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1.  A Comprehensive Review of the Policy and Programmatic Response to Chronic Non-Communicable Disease in Ghana 
Ghana Medical Journal  2012;46(2 Suppl):69-78.
Summary
Introduction
Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Ghana have caused significant illness and death in Ghana for many years. Yet, until recently, they have been neglected and not considered a health priority. This paper reviews the national policy and programme response to chronic NCDs over the period 1992 to 2009.
Methods
Unpublished reports, documents, relevant files of the Ghana Health Service (GHS) were examined to assess programmatic response to chronic NCDs. Literature was searched to locate published articles on the epidemiology of chronic NCDs in Ghana. The websites of various local and international health institutions were also searched for relevant articles.
Results
Several policy and programme initiatives have been pursued with limited success. A national control programme has been established, NCDs are currently a national policy priority, draft tobacco control legislation prepared, public education campaigns on healthy lifestyles, instituted cervical cancer screening and a national health insurance system to reducing medical costs of chronic NCD care. Major challenges include inefficient programme management, low funding, little political interest, low community awareness, high cost of drugs and absence of structured screening programmes. Emerging opportunities include improving political will, government's funding of a national cancer screening programme; basic and operational research; and using funds from well-resourced health programmes for overall health system strengthening.
Conclusions
Although Ghana has recently determined to emphasise healthy lifestyles and environment as a major health policy for the prevention and control of chronic NCDs, low funding and weak governance have hindered the effective and speedy implementation of proposed interventions.
PMCID: PMC3645151  PMID: 23661820
chronic non-communicable diseases; health systems; health policy; funding; and governance
3.  Short-term changes in serum luteinizing hormone, ovarian response and reproductive performance following gonadotrophin releasing hormone treatment in postpartum dairy cows with retained placenta. 
Thirty-six postpartum Holstein cows consisting of eighteen cows that shed the placenta soon after calving (NRP) and eighteen cows that retained placenta greater than 24 h (RP) were used. There were four treatment groups. Group I consisted of 9 NRP cows which received intramuscular injection of sterile saline on day 15 postpartum. The second group consisted of 9 NRPN cows which received 100 micrograms of gonadotrophin releasing hormone on day 15 postpartum (NRPT). The third group consisted of 9 RP cows which received saline on day 15 postpartum (RPN) and the fourth group consisted of 9 RP cows which received 100 micrograms of gonadotrophin releasing hormone on day 15 postpartum (RPT). Blood samples were collected once daily during the first month and once every other day during the second month postpartum. In addition fourteen cows (RPT, n = 7; NRPT, n = 7), were used to study short-term changes in serum luteinizing hormone concentrations following gonadotrophin releasing hormone treatment on day 15 postpartum. Blood samples were obtained from these cows every 15 min during 1 h before and 6 h after gonadotrophin releasing hormone administration. Sera from all samples were assayed for progesterone and luteinizing hormone concentrations. Starting from four days after calving rectal palpations and ultrasound examinations of the ovaries were carried out once every four days until day 28 postpartum in order to monitor ovarian changes. All cows were inseminated on the first estrus after day 60 postpartum and examined for pregnancy between 35 and 42 days after insemination.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMCID: PMC1255421  PMID: 3285981
4.  Peripartal changes in serum alkaline phosphatase activity and lactate dehydrogenase activity in dairy cows. 
Peripartal serum alkaline phosphatase activity and lactate dehydrogenase activity were measured in 30 dairy cows in order to examine the association between retained fetal membranes and enzyme activity. Daily blood samples were obtained from pregnant cows, starting 15 days before the expected day of calving until eight days after parturition. Sera from 15 cows which retained fetal membranes longer than 24 hours and 15 cows which shed fetal membranes within six hours after parturition were analyzed for alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase enzyme activities. Mean alkaline phosphatase enzyme activities ranged from 15.93 to 32.6 U/L in retained and nonretained placenta cows. There was a trend towards higher serum alkaline phosphatase activities in retained placenta cows but the differences were not significant among the groups (P greater than 0.05). Mean lactate dehydrogenase activities ranged from 307.2 to 438.86 U/L in nonretained and retained placenta cows. Lactate dehydrogenase enzyme activities in nonretained and retained placenta cows were similar (P greater than 0.05). The alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase enzyme activities peaked at the time of parturition in both groups. However, the differences in alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase activities on different days within non-retained and retained placenta cows were significant (P less than 0.05). Results indicate that prepartal changes in alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase enzyme activities are not predictive of placental retention postpartum.
PMCID: PMC1255377  PMID: 3453274
5.  Serum progesterone concentrations associated with superovulation and premature corpus luteum failure in dairy goats. 
The incidence and cause of premature corpora lutea failure and the response to luteinizing hormone treatment was investigated in superovulated dairy goats. Does were treated with 1000 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin intramuscularly, followed by either luteinizing hormone (treated group) or saline (control group). Serum progesterone concentrations were used to monitor corpus luteum function. The dose of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin used induced superovulation in a majority of the does, but the responses varied depending on the time of year. Premature regression of the corpora lutea occurred in 4 of 18 does after pregnant mare serum gonadotropin treatment, but there was no difference in the incidence of corpora lutea failure between treated and control groups. Decreases in serum progesterone concentrations were evident by day 3 after ovulation in does that experienced corpora lutea failure indicating this to be the critical time for premature regression of the corpora lutea in superovulated does.
PMCID: PMC1255228  PMID: 3742374
6.  The effects of gonadotrophin releasing hormone administration four days after insemination on first-service conception rates and corpus luteum function in dairy cows. 
One hundred and eighty-five Holstein-Friesian dairy cows received either sterile water or 250 micrograms of gonadotrophin releasing hormone intramuscularly on the fourth day after the first service postpartum. Heparinized blood samples were taken immediately prior to treatment (day 4) and on day 8 postinsemination for analysis of plasma progesterone concentration. Pregnancy diagnosis was carried out by rectal palpation at 42 days postinsemination and reconfirmed after 60 days postbreeding. The pregnancy rates after first, second or third service were not significantly different between gonadotrophin releasing hormone-treated and control cows. Plasma progesterone concentrations on day 4 and day 8 postinsemination, as well as the change in plasma progesterone concentration from day 4 to day 8, were similar for gonadotrophin releasing hormone-treated and control cows. The plasma progesterone concentrations on day 8 postbreeding were significantly higher (p less than 0.005) and the change in progesterone concentrations between days 4 and 8 were significantly greater (p less than 0.002) in pregnant cows compared to nonpregnant cows.
PMCID: PMC1255187  PMID: 3530415
7.  The maternal to fetal transfer of immunoglobulins associated with placental lesions in sheep. 
In this study we evaluated maternofetal transmission of immunoglobulins in ewes under conditions of altered placental morphology. Intravenous injection of human red blood cells was used to induce immunoglobulins in pregnant ewes. The hemagglutination test was used to detect antibody in maternal serum, fetal and placental fluids. Placental injury was induced by intravenous inoculation of Escherichia coli endotoxin or spores of Aspergillus fumigatus into pregnant ewes at days 99 or 100 of gestation respectively. Placental infarction, thrombosis of maternal placental vessels and variable neutrophil infiltrate characterized lesions produced by A. fumigatus. Endotoxin treated ewes developed marked placental edema, congestion, hemorrhage and focal loss of uterine epithelium. Human red blood cell agglutinating antibody was not detected in placental or fetal fluids obtained from ewes with either of the above placental lesions. Placentitis of undetermined etiology was observed in seven ewes. Two ewes had received A. fumigatus, two had received endotoxin and three were untreated ewes. Histological examination of their placentas revealed trophoblastic and endometrial epithelial necrosis and necrotizing vasculitis of the chorioallantois. Human red blood cell agglutinating antibody was detected only in the fetal and placental fluids of the seven ewes with these placental lesions. The nature of these lesions would have produced a functional confluence of the maternal and fetal circulations. Antibody transfer from dam to fetus was observed only in association with placental lesions which produced this confluence of circulations. The character of the placental lesions, rather than the mere presence of placental lesions apparently determined the transfer of immunoglobulins.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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PMCID: PMC1255161  PMID: 3742359
8.  Pregnancy Diagnosis in Swine: A Comparison of Two Ultrasound Instruments 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  1985;26(7):205-208.
This investigation was designed to assess the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values of amplitude-depth and Doppler pregnancy detectors when utilized for pregnancy diagnosis of mated sows. Mated sows (n = 38) were tested daily from 15 to 45 days after mating for pregnancy with the ultrasound instruments. The same procedure was performed with nonmated sows (n = 10) 15 to 45 days after estrus. Both instruments were unreliable for pregnancy diagnosis between 15 and 22 days after mating. Between 23 and 45 days after mating the Doppler pregnancy detector was more specific and had greater positive predictive values. In contrast the amplitude-depth pregnancy detector was more sensitive during the same time interval.
Serum estrone sulphate concentrations were determined in samples collected between 27 and 30 days after mating or estrus, as an alternate method of pregnancy diagnosis. Serum estrone sulphate concentrations were always equal to or greater than 0.5 ng/mL in the pregnant sows, while in the nonmated sows estrone sulphate concentrations were never more than 0.5 ng/mL serum.
PMCID: PMC1680096  PMID: 17422547
Swine; pregnancy diagnosis; ultrasound; estrone sulphate
9.  Autumn Abortions in Sows 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  1985;26(5):162-163.
This report describes the diagnosis and management of autumn abortions in a commercial swine herd in Ontario. A consistent pattern of abortions in the fall (and to a lesser extent, winter and spring) months was established from the herd records of 1980 to 1982. The percent abortions (of all farrowings) was 2.2, 3.7 and 4.3 for the years 1980, 1981 and 1982 respectively. Since laboratory examinations did not identify a specific pathogen, the management and the environment were investigated. In December 1982, supplemental heat was provided in the gestation barn to counteract heat losses at the level of the pregnant sows. The percent abortions was reduced to 0.4 over the next 12 months.
PMCID: PMC1679987  PMID: 17422530
Sows; autumn abortion; noninfectious; climatic stressors
10.  Interrelationships between postpartum events, hormonal therapy, reproductive abnormalities and reproductive performance in dairy cows: a path analysis. 
Path analysis was used to determine the interrelationships between postpartum administration of gonadotrophin releasing hormone and cloprostenol and the occurrence of reproductive disease and reproductive performance in dairy cows. The data analysed were those collected on 226 Holstein-Friesian cows calving in a commercial dairy herd during a 17 month period (May 1, 1981 to October 1, 1982). Cows administered gonadotrophin releasing hormone at day 15 postpartum experienced an improved rate of uterine involution as determined by rectal palpation nine days later. Although this improved rate of uterine involution reduced the risk of pyometritis, it actually directly delayed conception. Also, gonadotrophin releasing hormone therapy directly resulted in an increased incidence of pyometritis which in turn resulted in an increase incidence of cystic ovarian disease and anestrus. The occurrence of these abnormalities resulted in increased intervals from calving to first observed estrus, first service and conception. In addition to this effect, the administration of gonadotrophin releasing hormone was also associated with increased plasma progesterone concentrations at days 24 and 28 postpartum which delayed conception. Cloprostenol therapy at day 24 postpartum resulted in a decreased plasma progesterone concentration at day 28 postpartum which was directly and indirectly associated with a decrease in the calving to conception interval. The indirect effects were mediated by a reduction in days to first estrus. Cloprostenol therapy also directly resulted in a decreased calving to first observed estrus interval for reasons not attributable to the level of progesterone at day 28.
PMCID: PMC1236168  PMID: 3899335
11.  Interrelationships between ambient temperature, age at calving, postpartum reproductive events and reproductive performance in dairy cows: a path analysis. 
Path analysis was used to determine the interrelationships between ambient temperature, age at calving, postpartum reproductive events and reproductive performance in dairy cows. The data used in the analysis were collected on 226 Holstein-Friesian cows calving in a commercial dairy herd during a 17 month period (May 1, 1981 to October 1, 1982). The data were obtained from a double blind study evaluating the effects of gonadotrophin releasing hormone and cloprostenol in postpartum cows. Rectal palpation to assess uterine involution and ovarian activity was performed on each cow on days 15, 24 and 28 postpartum. At the same time, blood samples were collected for subsequent progesterone assay. Data were recorded on the occurrence of reproductive diseases and events from the time of parturition until the diagnosis of pregnancy or until the cow left the herd in the case of culled cows. There was an increase in the incidence of retained placenta, in the percentage of cows with abnormal vaginal discharge in the early postpartum period as well as a delay in uterine involution during the winter months. In addition, cows calving during the winter had prolonged intervals to first estrus, first service and conception compared to cows calving during the summer. (Cows calving during the warmest months, on average, were seen in estrus 24 days sooner, received first service 42 days sooner and conceived 27 days sooner than cows calving during the coldest months of the year).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMCID: PMC1236166  PMID: 4041971
12.  Effects of gonadotrophin releasing hormone on reproductive performance of dairy cows with retained placenta. 
The effects of gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) on the reproductive performance of dairy cows with retained placenta were studied. Three hundred and seventy-eight cows diagnosed as having retained placenta received intramuscular injections of either 2 mL sterile water or 200 micrograms of GnRH in 2 mL sterile water between day 8 and day 14 postpartum. Rectal palpation was performed at the time of treatment and ten to 20 days after treatment in order to determine the rate of uterine involution. Thereafter, monthly rectal examinations were carried out until insemination. Pregnancy diagnosis was made by rectal palpation at 40 days or more after breeding. Using the entire experimental population, there were no significant differences between GnRH-treated and control cows for the rate of uterine involution, the occurrence of reproductive problems, the interval from parturition to first observed estrus, the interval from parturition to first insemination, the interval from parturition to conception, the number of services per conception, the total number of services per cow regardless of conception and the incidence of culling for infertility. When the data for herds in which breeding began earlier in the postpartum period (herds having a mean less than or equal to 80 days from parturition to first service for retained placenta cows) were considered, the GnRH treatment resulted in a significantly shorter (p less than or equal to 0.01) calving to conception interval as compared to control cows. Also, there was a significant reduction (p less than or equal to 0.05) in the total number of services per cow regardless of conception and a significant reduction in the interval from parturition to first service.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMCID: PMC1236082  PMID: 6391640
13.  Morphological and hormonal features of an ovine and a caprine intersex. 
A caprine and an ovine intersex were examined to compare their morphological and hormonal features in light of their cytogenetic make-up. Both animals, registered as females at birth, developed male-like appearance and behaviour as they approached the age of sexual maturity. Plasma testosterone concentrations in the intersexes were similar to those in adult males of the respective species. Cytogenetic analyses showed male and female cells in the blood while cultures of solid tissue contained only female cells suggesting that both were blood chimeras similar to the bovine freemartins.
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PMCID: PMC1236093  PMID: 6509368
14.  Reproductive performance in dairy cows following postpartum treatment with gonadotrophin releasing hormone and/or prostaglandin: a field trial. 
Three hundred and five Holstein Friesian cows were given either 250 micrograms gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) or saline on day 15 postpartum followed by 500 micrograms cloprostenol or saline on day 24 postpartum. Four treatment groups were formed using random allocation: Group I -- placebo (Day 15)/placebo (Day 24), Group II -- GnRH (Day 15)/placebo (Day 24), Group III -- placebo (Day 15)/cloprostenol (Day 24), Group IV -- GnRH (Day 15)/cloprostenol (Day 24). Double blind techniques were used during the follow-up period. Rectal palpation, to assess uterine involution and ovarian activity was performed just prior to each treatment and again at 28 days postpartum. In addition blood samples were collected at 15, 24 and 28 days postpartum for measurement of plasma progesterone. There were no significant differences among treatment groups with respect to services per conception, number of heats detected before first service and culling for infertility. Cows treated only with GnRH had an increased calving to first estrus and calving to first breeding interval, and tended to have an increased calving to conception interval. Treatment with cloprostenol significantly decreased calving to conception and calving to first observed estrus intervals. Treatment with GnRH on day 15 postpartum resulted in a significant increase in the subsequent incidence of pyometra and prebreeding anestrus. On the other hand, cloprostenol treatment on day 24 postpartum resulted in a decreased incidence of pyometra, regardless of GnRH treatment and a decreased incidence of prebreeding anestrus in GnRH treated cows compared to cows receiving only GnRH at day 15 postpartum.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMCID: PMC1236054  PMID: 6383577
15.  Effects of Ethinylestradiol and Danazol on Embryo Survival and Implantation in Mated Beagle Bitches 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  1983;24(12):371-374.
Eleven mature Beagle bitches were artificially inseminated and then used to determine the effects of ethinylestradiol or danazol on nidation, embryo survival and maintenance of pregnancy. The dogs were grouped so that three were kept as controls, four others were treated with ethinylestradiol and the remaining four were treated with danazol. The compounds were administered orally at varying intervals after insemination. The effects of the compounds were deduced from the condition of the ovaries and uterus examined at laparotomy, and the results of whelping. Ethinylestradiol had minimal effect on embryo development and implantation. Three of four bitches treated with ethinylestradiol whelped. Similarly, danazol treatment had little or no effect on embryonic survival and implantation. It is concluded that, ethinylestradiol or danazol at the dosages and schedules used in this study did not significantly interfere with embryonic survival or implantation in pregnant Beagle bitches.
PMCID: PMC1790479  PMID: 17422337
16.  Plasma Progesterone Concentrations in Dairy Cows with Cystic Ovaries and Clinical Responses Following Treatment with Fenprostalene 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  1983;24(11):352-356.
Sixty-two dairy cows diagnosed as having cystic ovarian degeneration were used to study the correlation between rectal palpation findings and plasma progesterone concentrations and the response of cysts to treatment using fenprostalene, a luteolytic agent. Rectal palpation accurately determined the presence of luteal cysts as confirmed by plasma progesterone concentrations of 3 ng/mL or more. Treatment with fenprostalene was very effective for luteal cysts: a high percentage of treated cows exhibited estrus within seven days after treatment. The conception rate following artifical insemination during the induced estrus was 87.5% (21/24). Rectal palpation was much less accurate for the diagnosis of follicular cysts. Cows diagnosed as having follicular cysts had wide variations in plasma progesterone concentrations. Response to fenprostalene treatment was poor in cows with nonluteinized cystic follicles associated with low progesterone concentrations. However, cows diagnosed as having follicular cysts, but with progesterone concentrations of 1 ng/mL or more, responded better to fenprostalene treatment than cows with low progesterone concentrations.
It was concluded that, if correctly diagnosed, luteal cysts can be successfully treated with fenprostalene, and conception rates following treatment can be expected to be normal.
PMCID: PMC1790459  PMID: 17422330
17.  Clinical and Luteolytic Effects of Fenprostalene (A Prostaglandin F2α Analogue) in Mares 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  1983;24(11):347-351.
A study was carried out to determine the luteolytic effect of fenprostalene, a prostaglandin F2α analogue, in mares Ten mares, that included seven cyclic mares, lactating mares and a pregnant mare were used in two experiments. In the first experiment, seven mares were treated subcutaneously with 250 μg fenprostalene and in the second experiment ten mares, including the seven mares used in the first experiment, were treated with fenprostalene and artificially inseminated during the induced estrus. Fenprostalene caused luteolysis in the normal cycling mares and the pregnant mare. Mares showed estrus within one to five days after treatment. Six of the ten mares conceived during the induced estrus and a further two conceived during the next estrus. The compound produced a side effect consisting of a small, raised, sometimes painful skin swelling at the injection site, which lasted for one to two days.
PMCID: PMC1790450  PMID: 17422329
18.  Changes in Plasma Progesterone Concentrations in Mares Treated with Cloprostenol and Human Chorionic Gonadotropin and Inseminated During Estrus 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  1983;24(8):253-257.
Daily changes in the plasma progesterone concentrations were determined in eight mares treated with intramuscular injections of 250 μg cloprostenol, a prostaglandin analogue, followed five days later by 2500 I.U. human chorionic gonadotropin. A second cloprostenol injection was given 14 days after the first; the mares were then inseminated on the third and fifth day of the subsequent estrus and a second injection of human chorionic gonadotropin was administered on the fifth day. The onset of estrus following the second cloprostenol treatment was synchronized beginning three to four days after treatment in all eight mares. All eight ovulated, five mares conceived and only four foaled. Evaluation of the progesterone profiles provided reliable indicators of luteolysis, ovulation and luteal function. Decreasing plasma progesterone concentrations were associated with cloprostenol induced luteolysis or preceded spontaneous onset of estrus. The plasma progesterone concentrations increased consistently after ovulation, and in the pregnant mares, the progesterone concentrations remained high during the first month after insemination.
PMCID: PMC1790398  PMID: 17422295
20.  Induction of Abortion During Midgestation in Mares 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  1982;23(12):358-360.
Four standardbred mares, 99 to 153 days pregnant, were treated with a synthetic prostaglandin analogue, prostalene, in an attempt to induce abortion. The mares received subcutaneous injection of either 2 mg prostalene (recommended luteolytic dose); 4 mg prostalene (double luteolytic dose) or 4 mg twice at intervals of 12 hours or 24 hours. The prostalene treatment resulted in cervical relaxation, increased tone of the uterus and decreased plasma concentrations of progesterone. None of the pregnant mares aborted within seven days after the first prostalene treatment. Abortions were subsequently induced by single or multiple intrauterine infusions using warm hypertonic saline. There were no postabortion complications.
PMCID: PMC1790269  PMID: 17422207
21.  Induction of Ovulation with Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone and Progesterone in Seasonally Anestrous Mares 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  1982;23(11):332-336.
Five seasonally anestrous mares were treated with a regimen of gonadotrophin releasing hormone and progesterone in an attempt to induce estrus and ovulation. The treatment induced follicular activity and estrus in all mares. Two of the five mares ovulated but none conceived.
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PMCID: PMC1790230  PMID: 17422201
22.  Potential Treatments for Anestrus in Gilts and Sows 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  1982;23(10):288-290.
Pregnant mares' serum gonadotrophin (400 IU) combined with human chorionic gonadotrophin (200 IU) was administered to anestrous gilts (n=31) and sows (n=20) in commercial herds. Two-thirds of the treated animals were mated successfully within seven days and, although no control animals were included, the response indicated that this hormone combination would be useful in herds with anestrous problems. A second experiment was conducted to evaluate the occurrence of estrus and/or ovulations in prepuberal gilts (n=eight/treatment) following injection with pregnant mares' serum gonadotrophin/human chorionic gonadotrophin or other hormones that might stimulate ovarian activity. The pregnant mares' serum gonadotrophin/human chorionic gonadotrophin combination and follicle-stimulating hormone produced estrus within ten days of injection in at least half of the treated gilts but the response was lower with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone and a prostaglandin analogue. Combinations of human chorionic gonadotrophin with small amounts of estradiol benzoate stimulated estrus and ovulation in most of the treated gilts.
PMCID: PMC1790215  PMID: 17422187
23.  Steroid levels after intramuscular injection of testosterone propionate in the caprine. 
Nine sexually mature intact grade does were injected intramuscularly with testosterone propionate and subsequent plasma steroid concentrations determined and male-like behavior recorded. The does received either 100 mg testosterone propionate every three days for six treatments, total dose 600 mg (N = 5); 50 mg testosterone propionate daily for eighteen days, total dose 900 mg (N = 2) or 10 mg testosterone propionate daily for eighteen days, total dose 180 mg (N = 2). The treatments induced male-like sex behavior, the intensity of which was related to the dose of exogenous testosterone used, the regimen of administration, and the plasma levels of testosterone. Exogenous testosterone treatment had minimal effect on the subsequent reproductive activity of the does.
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PMCID: PMC1320301  PMID: 6890867
24.  Reproductive performance in sows treated with estradiol benzoate/human chorionic gonadotrophin combination at weaning. 
The effects of estradiol benzoate plus human chorionic gonadotrophin administered on the day of weaning on the reproductive performance in sows was studied. The treatment advanced the onset of estrus but the duration of estrus was slightly prolonged. Breeding on the post-weaning estrus was associated with poor pregnancy rate and smaller litters. The treatment did not cause permanent damage to the reproductive tract as the reproductive performance of the treated sows after subsequent breedings were unaffected. The possible causes of the poor fertility in the estradiol benzoate plus human chorionic gonadotrophin treated sows are discussed.
PMCID: PMC1320307  PMID: 6890868
25.  Ovarian Disorders: Clinical and Morphological Observations in 30 Mares 
A five year prospective study of equine ovarian problems requiring surgical correction was undertaken at the Ontario Veterinary College. Thirty mares were studied, of which 14 had granulosa cell tumors, six were with anovulatory persistent follicular “structures”, five had ovarian hemotoma, two presented ovarian hypoplasia and one each of ovarian dysgerminoma, teratoma and abscessation. The clinical signs manifested by the affected animals were varied. The affected ovaries were removed via flank or midline laparotomy or through colpotomy. Their morphology was studied and representative portions of affected ovaries submitted for laboratory diagnosis. Postsurgical recovery and resumption of reproductive activity were satisfactory.
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PMCID: PMC1790073  PMID: 7066859

Results 1-25 (31)