Morphology, biochemical reactions, pigmentation, antigens, and cell envelope proteins were examined in 12 strains of Haemophilus somnus, Haemophilus agni, Histophilus ovis, and Actinobacillus seminis. All of the strains except A. seminis are related and are considered as a single Haemophilus-Histophilus (HH) group. In immunodiffusion tests, HH group bacteria had at least two antigens common to all members of the group, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that they have similar cell envelope protein profiles. A quantitatively variable yellow pigment with absorption maxima of 430 to 435 nm was present in strains of H. somnus and H. agni. The HH group did not produce catalase and grew only in air containing 10% CO2. Of 10 HH group bacteria, 9 required thiamine monophosphate for growth. A. seminis was distinguished from the HH group by its lack of yellow pigment, production of catalase, growth in air, lack of a thiamine monophosphate requirement, and different cell envelope protein profile. In gel immunodiffusion tests, A. seminis antigens produced two lines of partial identity with the HH group when antiserum against H. somnus was used. Reference strains of Haemophilus influenzae, Actinobacillus lignieresii, and Haemophilus haemoglobinophilus were compared with the test strains. In immunodiffusion tests, a single antigen was found to be common to H. haemoglobinophilus, A. seminis, and the HH group. No similarities between any of the test strains and H. influenzae or A. lignieresii were noted. The close relationship of H. somnus, H. agni, and Histophilus ovis suggests that these unofficially named bacteria may belong to a single taxon.