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1.  Inhibition of CXCR4–CXCL12 chemotaxis in melanoma by AMD11070 
British Journal of Cancer  2013;108(8):1634-1640.
Background:
Despite intensive research and novel adjuvant therapies, there is currently no cure for metastatic melanoma. The chemokine receptor CXCR4 controls metastasis to sites such as the liver; however, the therapeutic blockade with the existing agents has proven difficult.
Methods:
AMD11070, a novel orally bioavailable inhibitor of CXCR4, was tested for its ability to inhibit the migration of melanoma cells compared with the commonly described antagonist AMD3100.
Results:
AMD11070 abrogated melanoma cell migration and was significantly more effective than AMD3100. Importantly for the clinical context, the expression of B-RAF-V600E did not the affect the sensitivity of AMD11070.
Conclusion:
Liver-resident myofibroblasts excrete CXCL12, which is able to promote the migration of CXCR4-expressing tumour cells from the blood into the liver. Blockade of this axis by AMD11070 thus represents a novel therapeutic strategy for both B-RAF wild-type and mutated melanomas.
doi:10.1038/bjc.2013.124
PMCID: PMC3668477  PMID: 23538388
chemokine; melanoma; metastasis; CXCR4; B-RAF; AMD11070
3.  Effects of teriparatide in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis pre-treated with bisphosphonates: 36-month results from the European Forsteo Observational Study 
Objectives
To describe fracture rates, back pain, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and prior bisphosphonate therapy, treated with teriparatide for up to 18 months and followed up for a further 18 months.
Design
Prospective, multinational, and observational study.
Methods
Data on prior bisphosphonate use, clinical fractures, back pain visual analog scale (VAS), and HRQoL (EQ-5D) were collected over 36 months. Fracture data were summarized in 6-month intervals and analyzed using logistic regression with repeated measures. Changes from baseline in back pain VAS and EQ-VAS were analyzed using a repeated measures model.
Results
Of the 1581 enrolled patients with follow-up data, 1161 (73.4%) had a history of prior bisphosphonate use (median duration: 36 months). Of them, 169 (14.6%) sustained ≥1 fracture during 36-month follow-up. Adjusted odds of fracture were significantly decreased at each 6-month interval compared with the first 6 months of teriparatide treatment: 37% decrease in the 12 to <18 months period during teriparatide treatment (P=0.03) and a 76% decrease in the 12- to 18-month period after teriparatide was discontinued (P<0.001). Significant reductions in back pain and improvement in HRQoL were observed.
Conclusions
Postmenopausal women with severe osteoporosis previously treated with bisphosphonates had a significant reduction in the incidence of fractures compared with the first 6 months of therapy, a reduction in back pain and an improvement in HRQoL during up to 18 months of teriparatide treatment. These outcomes were still evident for at least 18 months after teriparatide was discontinued. The results should be interpreted in the context of an uncontrolled, observational study in a routine clinical setting.
doi:10.1530/EJE-11-0740
PMCID: PMC3232638  PMID: 22048967
4.  The Origin of Clinical Organ Transplantation Revisited 
A patient whose illness had begun with edema and hypertension was found to have extreme atrophy of both kidneys. Because of the steady worsening of the condition and the appearance of uremia with other unfavorable diagnostic signs, transplantation of 1 kidney from the patient's identical healthy twin brother was undertaken. Preparations included collection of evidence of monozygosity and experimental transplantation of a skin graft from the twin. During the transfer of the healthy kidney, it was totally ischemic for 82 minutes. Evidence of functional activity in the transplanted kidney was obtained. The hypertension persisted until the patient's diseased kidneys were both removed. The homograft has survived for 11 months, and the marked clinical improvement in the patient has included disappearance of the signs of malignant hypertension.
doi:10.1001/jama.2009.644
PMCID: PMC2996869  PMID: 19454644
5.  Fracture rate and back pain during and after discontinuation of teriparatide: 36-month data from the European Forsteo Observational Study (EFOS) 
Osteoporosis International  2010;22(10):2709-2719.
Summary
In this observational study in postmenopausal women with severe osteoporosis, the incidence of fractures was decreased during 18 months of teriparatide treatment with no evidence of further change in the subsequent 18-month post-teriparatide period when most patients took other osteoporosis medications. Fracture reduction was accompanied by reductions in back pain.
Introduction
To describe fracture outcomes and back pain in postmenopausal women with severe osteoporosis during 18 months of teriparatide treatment and 18 months post-teriparatide in normal clinical practice.
Methods
The European Forsteo Observational Study (EFOS) was a prospective, multinational, observational study. Data on incident clinical fractures and back pain (100 mm Visual Analogue Scale [VAS] and questionnaire) were collected. Fracture data were summarised in 6-month intervals and analysed using logistic regression with repeated measures. Changes from baseline in back pain VAS were analysed using a repeated measures model.
Results
A total of 208 (13.2%) of 1,576 patients sustained 258 fractures during 36 months of follow-up: 34% were clinical vertebral fractures and 66% non-vertebral fractures. The adjusted odds of fracture were reduced during teriparatide treatment and there was no evidence of further change in the 18-month post-teriparatide period, during which 63.3% patients took bisphosphonates. A 74% decrease in the adjusted odds of fracture in the 30- to <36-month period compared with the first 6-month period was observed (p < 0.001). Back pain decreased during teriparatide treatment and this decrease was sustained after teriparatide discontinuation. Adjusted mean back pain VAS decreased by 26.3 mm after 36 months (p < 0.001) from baseline mean of 57.8 mm.
Conclusions
In a real-life clinical setting, the risk of fracture decreased during teriparatide treatment, with no evidence of further change after teriparatide was discontinued. The changes in back pain seen during treatment were maintained for at least 18 months after teriparatide discontinuation. These results should be interpreted in the context of the design of an observational study.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00198-010-1498-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s00198-010-1498-5
PMCID: PMC3169763  PMID: 21113576
Back pain; Fracture; Osteoporosis; Teriparatide
6.  Early changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover and their relationship with bone mineral density changes after 24 months of treatment with teriparatide 
Osteoporosis International  2010;22(6):1935-1946.
Summary
We report the changes in biochemical markers of bone formation during the first 6 months of teriparatide therapy in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis according to previous antiresorptive treatment. Prior therapy does not adversely affect the response to teriparatide treatment. Similar bone markers levels are reached after 6 months of treatment.
Introduction
The response of biochemical markers of bone turnover with teriparatide therapy in subjects who have previously received osteoporosis drugs is not fully elucidated. We examined biochemical markers of bone formation in women with osteoporosis treated with teriparatide and determined: (1) whether the response is associated with prior osteoporosis therapy, (2) which marker shows the best performance for detecting a response to therapy, and (3) the correlations between early changes in bone markers and subsequent bone mineral density (BMD) changes after 24 months of teriparatide.
Methods
We conducted a prospective, open-label, 24-month study at 95 centers in 10 countries in 758 postmenopausal women with established osteoporosis (n = 181 treatment-naïve) who had at least one post-baseline bone marker determination. Teriparatide (20 μg/day) was administered for up to 24 months. We measured procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP), and total alkaline phosphatase (t-ALP) at baseline, 1 and 6 months, and change in BMD at the lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck from baseline to 24 months.
Results
Significant increases in formation markers occurred after 1 month of teriparatide regardless of prior osteoporosis therapy. The absolute increase at 1 month was lower in previously treated versus treatment-naïve patients, but after 6 months all groups reached similar levels. PINP showed the best signal-to-noise ratio. Baseline PINP correlated positively and significantly with BMD response at 24 months.
Conclusions
This study suggests that the long-term responsiveness of bone formation markers to teriparatide is not affected in subjects previously treated with antiresorptive drugs.
doi:10.1007/s00198-010-1379-y
PMCID: PMC3092934  PMID: 20938767
BMD; Bone markers; Bone turnover; Osteoporosis; Postmenopausal women; Teriparatide
7.  The impact of radiotherapy late effects on quality of life in gynaecological cancer patients 
British Journal of Cancer  2009;100(10):1558-1565.
The aims of this study were to assess changes in quality of life (QoL) scores in relation to radical radiotherapy for gynaecological cancer (before and after treatment up to 3 years), and to identify the effect that late treatment effects have on QoL. This was a prospective study involving 225 gynaecological cancer patients. A QoL instrument (European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30) and late treatment effect questionnaire (Late Effects Normal Tissues – Subjective Objective Management Analysis) were completed before and after treatment (immediately after radiotherapy, 6 weeks, 12, 24 and 36 months after treatment). Most patients had acute physical symptoms and impaired functioning immediately after treatment. Levels of fatigue and diarrhoea only returned to those at pre-treatment assessment after 6 weeks. Patients with high treatment toxicity scores had lower global QoL scores. In conclusion, treatment with radiotherapy for gynaecological cancer has a negative effect on QoL, most apparent immediately after treatment. Certain late treatment effects have a negative effect on QoL for at least 2 years after radiotherapy. These treatment effects are centred on symptoms relating to the rectum and bowel, for example, diarrhoea, tenesmus and urgency. Future research will identify specific symptoms resulting from late treatment toxicity that have the greatest effect on QoL; therefore allowing effective management plans to be developed to reduce these symptoms and improve QoL in gynaecological cancer patients.
doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6605050
PMCID: PMC2696756  PMID: 19384297
radiotherapy; late toxicity; quality of life; gynaecological cancer; longitudinal study
8.  Complications of supra-annular mitral valve placement in infants 
Heart  2005;91(6):e48.
Two infants underwent supra-annular placement of prosthetic mitral valves. The objective of this strategy was to insert a larger valve and delay replacement. This approach was initially successful but by two and three years later the patients developed impairment of cardiac function. The prosthesis decreased the volume and compliance of the left atrium causing high left atrial and pulmonary venous pressures. The “ventricularised” atrium below the prosthesis dilated. In neither case was it possible to delay second valve replacement.
doi:10.1136/hrt.2004.057877
PMCID: PMC1768930  PMID: 15894749
mitral valves; supra-annular mitral valve; infants
9.  Can spontaneous spinal epidural haematoma be managed safely without operation? a report of four cases 
The presentation, investigation, and management of four patients with spontaneous spinal epidural haematoma is presented. In each case the diagnosis was made by MRI. At the time of diagnosis spontaneous recovery had started in each patient and therefore they were all treated conservatively. In each case follow up MRI confirmed rapid reduction in the size of the haematoma and no underlying cause was demonstrated. The presentation, diagnosis, and rationale for treatment are discussed. Conservative treatment is safe in some cases of spinal epidural haematoma if early neurological recovery has started.


doi:10.1136/jnnp.69.6.816
PMCID: PMC1737167  PMID: 11080239
10.  General practitioner psychological management of common emotional problems (II): A research agenda for the development of evidence-based practice. 
The majority of patients with common emotional or psychological problems are treated solely by general practitioners (GPs). Such treatment frequently includes some form of psychological management within the consultation, whether limited to listening and discussion or involving more specific techniques. This paper sets out a research agenda for the development of effective approaches to GP psychological management. Evidence is reviewed on three core components of all psychological treatments: establishing a positive therapeutic relationship, developing a shared understanding of the problem, and promoting change in behaviour, thoughts or emotions. The application of these components in GP psychological management is outlined and methodological issues in the development and evaluation of GP management approaches are discussed. Since the number of patients with emotional problems seen by each GP is so large, the population effects of even small improvements in psychological management would be sizeable.
PMCID: PMC1313707  PMID: 10897540
11.  General practitioner psychological management of common emotional problems (I): Definitions and literature review. 
General practitioners' (GPs') treatment of patients with common emotional problems often includes some form of psychological management within the consultation. Such psychological management may be limited to listening and discussion or may also include more specific psychological approaches, such as use of counselling, problem-solving, or cognitive-behavioural techniques. This paper defines GP psychological management and reviews what is known about its frequency and effectiveness. MEDLINE and PsychLIT searches were undertaken of empirical studies of the psychological management of emotional problems by GPs in routine consultations published up to 1998. Thirty-six studies were identified. Most lacked details of the nature of the psychological management reported, making it difficult to compare studies. The frequency of use of psychological management by GPs was found to be generally less when rated by external observers than when assessed by GP self-report. There is preliminary evidence from a few studies of the clinical effectiveness of GP psychological management in routine consultations.
PMCID: PMC1313683  PMID: 10897519
12.  Efficient generation of recombinant adenoviral vectors by Cre-lox recombination in vitro. 
Molecular Medicine  1999;5(4):224-231.
BACKGROUND: Although recombinant adenovirus vectors are attractive for use in gene expression studies and therapeutic applications, the construction of these vectors remains relatively time-consuming. We report here a strategy that simplifies the production of adenoviruses using the Cre-loxP system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Full-length recombinant adenovirus DNA was generated in vitro by Cre-mediated recombination between loxP sites in a linearized shuttle plasmid containing a transgene and adenovirus genomic DNA. RESULTS: After transfection of Cre-treated DNA into 293 cells, replication-defective viral vectors were rapidly obtained without detectable wild-type virus. CONCLUSION: This system facilitates the development of recombinant adenoviral vectors for basic and clinical research.
Images
PMCID: PMC2230325  PMID: 10448644
13.  Inducible expression of human hepatitis B virus (HBV) in stably transfected hepatoblastoma cells: a novel system for screening potential inhibitors of HBV replication. 
We report the development and isolation of a cell line, termed HepAD38, that replicates human hepatitis B virus (HBV) under conditions that can be regulated with tetracycline. In the presence of the antibiotic, this cell line is free of virus due to the repression of pregenomic (pg) RNA synthesis. Upon removal of tetracycline from the culture medium, the cells express viral pg RNA, accumulate subviral particles in the cytoplasm that contain DNA intermediates characteristic of viral replication, and secrete virus-like particles into the supernatant. Since the HepAD38 cell line can produce high levels of HBV DNA, it should be useful for analyses of the viral replication cycle that depend upon viral DNA synthesis in a synchronized fashion. In addition, this cell line has been formatted into a high-throughput, cell-based assay that permits the large-scale screening of diverse compound libraries for new classes of inhibitors of HBV replication.
PMCID: PMC163991  PMID: 9257747
14.  Long-lasting adenovirus transgene expression in mice through neonatal intrathymic tolerance induction without the use of immunosuppression. 
Journal of Virology  1997;71(7):5330-5335.
The major barrier to the clinical application of adenovirus gene therapy for diseases that require stable transgene expression is the immunogenicity of recombinant adenovirus, which ordinarily limits the duration of its effects to a period of about 2 weeks. We postulated that tolerance to adenovirus could be induced and transgene expression could be prolonged if T lymphocytes underwent thymic selection in the presence of adenovirus antigens. Mice were inoculated in the thymus with a recombinant adenovirus containing the lacZ marker gene during the neonatal period at a time before T-cell maturation had occurred. When the virus was administered intravenously to these mice in adulthood, they were found to have an impaired adenovirus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response which allowed prolonged hepatic lacZ expression, for up to 260 days. The ability to achieve unresponsiveness to a recombinant adenovirus after inoculation of the thymus in neonates extends the paradigm of intrathymic tolerance induction. Furthermore, this model will enable the study of stable adenovirus transgene expression in vivo without the use of immunosuppression and ultimately may have clinical utility.
PMCID: PMC191770  PMID: 9188602
17.  Evaluation of Serodia Myco II particle agglutination test for detecting Mycoplasma pneumoniae antibody: comparison with mu-capture ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1990;43(2):163-165.
The Serodia Myco II particle agglutination test, which the manufacturers claim exclusively detects IgM antibody, was compared with two IgM-specific tests, a mu-capture ELISA, and indirect immunofluorescence for their ability to detect recent Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. In general there was good agreement among the three tests, all three having similar sensitivity. One hundred and nine (78%) of serum samples gave concordant results in all three assays. Several sera gave positive particle agglutination titres, however, while being negative by the two other assays, and the Serodia Myco II test may not be as specific for detecting M pneumoniae IgM as the other two tests. While the Serodia Myco II test may be a good screening assay, it is unlikely to be a definitive test for M pneumoniae IgM, but may be better than the complement fixation test, particularly in younger patients in whom M pneumoniae IgM is found more frequently.
PMCID: PMC502302  PMID: 2108192
18.  Activation of the prolactin receptor gene by promoter insertion in a Moloney murine leukemia virus-induced rat thymoma. 
Journal of Virology  1992;66(11):6763-6768.
The prolactin receptor (Prlr) and growth hormone receptor (Ghr) genes and the Moloney murine leukemia virus integration-2 (Mlvi-2) locus were mapped to mouse chromosome 15 and human chromosome 5 bands p12-p14. To examine the potential relationship between Mlvi-2 and the genes encoding the growth hormone receptor and the prolactin receptor, we determined the chromosomal location of all three loci in the rat, using a panel of rat-mouse somatic cell hybrids, and in the mouse, using a panel of (C57BL/6J x Mus spretus)F1 x C57BL/6J interspecific backcross mice. These analyses revealed that Ghr, Prlr, and Mlvi-2 map to chromosome 2 in the rat and to chromosome 15 in the mouse, in close proximity with each other. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of rat genomic DNA showed no overlaps between the gene encoding the prolactin receptor and the remaining loci. Moreover, expression of the prolactin receptor was not affected by provirus insertion in Mlvi-2. During these studies, however, we detected one T-cell lymphoma line (2779) in which the prolactin receptor gene was activated by provirus integration. Sequence analysis of polymerase chain reaction-derived cDNA clones showed that the prolactin receptor RNA message initiates at the 5' long terminal repeat and utilizes the splice donor site 5' of the gag gene to splice the viral sequences onto exon 1 of the prolactin receptor. This message is predicted to encode the intact prolactin receptor protein product. Exposure of the T-cell lymphoma line 2779 to prolactin promoted cellular proliferation.
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PMCID: PMC240173  PMID: 1404614
19.  Dosimetric implications of pulmonary macrophage clusters observed within lungs of rats that have inhaled enriched UO2 particles. 
Twenty-four Fischer 344 rats were exposed to enriched uranium dioxide (UO2) aerosols to give a mean initial lung burden of 291 +/- 89 (SD) micrograms. Groups of rats were killed at 1, 7, 180, 360, 540, and 720 days post-inhalation (PI). Their lungs were fixed and inflated. Sections cut from all five lung lobes were used to prepare CR-39 neutron-induced 235U fission fragment autoradiographs. A single traverse across a CR-39 autoradiograph of a tissue section, from the left lung of all the rats, was made using a motorized microscopic stage. The traverse was divided into 10 fields. The track counts per field were used to test for homogeneity of track distribution and to assess if there was any tendency for tracks to be related to the peripheral region of the lung. Full raster scans across the entire tissue image were made on left lung autoradiographs from two animals killed at each time point to assess the homogeneity of fission fragment track distribution throughout the entire section. There was no evidence of any temporal change in the proportion of tracks associated with the lung periphery. At all time points PI, the track distribution was significantly nonhomogeneous, suggesting a nonuniform pattern of tissue irradiation from the 234U alpha particles. At time points from 180 to 720 days PI, large clusters of macrophages were observed in some of the sections taken from all five lung lobes. The total number of macrophage clusters increased with time PI. These macrophage clusters produced many 235U fission fragment tracks within the CR-39 autoradiographs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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PMCID: PMC1519560  PMID: 1396459
20.  Association of atrophy of the medial temporal lobe with reduced blood flow in the posterior parietotemporal cortex in patients with a clinical and pathological diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. 
A combination of medial temporal lobe atrophy, shown by computed tomography, and reduced blood flow in the parietotemporal cortex, shown by single photon emission tomography, was found in 86% (44/51) of patients with a clinical diagnosis of senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT). The same combination of changes was found in four out of 10 patients with other clinical types of dementia and in two out of 18 with no evidence of cognitive deficit. Of the 12 patients who died, 10 fulfilled histopathological criteria for Alzheimer's disease, nine of them having a clinical diagnosis of SDAT, and one a clinical diagnosis of multi-infarct dementia. All 10 patients with histopathologically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease had shown a combination of hippocampal atrophy and reduced parietotemporal blood flow in life. In 10 patients (nine with SDAT) out of 12 in whom the hippocampal atrophy was more noticeable on one side of the brain than on the other the parietotemporal perfusion deficit was also asymmetrical, being greater on the side showing more hippocampal atrophy. These results suggest that the combination of atrophy of the hippocampal formation and reduced blood flow in the parietotemporal region is a feature of dementia of the Alzheimer type and that the functional change in the parietotemporal region might be related to the loss of the projection neurons in the parahippocampal gyrus that innervate this region of the neocortex.
Images
PMCID: PMC1014723  PMID: 1564478
21.  A study of human respiratory tract chlamydial infections in Cambridgeshire 1986-88. 
Epidemiology and Infection  1990;104(3):479-488.
Human respiratory tract chlamydial infections have been studied in Cambridgeshire for many years, but until recently we have been unable to distinguish between infection with Chlamydia psittaci or Chlamydia pneumoniae (TWAR). In this study, we have employed the micro-immunofluorescence (micro-IF) test for this purpose and to look for the relative incidence of C. psittaci and C. pneumoniae infections in Cambridgeshire. Among 50 patients with community-acquired respiratory tract symptoms whose serum samples had Chlamydia complement fixation test titres greater than or equal to 64, 25 had evidence of recent C. psittaci or C. pneumoniae infection. Nineteen (76%) of the 25 patients had evidence of recent C. psittaci infection and of these 16 (84%) had recently had contact with birds. Six patients (24%) had evidence of recent C. pneumoniae infection, and of these, only two (33%) had recently had contact with birds. While C. psittaci was grown from several of the birds associated with human C. psittaci infection, it was not cultured from any of the birds in contact with the two human C. pneumoniae cases.
PMCID: PMC2271768  PMID: 2347386
22.  Interleukin 1 stimulates phosphatidylinositol kinase activity in human fibroblasts. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1991;87(1):299-304.
IL-1 mediates multiple cellular immune and inflammatory responses, but little is known of the intracellular biochemical mechanisms involved in IL-1 actions. We studied the effects of IL-1 on phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) metabolism and confirmed reports indicating that IL-1 does not stimulate increased PtdIns turnover; however, we observed the accumulation of PtdIns-4-phosphate (PtdInsP) in response to IL-1. Using a fibroblast membrane preparation, we were able to detect stimulated PtdInsP accumulation within 10 s of IL-1 addition. Increased PtdInsP accumulation was due to stimulated PtdIns kinase activity, not the inhibition of PtdInsP hydrolysis by phospholipase(s). PtdIns kinase activity was magnesium dependent, increased as a function of IL-1 concentration, and specifically phosphorylated the D4 position of inositol. Stimulated PtdIns kinase activity could be detected at 10(-12) M IL-1 in fibroblast membranes, a concentration within the physiological range for IL-1 action; half-maximal activity was reached at approximately 10(-10) M IL-1. Heat denaturation of IL-1 or treatment of IL-1 with anti-IL-1 antibody abrogated the IL-1 effect. These findings demonstrate the direct, IL-1-mediated, stimulation of PtdIns kinase. IL-1-stimulated PtdIns kinase activity represents an important physiological regulatory effect by IL-1 as it could control the synthesis and/or maintenance of phosphorylated derivatives of PtdIns which comprise only a very small pool of substrates for the generation of the second messengers inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol.
PMCID: PMC295050  PMID: 1845871
23.  Mixed haematogenous endophthalmitis caused by Candida albicans and CDC fermentative corynebacterium group A-4. 
We report a case of mixed haematogenous endophthalmitis in which Candida albicans and Centres for Disease Control (CDC) corynebacterium group A-4 were isolated together from an aspirate of vitreous humour.
PMCID: PMC1042075  PMID: 2337554
25.  Serum progesterone concentrations associated with superovulation and premature corpus luteum failure in dairy goats. 
The incidence and cause of premature corpora lutea failure and the response to luteinizing hormone treatment was investigated in superovulated dairy goats. Does were treated with 1000 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin intramuscularly, followed by either luteinizing hormone (treated group) or saline (control group). Serum progesterone concentrations were used to monitor corpus luteum function. The dose of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin used induced superovulation in a majority of the does, but the responses varied depending on the time of year. Premature regression of the corpora lutea occurred in 4 of 18 does after pregnant mare serum gonadotropin treatment, but there was no difference in the incidence of corpora lutea failure between treated and control groups. Decreases in serum progesterone concentrations were evident by day 3 after ovulation in does that experienced corpora lutea failure indicating this to be the critical time for premature regression of the corpora lutea in superovulated does.
PMCID: PMC1255228  PMID: 3742374

Results 1-25 (102)