of BCVA from baseline at 12 months after injection improved by 0.11 in the bevacizumab group (P=0.02) and by 0.14 in the ranibizumab group (P=0.01). Average FCT decreased from 368±62.48 to 298±40.77 μm in the bevacizumab group (P=0.01) and from 371±50.79 to 286±36.93 μm in the ranibizumab group (P=0.01). Polyp regression rate was 24.2% (16 eyes out of 66 eyes) in the bevacizumab group and 23.3% (14 eyes out of 60 eyes) in the ranibizumab group. There was no statistically significant difference in BCVA improvement achieved, FCT improvement achieved, and polyp regression rate between groups.
Intravitreal injections of bevacizumab and ranibizumab have similar effects in stabilization of visual acuity, macular edema, and regression of polypoidal complex with PCV eyes.
bevacizumab; polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy; ranibizumab
To assess the value of DNA ploidy, flow cytometric analysis was performed on unfixed fresh materials obtained from 86 patients with gastric cancer who underwent stomach resection. We evaluated the DNA content of gastric carcinoma cells from four different sites and compared it with Ki-67 proliferating activity, and other pathologic parameters. The incidence of aneuploid and diploid was similar (48.8% vs. 51.1%). Early gastric carcinoma showed a higher rate of the diploid pattern (75%) compared to that of advanced gastric carcinoma (47.3%). DNA diploidy was noted increasingly in diffuse-type tumors according to Lauren, in signet ring cell type tumor according to WHO classification and in poorly differentiated tumors (p<0.05). Well and moderately differentiated carcinomas revealed the aneuploid pattern more frequently than poorly differentiated tumors. The aneuploidy was associated with high S phase fraction and high proliferative index. Aneuploidy was noted in the mucosa adjacent to the tumor (26%), in the close normal-looking mucosa (7%) and in the remote normal-looking mucosa (3%). This result suggest the possible role of field cancerization in the development of gastric adenocarcinoma.
The lung and stomach are very unusual sites for teratoma. The histologic findings of intrapulmonary and gastric teratomas are not different from those arising in usual sites, such as the ovary or testis. However, preoperative diagnosis is sometimes difficult to make partly because of unusual location. We report here two cases of teratoma, one intrapulmonary teratoma and the other gastric. The intrapulmonary teratoma in our study had an endobronchial tumor growth, which rules out mediastinal teratoma. Meanwhile gastric teratomas usually present as a submucosal tumor and most cases are reported in infancy and childhood. Gastric teratoma in this study occurred in a 27-year-old man. To the best of our knowledge, this case of intrapulmonary teratoma is the eighth and the gastric teratoma is the first to be reported in Korea.
A rapid multiplex PCR assay was developed to distinguish between North American and European genotypes of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus after a portion of the polymerase gene (open reading frame 1b) was sequenced for two North American PRRS virus strains. DNA products with unique sizes characteristic of each genotype were obtained.
Because the spleen is likely to play a specific role in immunity, we have tried to observe the influence of the abdominal neoplasms on splenic lymphoid tissue as well as the distribution and localization of immunoregulatory cells with a special attention to the marginal zone, using splenectomy specimens in the various kinds of 121 abdominal neoplasm patients. As a control group, twenty-six splenectomy specimens from patients with traumatic rupture were used. In splenic size and weight, there was a statistically meaningful increase in the patients with abdominal neoplasms. Among those patients, the evolving activated immune reaction (EVA) was 60.2%, the early activated immune-reaction (EAA) 39.0%, the mixed evolving activated and granulomatous reaction (MIX) 0.8%, unlike EVA 30.8%, EAA 69.2%, and MIX 0% in the normal control group. The reason for this change may be explained by activated lymphoid tissue in the form of EVA type. In conclusion, the splenic lymphoid tissue in the various kinds of abdominal neoplasms, mostly malignant, revealed the chronic immune activated state characterized by the increased number of prominent germinal centers and distinct marginal zones, the latter of which revealed the positive reaction for L26, IgM and IgG, and negative for IgD, as well as showing increased natural killer and dentritic reticulum cells identified by Leu7 and S-100 protein respectively. Therefore, we could at least find the significance of the immunologic role of the spleen in the case of abdominal neoplasms, mostly from malignancy.
The purpose of this study is to delineate the histopathologic findings of the spleen after Hantaan viral inoculation, which is the largest lymphoid organ in rats, and to identify the viral location by anti-Hantaan virus (HTNV) monoclonal antibody. All the sixty one suckling rats of less than twenty four hours of age were used. Except twenty one rats of control group, twenty-five rats inoculated intracerebrally for the early change and fifteen suckling rats inoculated intramuscularly for the late change were uniformly susceptible to lethal infection with the ROK 84-105-1 strain of seed HTNV. The characteristic histopathologic findings were; appearance of macrophages below the splenic capsule on the 3rd day, small lymphocytes around the periarteriolar sheath on the 5th day increasing in numbers on the 7th day, and a markedly expanded marginal zone with some immunoblasts and plasma cells as well as decreased extramedullary hematopoiesis on the 9th and 14th days. Time of onset of histopathologic changes in spleen thickness, appearance of medium and large lymphocytes and degree of extramedullary hematopoiesis were influenced by inoculation route, whereas expansion of the marginal zone was affected by postnatal age.
We have investigated alterations in the structure and function of nuclei isolated from normal and pathological brains in a number of neurodegenerative diseases including scrapie and Alzheimer's disease. Here we summarize both general and specific changes in chromatin structure, gene expression, and neuropathological features for each encephalopathy and compare them in terms of their molecular biological similarities and differences. While both scrapie and Alzheimer's disease share a number of common alterations in genomic organization and gene activity during the pathogenic process, each neurological disease appears to operate on fundamentally different mechanisms.
Outer sheath antigen was prepared from Leptospira interrogans serovars pomona, sejroe and hardjo by treating the organisms with 1.0M NaC1 followed by 0.04% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Sodium dodecyl sulfate was removed from the SDS-protein complexes by the extraction of dodecyl sulfate anions as ion pairs with triethylammonium cations into an organic solvent. The outer sheath antigen was recovered from the organic solvent as a precipitate and used as the source of leptospiral enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antigen. Utilizing this antigen, ELISA was adapted to detect bovine serum antibody to L. interrogans serovars pomona, sejroe and hardjo. The specificity of this assay in 344 bovine sera, which were negative in the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for seven serovars, was 99.4%. In sera from 37 and 87 cattle which revealed MAT titers greater than or equal to 1:50 for L. interrogans serovars pomona and sejroe, the relative sensitivity of the test was 100%. The ELISA also showed a considerable degree of low level cross-reactivity with other serovars. Sixty-six (75.9%) out of 87 bovine sera which were MAT-positive (MAT titer of greater than or equal to 1:50) with serovars sejroe and hardjo only were ELISA positive with heterologous pomona antigen; 16 (43.2%) and six 16.2%) out of 37 bovine sera which were MAT positive MAT titer of greater than or equal to 1:50) with serovar pomona only were ELISA positive with heterologous sejroe and hardjo ELISA antigen respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibody to Brucella ovis was compared with a standard complement fixation test. Sera of 176 rams from uninfected flocks gave 175 negative and one suspect ELISA reaction (diagnostic specificity 99.4%) whereas the complement fixation test yielded 167 negative, seven suspect and two anticomplementary reactions (diagnostic specificity of 96.0%). Diagnostic sensitivity was evaluated on sera of 79 rams from which B. ovis had been isolated. The ELISA showed 75 positive and four suspect reactions, while complement fixation test revealed 64 positive, 13 suspect and two negative results. Considering both positive and suspect reactions, the diagnostic sensitivity was 100% for ELISA and 97.5% for complement fixation test. The ELISA method was considered more specific, more sensitive and technically more advantageous than complement fixation test as a serodiagnostic test for B. ovis infection in rams.
Immunity against pneumonic pasteurellosis was studied in calves after recovery from experimental respiratory disease with Pasteurella haemolytica. Nine calves were exposed to aerosols of parainfluenza-3 virus and Pasteurella haemolytica A1 six days apart to produce respiratory disease. After recovery from the disease, these nine principal and four control calves were challenged with aerosols of bovine herpesvirus 1 and P. haemolytica A1 four days apart. With this viral-bacterial challenge, the nine principal animals failed to develop clinical responses to this bacterial challenge and their lungs did not show the growth of P. haemolytica on cultures, whereas two of four control calves had elevated temperatures and developed necropurulent pneumonia with the isolation of P. haemolytica from the lungs. The principal calves had developed high levels of cytotoxin neutralizing antibodies in their sera following parainfluenza-3 virus-P. haemolytica infection. This demonstrated that immunity against pneumonic pasteurellosis can be achieved, with a suggestion that further search for an effective vaccine for P. haemolytica is warranted.
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed to detect bovine serum antibody to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus. The specificity of this assay in 304 bovine sera, collected from an infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus-free herd, was 100%; in sera from 62 cattle inoculated with an intranasal vaccine, its diagnostic sensitivity was 27.4% at one month and 100% at six months, postvaccination. In 303 bovine sera with standard serum neutralizing antibody titers of greater than or equal to 1:2 it showed 100% sensitivity; and in 463 random diagnostic samples, comparative tests indicated that enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detected more seropositive animals (61.6%) than the standard serum neutralizing test (49.9%). The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method was considered to be technically superior as a routine diagnostic test for the detection of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis viral antibody in bovine sera.
Clostridium perfringens type A live cultures or sonicated sporulating cells, all containing enterotoxin, were repeatedly inoculated into sheep and calves by the intraduodenal route over periods of 30 to 35 days. Serum antibody to C. perfringens enterotoxin, tested by ELISA, developed in four of seven sheep and in two of four calves. The titers ranged from 400 to 1600. The live organism introduced into the duodenum did not become established in the bacterial flora of the intestinal tract.
Analysis of 45 sera was performed employing five techniques which are currently in use in three laboratories to measure anti-Pasteurella haemolytica antibodies. The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, passive hemagglutination, complement fixation and direct and indirect bacterial agglutination assays were employed and a relationship between tests in the measurement of anti-P. haemolytica antibodies was demonstrated. Regression analysis together with prediction and confidence intervals were tabulated also. The conclusion drawn from statistical analysis was that all five tests are similar in their ability to detect immune responses (antibody and antigen(s) interactions) to Pasteurella haemolytica.
Toxin neutralizing activity of bovine sera and body fluids against Pasteurella haemolytica type A1 cytotoxin was evaluated by 51Cr release assay using bovine peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes as the target cells. Sera collected from precolostral calves did not exert anticytotoxin activity at 10(-1) or higher dilutions, whereas randomly selected complement fixing antibody-negative sera neutralized on average over 90% of cytotoxin activity at the 10(-1) dilution and less than 50% of the toxin activity at 10(-2) or higher serum dilutions. Nasal secretions and lung washings of some of the cattle tested also contained cytotoxin neutralizing activity. The antibody nature of the cytotoxin neutralizing activity was demonstrated by its neutralization with bovine immunoglobulin G2 purified from pooled seropositive sera. Sera from a group of cattle which were vaccinated with a potassium thiocyanate extract of P. haemolytica, but which subsequently developed fibrinous pneumonia after aerosol challenge with bovine herpesvirus 1 and P. haemolytica, had significantly lower anticytotoxin activity than sera from another group of cattle which did not develop the disease after similar vaccination and challenge. Cattle which survived a natural outbreak of shipping fever had higher anticytotoxin activity than those having fibrinous pneumonia in the aforementioned experimental group, although there was no statistical difference between them and a randomly selected CF seronegative group. It is probable that this cytotoxin neutralizing antibody exerts a beneficial effect in protection of cattle against pneumonic pasteurellosis.
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was adapted to test serum antibody to enterotoxin of Clostridium perfringens type A. The test was evaluated using sheep, calf and guinea pig sera and compared with passive hemagglutination and immunodiffusion tests. The ELISA was found to be more sensitive than the other two tests and was completely free from nonspecific reactions. The method was considered to be technically advantageous and suitable for semiautomated procedures.
Scrapie agent derived from infected mouse brain was partially purified by agarose-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The preparation was subjected to treatment with RNase A, DNase I, pronase, sodium dodecyl sulfate and sodium dodecyl sulfate-pronase combination. Almost total inactivation of scrapie infectivity resulted when the partially purified scrapie agent was treated with sodium dodecyl sulfate-pronase combination whereas the treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate or pronase alone reduced the infectivity by about 98%. No significant reduction of scrapie infectivity was observed with either RNase A or DNase I treatments. These results confirm that the transmission of scrapie cannot be achieved in the absence of a protein component.
The counterimmunoelectrophorsis test was applied on three Aleutian disease virus-infected mink ranches for the detection of specific Aleutian disease virus antibody. All mink on the ranches were tested during the pelting season and before the breeding season for 4 consecutive years. Aleutian disease has been eliminated from the three commercial mink ranches by culling out all mink that were positive for Aleutian disease virus antibody.
Tissues from mink infected with aleutian disease virus were examined by the electron microscope for the presence of virus particles. Virus-like particles, measuring 22 nm in diameter, were observed in macrophages of spleen, mesenteric lymph node and in Kupffer cells in liver of mink ten to 13 days after infection. The virus-like particles were usually present in vacuoles inside the cytoplasm of macrophages and Kupffer cells and, occasionally, similar particles were observed inside the nucleus. Cells from uninfected mink did not contain such patricles. To correlate the existence of these virus-like particles with the presence of aleutian disease virus antigen in infected cells, tissues were processed for immunoferritin technique. It was found that aleutian disease virus antigen was present in vacuoles inside the cytoplasm of cells from the infected spleen, lymph node and liver, and that the location was similar to that of the 22 nm virus-like particles. In addition, some viral antigen was also detected as cytoplasmic granular material. The nuclei of some cells also contained aleutian disease virus antigen. The pattern of aleutian disease virus antigen was similar to the distribution of virus-like particles in cells of infected tissue. It is suggested that virus replication occurs inside the nucleus with subsequent accumulation of virus in the vacuoles of the cytoplasm.
Aleutian disease virus (ADV) was extracted and purified from infected mink. Nucleic acid extracted from the virus was examined in an electron microscope. Three different sizes of molecule, with approximate lengths of 1.2, 0.55, and 0.25 micron, were observed. The ratios of the large molecules to the small molecules were similar in all the particles prepared under different conditions. Equilibrium CsCl density gradient centrifugation showed that ADV nucleic acid had a buoyant density of 1.733 g/cm3. In Cs2SO4, ADV had a lower buoyant density than that of double-stranded RNA. These properties and its sensitivity to DNase suggested that ADV contains DNA. Thermal denaturation curves revealed that the DNA of ADV had a single-stranded configuration. Polypeptide analysis of ADV by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of four polypepties, with molecular weights of 30,000, 27,000, 20,500, and 14,000. These polypeptides were present in a ratio of 10:3:10:1, respectively. The data suggested that ADV is closely related to the members of the parvovirus groups.
A highly purified and concentrated suspension of aleutian disease virus was prepared from large quantities of early infected mink tissues using repeated fluorocarbon extraction procedures. Equilibrium centrifugation of the aleutian disease virus preparation in a cesium chloride gradient yielded three distinct bands at buoyant densities of 1.295, 1.332, and 1.405--1.416 g/cm(3). Electron microscopic observations of these three bands revealed mainly empty particles in the first band. In the second band complete particles with a flattened appearnce predominated and there were also some empty particles. In the third band both complete and empty particles were observed. The size of the aleutian disease virus particles observed in all of the three densities was 23 nm. Light aleutian disease virions (density of 1.332 g/cm3) had a particle to counterimmunoelectrophoresis antigen ratio comparable to that of dense aleutian disease virions (density of 1.405--1.416 g/cm3) but possessed much lower infectivity as determined by mink inoculation.
Stable mycoplasma antigens for the indirect hemagglutination test (IHA) were prepared employing glutaraldehyde treated sheep erythrocytes sensitized with Mycoplasma agalactiae subsp. bovis and Mycoplasma bovigenitalium antigens. Employing these antigens mycoplasma antibodies were detected in sera from cattle which had mastitic symptoms due to natural infection with either M. agalactiae subsp. bovis or M. bovigenitalium. A total of 200 cows from four herds were examined at varying intervals for the presence of M. agalactiae subsp. bovis and for the detection of antibody using growth inhibition and IHA tests. Mycoplasmas were isolated from 37 animals. Growth inhibiting antibody was detected from 56 of the 200 animals. In the IHA tests, antibody titer greater than or equal to 1:80 were detected in 148 animals, 76 of these having antibody titers greater than or equal to 1:160, while sera of 116 normal control animals had no growth inhibiting antibody and none had IHA antibody titers greater than 1:40. M. bovigenitalium was isolated from the milk of three of 26 animals in a fifth herd during an outbreak of mastitis. Growth inhibiting antibodies were demonstrated in the sera of ten of the 26 animals. However, the IHA test detected antibody titers of greater than or equal to 1:160 in 13 animals and of 1:80 in one of the 26 animals. To determine the specificity of the IHA tests, M. agalactiae subsp. bovis and M. bovigenitalium antigens were reacted with rabbit hyperimmune typing sera produced against 12 species of bovine mycoplasmatales. Homologous antisera showed IHA antibody titers of 1:1280 and 1:2560 against M. agalactiae subsp. bovis and M. bovigenitalium respectively, whereas heterologous antisera showed IHA antibody titers of less than or equal to 1:20. Also eight type-specific bovine antisera were reacted with M agalactiae subsp. bovis and M. bovigenitalium antigens in homologous and heterologous tests. Homoogous reactions showed IHA antibody titers greater than or equal to 1:320, whereas heterologous reactions showed IHA titers of less than or equal to 1:20. This IHA test promises to be useful for the detection of bovine mycoplasma antibodies in sera from cattle infected with M. agalactiae subsp. bovis or M. bovigenitalium. Thes test is sensitive, reproducible and specific and the technique is relatively simple and rapid. The antigens were stable for at least seven months.
Twenty-four virgin female aleutian mink were infected with aleutian disease agent and after 24 hours, 12 of these were treated with a course of polyinosinic acid-polycytidilic acid (Poly IC) injections. After six weeks the gammaglobulin level was significantly lower in the treated group but at 12 weeks this difference was no longer present. Four of the treated mink had normal target organ histology when killed at 20 weeks. The untreated group all showed moderate to marked changes but this difference was not statistically significant. There was a marked increase in the reactive lymphocyte blastogenesis index during the first weeks of infection and the phytohaemagglutinin response was seen to fall progressively. The antiglobulin reaction usually became positive after infection but neither antinuclear nor antierythrocyte antibodies were found. Precipitating antibodies to several polynucleotides were frequently present and were unrelated to infection or to Poly IC treatment.
Erythrocytes from mink chronically infected with Aleutian disease virus (ADV) gave positive antiglobulin reactions with rabbit anti-mink immunoglobulin (Ig)G, anti-mink C3, and anti-mink serum, but did not react with anti-mink IgM. The strongest reaction was observed with anti-mink C3. Immunoelectrophoresis demonstrated that serum from rabbits injected with erythrocytes from ADV-infected mink gave a precipitin line with normal mink serum in the beta globulin region corresponding to C3. When normal mink erythrocytes were exposed to serum from ADV-infected mink, they were not sensitized, demonstrating that the antibodies in these mink sera were not directed against erythrocyte antigens. Glycine-hydrochloride buffer treatment of erythrocyte stromata and isolated glomeruli from ADV-infected mink yielded eluates containing serum proteins in the gamma globulin region which appeared to be IgG, and in the beta and alpha globulin regions which are probably complement components. In both erythrocyte and glomerular eluates, anti-ADV antibody was demonstrated. These findings suggested that the positive direct antiglobulin test and glomerulonephritis in Aleutian disease is due to the persistence of ADV and formation and deposition of ADV antigen-antibody-complement complexes on the erythrocyte surfaces and in glomerular capillaries.
Aleutian disease viral (ADV) antigen was prepared by fluorocarbon extraction of spleen, liver, and lymph nodes from mink experimentally infected ten days previously. Using a potent ADV antigen, antibody was detected by immunodiffusion (ID) and immunoelectroosmophoresis (IEOP). Utilizing these precipitin tests, antibody was detected in all the mink sera tested as early as seven days after experimental infection. Titer of antibody increased throughout the infection period. Titers of more than 100 were reached by 15 days post infection, titers of 1,000 at one month, and titers of more than 5,000 to 10,000 were achieved at two months post infection and thereafter. The immunodiffusion test gave similar or slightly lower titers than those detected by the IEOP.
The IEOP test promises to be a most useful technique for the diagnosis of aleutian disease because it is simple, rapid and specific and is capable of detecting infection early in the course of the disease. It is suggested that this test should be utilized especially for the screening of animals purchased or imported as breeding stock onto ranches.