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1.  c-Myc expression is related with cell proliferation and associated with poor clinical outcome in human gastric cancer. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  1999;14(5):526-530.
We underwent protein assay for Myc expression in 76 human gastric cancer tissues using immunohistochemistry. Expression of Myc protein was analyzed according to proliferative indices measured by flow cytometry. Levels of Myc protein expression was evaluated by correlating with biologic and clinical parameters. In 36 (47.4%) of 76 primary gastric cancers, overexpression of Myc was observed. We could observe expression of Myc protein in a significant portion of early gastric cancer (42.9%). Expression of Myc protein was demonstrated to be more frequent in poorly differentiated cancer cells (p=0.043). However, expression of Myc protein had little influence over progress or extent of the disease. Expression of Myc protein was significantly correlated with increased proliferative activity (p=0.032) and patients with high levels of Myc expression had poor disease-free survival. In a certain proportion of human gastric cancer, Myc protein may function as a regulator of cancer cell growth and expression of Myc may represent an aggressive phenotype of gastric cancer.
PMCID: PMC3054460  PMID: 10576148
2.  Intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor monotherapy for large submacular hemorrhage secondary to neovascular age-related macular degeneration 
Eye  2015;29(9):1141-1151.
Purpose
To evaluate the efficacy of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) monotherapy for large submacular hemorrhage (SMH) secondary to neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD).
Methods
A total of 49 treatment-naive patients (49 eyes) with large SMH (more than five disc areas (DAs)) secondary to nAMD were retrospectively included. All patients were treated with an initial series of 3 monthly intravitreal anti-VEGF injections, followed by as-needed injections. At the 12-month follow-up, changes in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), hemorrhage area, central foveal thickness, and development of vitreous hemorrhage after treatment were evaluated.
Results
The mean SMH area was 13.9±8.8 disk areas (DAs) and mean symptom duration was 7.25±5.9 days at baseline. The mean number of injections was 4.49±1.61. Twelve months after treatment, the mean BCVA significantly improved from 1.14±0.61 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR; 20/276, Snellen equivalent) to 0.82±0.53 logMAR (20/132; P=0.002). Twenty-four eyes (49%) showed improvement of more than three lines of BCVA at 12 months after treatment. Baseline BCVA (odds ratio (OR), 5.119; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.993–9.545; P=0.004), duration of symptoms (OR, 0.727; 95% CI, 0.332–0.952; P=0.024), hemorrhage area (OR, 0.892; 95% CI, 0.721–0.965; P=0.011), and baseline central foveal thickness (OR, 0.881; 95% CI, 0.722–0.945; P=0.032) were significantly associated with good visual acuity 12 months after treatment.
Conclusions
Intravitreal anti-VEGF monotherapy is a valuable treatment option for large SMH secondary to nAMD.
doi:10.1038/eye.2015.131
PMCID: PMC4565949  PMID: 26272443
3.  Preexisting mild sleep disturbance as a vulnerability factor for inflammation-induced depressed mood: a human experimental study 
Translational Psychiatry  2016;6(3):e750-.
Sleep disturbance and depression are common, particularly in females, and sleep disturbance is a well-known risk factor for depression. Systemic inflammation has been suggested as a potential mechanism of this association. This study examined whether preexisting sleep disturbance acted as a vulnerability factor for depressed mood induced by an inflammatory challenge in healthy females vs males. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled design, volunteers aged 18–50 (N=111; 67 females) were assigned to placebo or low-dose endotoxin. Before substance administration, sleep disturbance was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and dichotomized using median split (⩾3 vs <3). Self-reported depressed mood (profile of mood states) and circulating proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α) were repeatedly assessed over 6 h. Among females, moderation of depressed mood by sleep disturbance was significant even after adjustment for covariates (X2=12.73, df=6, P<0.05). There was a robust time-by-condition interaction in females with sleep disturbance (X2=26.22, df=6, P<0.001), but not in females without sleep disturbance (X2=8.65, df=6, P=0.19). Although cytokines increased equally in all females, the correlations between cytokines and depressed mood were significantly stronger in females with sleep disturbance. Among males, no moderating effect of sleep disturbance was observed. Inflammation-induced depressed mood was considerably more severe among females reporting mild sleep disturbance compared with those reporting no sleep disturbance, suggesting that even mild sleep disturbance may increase vulnerability for inflammation-induced depression in females. Furthermore, sleep disturbance appears to increase the vulnerability to depression by augmenting affective sensitivity to cytokines rather than by enhancing cytokine responses to inflammatory challenge in females.
doi:10.1038/tp.2016.23
PMCID: PMC4872448  PMID: 26954978
4.  Intravitreal bevacizumab and ranibizumab injections for patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy 
Eye  2011;26(3):426-433.
Purpose
To compare the effectiveness of intravitreal injection of bevacizumab and ranibizumab in patients with treatment-naïve polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV).
Methods
A total of 66 and 60 eyes of 121 consecutive patients who received intravitreal bevacizumab (1.25 mg) or ranibizumab (0.5 mg) injection for treatment of PCV were retrospectively reviewed. After initial three loading injections by month, injection was performed as needed. Main outcome measures included best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), foveal center thickness (FCT) as assessed by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and change in polypoidal lesion on indocyanine green angiography (ICGA).
Results
At 12 months, average number of injections was 4.72±1.84 in the bevacizumab group and 5.52±1.54 in the ranibizumab group. Mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution of BCVA from baseline at 12 months after injection improved by 0.11 in the bevacizumab group (P=0.02) and by 0.14 in the ranibizumab group (P=0.01). Average FCT decreased from 368±62.48 to 298±40.77 μm in the bevacizumab group (P=0.01) and from 371±50.79 to 286±36.93 μm in the ranibizumab group (P=0.01). Polyp regression rate was 24.2% (16 eyes out of 66 eyes) in the bevacizumab group and 23.3% (14 eyes out of 60 eyes) in the ranibizumab group. There was no statistically significant difference in BCVA improvement achieved, FCT improvement achieved, and polyp regression rate between groups.
Conclusion
Intravitreal injections of bevacizumab and ranibizumab have similar effects in stabilization of visual acuity, macular edema, and regression of polypoidal complex with PCV eyes.
doi:10.1038/eye.2011.324
PMCID: PMC3298981  PMID: 22173075
bevacizumab; polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy; ranibizumab
5.  Eradication of Aleutian disease of mink by eliminating positive counterimmunoelectrophoresis test reactors. 
The counterimmunoelectrophorsis test was applied on three Aleutian disease virus-infected mink ranches for the detection of specific Aleutian disease virus antibody. All mink on the ranches were tested during the pelting season and before the breeding season for 4 consecutive years. Aleutian disease has been eliminated from the three commercial mink ranches by culling out all mink that were positive for Aleutian disease virus antibody.
PMCID: PMC274849  PMID: 203601
6.  Detection and Localization of Aleutian Disease Virus and its Antigens in vivo by Immunoferritin Technique 
Tissues from mink infected with aleutian disease virus were examined by the electron microscope for the presence of virus particles. Virus-like particles, measuring 22 nm in diameter, were observed in macrophages of spleen, mesenteric lymph node and in Kupffer cells in liver of mink ten to 13 days after infection. The virus-like particles were usually present in vacuoles inside the cytoplasm of macrophages and Kupffer cells and, occasionally, similar particles were observed inside the nucleus. Cells from uninfected mink did not contain such patricles. To correlate the existence of these virus-like particles with the presence of aleutian disease virus antigen in infected cells, tissues were processed for immunoferritin technique. It was found that aleutian disease virus antigen was present in vacuoles inside the cytoplasm of cells from the infected spleen, lymph node and liver, and that the location was similar to that of the 22 nm virus-like particles. In addition, some viral antigen was also detected as cytoplasmic granular material. The nuclei of some cells also contained aleutian disease virus antigen. The pattern of aleutian disease virus antigen was similar to the distribution of virus-like particles in cells of infected tissue. It is suggested that virus replication occurs inside the nucleus with subsequent accumulation of virus in the vacuoles of the cytoplasm.
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PMCID: PMC1277745  PMID: 200318
7.  Demonstration of heavy and light density populations of Aleutian disease virus. 
A highly purified and concentrated suspension of aleutian disease virus was prepared from large quantities of early infected mink tissues using repeated fluorocarbon extraction procedures. Equilibrium centrifugation of the aleutian disease virus preparation in a cesium chloride gradient yielded three distinct bands at buoyant densities of 1.295, 1.332, and 1.405--1.416 g/cm(3). Electron microscopic observations of these three bands revealed mainly empty particles in the first band. In the second band complete particles with a flattened appearnce predominated and there were also some empty particles. In the third band both complete and empty particles were observed. The size of the aleutian disease virus particles observed in all of the three densities was 23 nm. Light aleutian disease virions (density of 1.332 g/cm3) had a particle to counterimmunoelectrophoresis antigen ratio comparable to that of dense aleutian disease virions (density of 1.405--1.416 g/cm3) but possessed much lower infectivity as determined by mink inoculation.
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PMCID: PMC1277723  PMID: 193625
8.  Antigen and Antibody in Aleutian Disease in Mink II. The Reaction of Antibody with the Aleutian Disease Agent Using Immunodiffusion and Immunoelectroosmophoresis 
Aleutian disease viral (ADV) antigen was prepared by fluorocarbon extraction of spleen, liver, and lymph nodes from mink experimentally infected ten days previously. Using a potent ADV antigen, antibody was detected by immunodiffusion (ID) and immunoelectroosmophoresis (IEOP). Utilizing these precipitin tests, antibody was detected in all the mink sera tested as early as seven days after experimental infection. Titer of antibody increased throughout the infection period. Titers of more than 100 were reached by 15 days post infection, titers of 1,000 at one month, and titers of more than 5,000 to 10,000 were achieved at two months post infection and thereafter. The immunodiffusion test gave similar or slightly lower titers than those detected by the IEOP.
The IEOP test promises to be a most useful technique for the diagnosis of aleutian disease because it is simple, rapid and specific and is capable of detecting infection early in the course of the disease. It is suggested that this test should be utilized especially for the screening of animals purchased or imported as breeding stock onto ranches.
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PMCID: PMC1319762  PMID: 4270428
9.  Demonstration of Complement Fixing Antibody in the Sera of Cattle Vaccinated with Combined Living Blackleg-anthrax Vaccine 
Complement fixing antibodies could be detected in the sera of cattle vaccinated with combined living blackleg-anthrax vaccine by modified complement fixation tests. Conventional direct complement fixation tests with bovine antibody-antigen systems often caused false negative reactions; however, in the modified test, when guinea pig complement was supplemented with fresh unheated normal rabbit serum, positive reactions were obtained and the sensitivity of the test was increased without loss of specificity.
PMCID: PMC1319567  PMID: 17647601
10.  Pathogenesis of Aleutian Disease of Mink: Nature of the Antiglobulin Reaction and Elution of Antibody from Erythrocytes and Glomeruli of Infected Mink 
Infection and Immunity  1973;8(2):264-271.
Erythrocytes from mink chronically infected with Aleutian disease virus (ADV) gave positive antiglobulin reactions with rabbit anti-mink immunoglobulin (Ig)G, anti-mink C3, and anti-mink serum, but did not react with anti-mink IgM. The strongest reaction was observed with anti-mink C3. Immunoelectrophoresis demonstrated that serum from rabbits injected with erythrocytes from ADV-infected mink gave a precipitin line with normal mink serum in the beta globulin region corresponding to C3. When normal mink erythrocytes were exposed to serum from ADV-infected mink, they were not sensitized, demonstrating that the antibodies in these mink sera were not directed against erythrocyte antigens. Glycine-hydrochloride buffer treatment of erythrocyte stromata and isolated glomeruli from ADV-infected mink yielded eluates containing serum proteins in the gamma globulin region which appeared to be IgG, and in the beta and alpha globulin regions which are probably complement components. In both erythrocyte and glomerular eluates, anti-ADV antibody was demonstrated. These findings suggested that the positive direct antiglobulin test and glomerulonephritis in Aleutian disease is due to the persistence of ADV and formation and deposition of ADV antigen-antibody-complement complexes on the erythrocyte surfaces and in glomerular capillaries.
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PMCID: PMC422842  PMID: 4199157
11.  Diagnostic specificity, sensitivity and cross-reactivity of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of antibody against Leptospira interrogans serovars pomona, sejroe and hardjo in cattle. 
Outer sheath antigen was prepared from Leptospira interrogans serovars pomona, sejroe and hardjo by treating the organisms with 1.0M NaC1 followed by 0.04% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Sodium dodecyl sulfate was removed from the SDS-protein complexes by the extraction of dodecyl sulfate anions as ion pairs with triethylammonium cations into an organic solvent. The outer sheath antigen was recovered from the organic solvent as a precipitate and used as the source of leptospiral enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antigen. Utilizing this antigen, ELISA was adapted to detect bovine serum antibody to L. interrogans serovars pomona, sejroe and hardjo. The specificity of this assay in 344 bovine sera, which were negative in the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for seven serovars, was 99.4%. In sera from 37 and 87 cattle which revealed MAT titers greater than or equal to 1:50 for L. interrogans serovars pomona and sejroe, the relative sensitivity of the test was 100%. The ELISA also showed a considerable degree of low level cross-reactivity with other serovars. Sixty-six (75.9%) out of 87 bovine sera which were MAT-positive (MAT titer of greater than or equal to 1:50) with serovars sejroe and hardjo only were ELISA positive with heterologous pomona antigen; 16 (43.2%) and six 16.2%) out of 37 bovine sera which were MAT positive MAT titer of greater than or equal to 1:50) with serovar pomona only were ELISA positive with heterologous sejroe and hardjo ELISA antigen respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMCID: PMC1255712  PMID: 2766149
12.  Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of Brucella ovis infection in rams. 
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibody to Brucella ovis was compared with a standard complement fixation test. Sera of 176 rams from uninfected flocks gave 175 negative and one suspect ELISA reaction (diagnostic specificity 99.4%) whereas the complement fixation test yielded 167 negative, seven suspect and two anticomplementary reactions (diagnostic specificity of 96.0%). Diagnostic sensitivity was evaluated on sera of 79 rams from which B. ovis had been isolated. The ELISA showed 75 positive and four suspect reactions, while complement fixation test revealed 64 positive, 13 suspect and two negative results. Considering both positive and suspect reactions, the diagnostic sensitivity was 100% for ELISA and 97.5% for complement fixation test. The ELISA method was considered more specific, more sensitive and technically more advantageous than complement fixation test as a serodiagnostic test for B. ovis infection in rams.
PMCID: PMC1255281  PMID: 3567755
13.  Clinical and antibody responses to Clostridium perfringens type A enterotoxin in experimental sheep and calves. 
Clostridium perfringens type A live cultures or sonicated sporulating cells, all containing enterotoxin, were repeatedly inoculated into sheep and calves by the intraduodenal route over periods of 30 to 35 days. Serum antibody to C. perfringens enterotoxin, tested by ELISA, developed in four of seven sheep and in two of four calves. The titers ranged from 400 to 1600. The live organism introduced into the duodenum did not become established in the bacterial flora of the intestinal tract.
PMCID: PMC1236137  PMID: 4016579
14.  An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin antibody. 
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was adapted to test serum antibody to enterotoxin of Clostridium perfringens type A. The test was evaluated using sheep, calf and guinea pig sera and compared with passive hemagglutination and immunodiffusion tests. The ELISA was found to be more sensitive than the other two tests and was completely free from nonspecific reactions. The method was considered to be technically advantageous and suitable for semiautomated procedures.
PMCID: PMC1236016  PMID: 6424913
15.  Inactivation of the scrapie agent by pronase. 
Scrapie agent derived from infected mouse brain was partially purified by agarose-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The preparation was subjected to treatment with RNase A, DNase I, pronase, sodium dodecyl sulfate and sodium dodecyl sulfate-pronase combination. Almost total inactivation of scrapie infectivity resulted when the partially purified scrapie agent was treated with sodium dodecyl sulfate-pronase combination whereas the treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate or pronase alone reduced the infectivity by about 98%. No significant reduction of scrapie infectivity was observed with either RNase A or DNase I treatments. These results confirm that the transmission of scrapie cannot be achieved in the absence of a protein component.
PMCID: PMC1235983  PMID: 6230145
16.  DNA ploidy patterns in gastric adenocarcinoma. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2000;15(2):159-166.
To assess the value of DNA ploidy, flow cytometric analysis was performed on unfixed fresh materials obtained from 86 patients with gastric cancer who underwent stomach resection. We evaluated the DNA content of gastric carcinoma cells from four different sites and compared it with Ki-67 proliferating activity, and other pathologic parameters. The incidence of aneuploid and diploid was similar (48.8% vs. 51.1%). Early gastric carcinoma showed a higher rate of the diploid pattern (75%) compared to that of advanced gastric carcinoma (47.3%). DNA diploidy was noted increasingly in diffuse-type tumors according to Lauren, in signet ring cell type tumor according to WHO classification and in poorly differentiated tumors (p<0.05). Well and moderately differentiated carcinomas revealed the aneuploid pattern more frequently than poorly differentiated tumors. The aneuploidy was associated with high S phase fraction and high proliferative index. Aneuploidy was noted in the mucosa adjacent to the tumor (26%), in the close normal-looking mucosa (7%) and in the remote normal-looking mucosa (3%). This result suggest the possible role of field cancerization in the development of gastric adenocarcinoma.
PMCID: PMC3054610  PMID: 10803691
17.  Intrapulmonary and gastric teratoma : report of two cases. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  1999;14(3):330-334.
The lung and stomach are very unusual sites for teratoma. The histologic findings of intrapulmonary and gastric teratomas are not different from those arising in usual sites, such as the ovary or testis. However, preoperative diagnosis is sometimes difficult to make partly because of unusual location. We report here two cases of teratoma, one intrapulmonary teratoma and the other gastric. The intrapulmonary teratoma in our study had an endobronchial tumor growth, which rules out mediastinal teratoma. Meanwhile gastric teratomas usually present as a submucosal tumor and most cases are reported in infancy and childhood. Gastric teratoma in this study occurred in a 27-year-old man. To the best of our knowledge, this case of intrapulmonary teratoma is the eighth and the gastric teratoma is the first to be reported in Korea.
PMCID: PMC3054382  PMID: 10402179
18.  Typing of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses by a multiplex PCR assay. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1997;35(1):264-267.
A rapid multiplex PCR assay was developed to distinguish between North American and European genotypes of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus after a portion of the polymerase gene (open reading frame 1b) was sequenced for two North American PRRS virus strains. DNA products with unique sizes characteristic of each genotype were obtained.
PMCID: PMC229552  PMID: 8968921
19.  Splenic lymphoid change in abdominal neoplasmic patients--analysis of 121 cases. 
Because the spleen is likely to play a specific role in immunity, we have tried to observe the influence of the abdominal neoplasms on splenic lymphoid tissue as well as the distribution and localization of immunoregulatory cells with a special attention to the marginal zone, using splenectomy specimens in the various kinds of 121 abdominal neoplasm patients. As a control group, twenty-six splenectomy specimens from patients with traumatic rupture were used. In splenic size and weight, there was a statistically meaningful increase in the patients with abdominal neoplasms. Among those patients, the evolving activated immune reaction (EVA) was 60.2%, the early activated immune-reaction (EAA) 39.0%, the mixed evolving activated and granulomatous reaction (MIX) 0.8%, unlike EVA 30.8%, EAA 69.2%, and MIX 0% in the normal control group. The reason for this change may be explained by activated lymphoid tissue in the form of EVA type. In conclusion, the splenic lymphoid tissue in the various kinds of abdominal neoplasms, mostly malignant, revealed the chronic immune activated state characterized by the increased number of prominent germinal centers and distinct marginal zones, the latter of which revealed the positive reaction for L26, IgM and IgG, and negative for IgD, as well as showing increased natural killer and dentritic reticulum cells identified by Leu7 and S-100 protein respectively. Therefore, we could at least find the significance of the immunologic role of the spleen in the case of abdominal neoplasms, mostly from malignancy.
PMCID: PMC3054077  PMID: 7993590
20.  A comparative evaluation of two sensitive serum neutralization tests for bovine herpesvirus-1 antibodies. 
Two sensitive serum neutralization (SN) tests for the detection of antibodies to bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) in bovine sera were evaluated. Both SN tests used a 24 h incubation of test sera with 100 CCID50 of BHV-1 before the addition of susceptible cells. The tests differed in the presence (C test) or absence (D test) of complement and were compared with a standard 1 h incubation SN test and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Although the mean titer of the C test was twofold higher than the mean titer of the D test for 310 sera, the number of samples which were negative was not significantly different between tests. For 100 sera from herds with known reactors, which were negative in a 1 h incubation SN test, 32% tested positive in the C and D tests. Other investigations, including Western immunoblotting and radioimmune precipitation, suggest that the 24 h incubation tests produce some false positive results. In contrast, the 1 h incubation SN test and, to a much lesser extent, the ELISA appear to produce some false negative results. The C test was more sensitive than the D test for detecting an early immune response after experimental infection.
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PMCID: PMC1263591  PMID: 8381701
21.  Histopathologic changes of the spleen in suckling rats inoculated with Hantaan virus. 
The purpose of this study is to delineate the histopathologic findings of the spleen after Hantaan viral inoculation, which is the largest lymphoid organ in rats, and to identify the viral location by anti-Hantaan virus (HTNV) monoclonal antibody. All the sixty one suckling rats of less than twenty four hours of age were used. Except twenty one rats of control group, twenty-five rats inoculated intracerebrally for the early change and fifteen suckling rats inoculated intramuscularly for the late change were uniformly susceptible to lethal infection with the ROK 84-105-1 strain of seed HTNV. The characteristic histopathologic findings were; appearance of macrophages below the splenic capsule on the 3rd day, small lymphocytes around the periarteriolar sheath on the 5th day increasing in numbers on the 7th day, and a markedly expanded marginal zone with some immunoblasts and plasma cells as well as decreased extramedullary hematopoiesis on the 9th and 14th days. Time of onset of histopathologic changes in spleen thickness, appearance of medium and large lymphocytes and degree of extramedullary hematopoiesis were influenced by inoculation route, whereas expansion of the marginal zone was affected by postnatal age.
PMCID: PMC3053816  PMID: 1355973
22.  Sensitivity and specificity of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus antibody in cattle. 
A reliable bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) viral antigen was prepared from BVD virus grown on Madin Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells by solubilizing the virus with detergent MEGA-10 (decanoyl-N-methylglucamide) followed by removal of hydrophobic proteins with Triton X-100 treatment. By these treatments, problems of high background associated with BVD viral antigen in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were eliminated. With this new antigen, an ELISA was adapted to detect bovine serum antibody against BVD virus. The diagnostic specificity of the assay in 403 bovine sera collected from a BVD virus-free herd was 100%; in 296 bovine sera with serum neutralizing antibody titers of greater than or equal to 1:2, 289 sera were ELISA positive (relative sensitivity of 97.6%), two sera gave false negative reactions (0.7%) and five sera gave suspicious reactions (1.7%). These interpretations were based on positive/negative (P/N) ratio readings, i.e. a P/N ratio of less than 1.50, 1.50-1.99 and greater than or equal to 2.00 were interpreted as negative, suspicious and positive reactions, respectively. The ELISA results gave excellent agreement with serum neutralization in detecting both seropositive and seronegative animals (Kappa = 0.994). The ELISA assay was considered to be technically superior to the serum neutralization test for the routine detection of BVD viral antibody in bovine sera.
PMCID: PMC1263414  PMID: 1653099
23.  The molecular mechanisms of scrapie encephalopathy and relevance to human neurodegenerative disease. 
We have investigated alterations in the structure and function of nuclei isolated from normal and pathological brains in a number of neurodegenerative diseases including scrapie and Alzheimer's disease. Here we summarize both general and specific changes in chromatin structure, gene expression, and neuropathological features for each encephalopathy and compare them in terms of their molecular biological similarities and differences. While both scrapie and Alzheimer's disease share a number of common alterations in genomic organization and gene activity during the pathogenic process, each neurological disease appears to operate on fundamentally different mechanisms.
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PMCID: PMC1255606  PMID: 2407330
24.  Allantoin transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is regulated by two induction systems. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1987;169(10):4660-4667.
We show that the allantoin transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae responds to two induction systems, one mediated by allophanate or its analog oxalurate and the other mediated by allantoin or its analog hydantoin acetate. The effects of the two inducers were additive in strain M85. Like other allantoin pathway genes, oxalurate-mediated induction of allantoin transport required a functional DAL81 gene product. Hydantoin acetate-mediated induction of the system, on the other hand, occurred normally in dal81 mutants. This suggests that induction was not only mediated by two separate inducers, but also involved different regulatory proteins. Induction is probably a transcriptionally regulated process, because addition of hydantoin acetate or oxalurate to the culture medium increased the steady-state levels of mRNA encoded by a gene required for allantoin transport (DAL4).
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PMCID: PMC213836  PMID: 2820939
25.  Induction of immunity against pneumonic pasteurellosis following experimental infection in calves. 
Immunity against pneumonic pasteurellosis was studied in calves after recovery from experimental respiratory disease with Pasteurella haemolytica. Nine calves were exposed to aerosols of parainfluenza-3 virus and Pasteurella haemolytica A1 six days apart to produce respiratory disease. After recovery from the disease, these nine principal and four control calves were challenged with aerosols of bovine herpesvirus 1 and P. haemolytica A1 four days apart. With this viral-bacterial challenge, the nine principal animals failed to develop clinical responses to this bacterial challenge and their lungs did not show the growth of P. haemolytica on cultures, whereas two of four control calves had elevated temperatures and developed necropurulent pneumonia with the isolation of P. haemolytica from the lungs. The principal calves had developed high levels of cytotoxin neutralizing antibodies in their sera following parainfluenza-3 virus-P. haemolytica infection. This demonstrated that immunity against pneumonic pasteurellosis can be achieved, with a suggestion that further search for an effective vaccine for P. haemolytica is warranted.
PMCID: PMC1255154  PMID: 3017526

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