Old English Sheepdogs and Gordon Setters suffer from a juvenile onset, autosomal recessive form of canine hereditary ataxia primarily affecting the Purkinje neuron of the cerebellar cortex. The clinical and histological characteristics are analogous to hereditary ataxias in humans. Linkage and genome-wide association studies on a cohort of related Old English Sheepdogs identified a region on CFA4 strongly associated with the disease phenotype. Targeted sequence capture and next generation sequencing of the region identified an A to C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located at position 113 in exon 1 of an autophagy gene, RAB24, that segregated with the phenotype. Genotyping of six additional breeds of dogs affected with hereditary ataxia identified the same polymorphism in affected Gordon Setters that segregated perfectly with phenotype. The other breeds tested did not have the polymorphism. Genome-wide SNP genotyping of Gordon Setters identified a 1.9 MB region with an identical haplotype to affected Old English Sheepdogs. Histopathology, immunohistochemistry and ultrastructural evaluation of the brains of affected dogs from both breeds identified dramatic Purkinje neuron loss with axonal spheroids, accumulation of autophagosomes, ubiquitin positive inclusions and a diffuse increase in cytoplasmic neuronal ubiquitin staining. These findings recapitulate the changes reported in mice with induced neuron-specific autophagy defects. Taken together, our results suggest that a defect in RAB24, a gene associated with autophagy, is highly associated with and may contribute to canine hereditary ataxia in Old English Sheepdogs and Gordon Setters. This finding suggests that detailed investigation of autophagy pathways should be undertaken in human hereditary ataxia.
Neurodegenerative diseases are one of the most important causes of decline in an aging population. An important subset of these diseases are known as the hereditary ataxias, familial neurodegenerative diseases that affect the cerebellum causing progressive gait disturbance in both humans and dogs. We identified a mutation in RAB24, a gene associated with autophagy, in Old English Sheepdogs and Gordon Setters with hereditary ataxia. Autophagy is a process by which cell proteins and organelles are removed and recycled and its critical role in maintenance of the continued health of cells is becoming clear. We evaluated the brains of affected dogs and identified accumulations of autophagosomes within the cerebellum, suggesting a defect in the autophagy pathway. Our results suggest that a defect in the autophagy pathway results in neuronal death in a naturally occurring disease in dogs. The autophagy pathway should be investigated in human hereditary ataxia and may represent a therapeutic target in neurodegenerative diseases.
Kohlschütter–Tönz syndrome (KTS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by amelogenesis imperfecta, psychomotor delay or regression and seizures starting early in childhood. KTS was established as a distinct clinical entity after the first report by Kohlschütter in 1974, and to date, only a total of 20 pedigrees have been reported. The genetic etiology of KTS remained elusive until recently when mutations in ROGDI were independently identified in three unrelated families and in five likely related Druze families. Herein, we report a clinical and genetic study of 10 KTS families. By using a combination of whole exome sequencing, linkage analysis, and Sanger sequencing, we identify novel homozygous or compound heterozygous ROGDI mutations in five families, all presenting with a typical KTS phenotype. The other families, mostly presenting with additional atypical features, were negative for ROGDI mutations, suggesting genetic heterogeneity of atypical forms of the disease.
Kohlschütter–Tönz; ROGDI; amelogenesis imperfecta; epilepsy
The past 15 years has witnessed tremendous progress in our understanding of the genetic basis for Parkinson’s disease (PD). Notably, while most mutations, such as those in SNCA, PINK1, PARK2, PARK7, PLA2G6, FBXO7, and ATP13A2, are a rare cause of disease, one particular mutation in LRRK2, has been found to be common in certain populations.
There has been considerable progress in finding risk loci. To date approximately 16 such loci exist, notably some of these overlap with the genes known to contain disease-causing mutations. The identification of risk alleles has relied mostly on the application of revolutionary technologies; likewise second generation sequencing methods have facilitated the identification of new mutations in PD. These methods will continue to provide novel insights into PD.
The utility of genetics in therapeutics relies primarily on leveraging findings to understand the pathogenesis of PD. Much of the investigation into the biology underlying PD has used these findings to define a pathway, or pathways, to pathogenesis, by trying to fit disparate genetic defects onto the same network. This work has had some success, particularly in the context of monogenic disease and is beginning to provide clues about potential therapeutic targets. Approaches toward therapies are also being provided more directly by genetics; notably via the reduction and clearance of α-synuclein and inhibition of Lrrk2 kinase activity.
We believe this has been an exciting and productive time for PD genetics, and furthermore, that genetics will continue to drive the etiologic understanding and etiology based therapeutic approaches in this disease.
Ethnic differences in cardiac arrhythmia incidence have been reported, with a particularly high incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD) and low incidence of atrial fibrillation in individuals of African ancestry. We tested the hypotheses that African ancestry and common genetic variants are associated with prolonged duration of cardiac repolarization, a central pathophysiological determinant of arrhythmia, as measured by the electrocardiographic QT interval.
Methods and Results
First, individual estimates of African and European ancestry were inferred from genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data in seven population-based cohorts of African Americans (n=12 097) and regressed on measured QT interval from electrocardiograms. Second, imputation was performed for 2.8 million SNPs and a genome-wide association (GWA) study of QT interval performed in ten cohorts (n=13 105). There was no evidence of association between genetic ancestry and QT interval (p=0.94). Genome-wide significant associations (p<2.5×10−8) were identified with SNPs at two loci, upstream of the genes NOS1AP (rs12143842, p=2×10−15) and ATP1B1 (rs1320976, p=2×10−10). The most significant SNP in NOS1AP was the same as the strongest SNP previously associated with QT interval in individuals of European ancestry. Low p-values (p<10−5) were observed for SNPs at several other loci previously identified in GWA studies in individuals of European ancestry, including KCNQ1, KCNH2, LITAF and PLN.
We observed no difference in duration of cardiac repolarization with global genetic indices of African ancestry. In addition, our GWA study extends the association of polymorphisms at several loci associated with repolarization in individuals of European ancestry to include African Americans.
electrocardiography; electrophysiology; genome-wide association studies; ion channels; repolarization
Previous associations between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and idiopathic Parkinson disease (PD) have been inconsistent and contradictory. Our aim was to resolve these inconsistencies and determine whether mtDNA has a significant role in the risk of developing PD.
Two-stage genetic association study of 138 common mtDNA variants in 3,074 PD cases and 5,659 ethnically matched controls followed by meta-analysis of 6,140 PD cases and 13,280 controls.
In the association study, m.2158T>C and m.11251A>G were associated with a reduced risk of PD in both the discovery and replication cohorts. None of the common European mtDNA haplogroups were consistently associated with PD, but pooling of discovery and replication cohorts revealed a protective association with “super-haplogroup” JT. In the meta-analysis, there was a reduced risk of PD with haplogroups J, K, and T and super-haplogroup JT, and an increase in the risk of PD with super-haplogroup H.
In a 2-stage association study of mtDNA variants and PD, we confirm the reduced risk of PD with super-haplogroup JT and resolve this at the J1b level. Meta-analysis explains the previous inconsistent associations that likely arise through sampling effects. The reduced risk of PD with haplogroups J, K, and T is mirrored by an increased risk of PD in super-haplogroup HV, which increases survival after sepsis. Antagonistic pleiotropy between mtDNA haplogroups may thus be shaping the genetic landscape in humans, leading to an increased risk of PD in later life.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been successful at identifying single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) highly associated with common traits; however, a great deal of the heritable variation associated with common traits remains unaccounted for within the genome. Genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA) is a statistical method that applies a linear mixed model to estimate phenotypic variance of complex traits explained by genome-wide SNPs, including those not associated with the trait in a GWAS. We applied GCTA to 8 cohorts containing 7096 case and 19 455 control individuals of European ancestry in order to examine the missing heritability present in Parkinson's disease (PD). We meta-analyzed our initial results to produce robust heritability estimates for PD types across cohorts. Our results identify 27% (95% CI 17–38, P = 8.08E − 08) phenotypic variance associated with all types of PD, 15% (95% CI −0.2 to 33, P = 0.09) phenotypic variance associated with early-onset PD and 31% (95% CI 17–44, P = 1.34E − 05) phenotypic variance associated with late-onset PD. This is a substantial increase from the genetic variance identified by top GWAS hits alone (between 3 and 5%) and indicates there are substantially more risk loci to be identified. Our results suggest that although GWASs are a useful tool in identifying the most common variants associated with complex disease, a great deal of common variants of small effect remain to be discovered.
DYT-5 dystonia usually presents as a dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD) with early or late parkinsonian manifestations and/or dystonic features. Genetically, these patients have been described as having a wide array of independent mutations in the guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase 1 gene (GCH1), and these patients may also have a wide array of clinical manifestations.
A Colombian family with six affected female members was characterized.
Three members, including the index case, revealed mild parkinsonism, whereas three granddaughters of the index case showed severe generalized dystonia. No men were affected. There was anticipation, and a female predominance was uncovered. Treatment with levodopa was generally effective except in a case with severe skeletal deformities and contractions. Detailed genetic analysis in the index case revealed a new mutation in exon 1 of GCH1 (c.159delG).
This study revealed a new mutation of GCH1 that resulted in heterogeneous clinical presentations of DRD within a large family.
DRD, dopamine; Parkinson's disease; dystonia, genetics
Little is known about gene-environment interactions in Parkinson disease (PD). We examined potential interactions of smoking and caffeine intake with ten GWAS SNPs at or near the SNCA, MAPT, LRRK2 and HLA loci among 584 PD patients and 1,571 controls. The main effects of these SNPs and environmental exposures were consistent with previous reports. Family history of PD was associated with PD risk (OR=2.71, 95% CI: 1.97–3.74), which was little affected by further adjustment for these SNPs and environmental exposures. Overall, we did not find significant interactions of either smoking or caffeine intake with these SNPs. However, with a combined smoking and caffeine intake exposure, we found a significant interaction with rs2896905 at SLC2A13, near LRRK2 (p uncorrected= 0.0008). Each A allele was associated with a 35% higher PD risk among never smokers with low caffeine intake, but with a 32% lower risk among smokers with high caffeine intake. This study provides preliminary evidence of a potential gene-environment interaction for PD, which should be investigated in future studies.
Parkinson disease (PD); gene-environment interactions; genome-wide association study
Mutations within the NOTCH3 gene cause cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). CADASIL mutations appear to be restricted to the first twenty-four exons, resulting in the gain or loss of a cysteine amino acid. The role of other exonic NOTCH3 variation not involving cysteine residues and mutations in exons 25-33 in ischemic stroke remains unresolved.
All 33 exons of NOTCH3 were sequenced in 269 Caucasian probands from the Siblings With Ischemic Stroke Study (SWISS), a 70-center North American affected sibling pair study and 95 healthy Caucasian control subjects. Variants identified by sequencing in the SWISS probands were then tested for association with ischemic stroke using US Caucasian controls collected at the Mayo Clinic (n=654), and further assessed in a Caucasian (n=802) and African American (n=298) patient-control series collected through the Ischemic Stroke Genetics Study (ISGS).
Sequencing of the 269 SWISS probands identified one (0.4%) with small vessel type stroke carrying a known CADASIL mutation (p.R558C; Exon 11). Of the 19 common NOTCH3 variants identified, the only variant significantly associated with ischemic stroke after multiple testing adjustment was p.R1560P (rs78501403; Exon 25) in the combined SWISS and ISGS Caucasian series (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.50, P=0.0022) where presence of the minor allele was protective against ischemic stroke. Although only significant prior to adjustment for multiple testing, p.T101T (rs3815188; Exon 3) was associated with an increased risk of small-vessel stroke (OR: 1.56, P=0.008) and p.P380P (rs61749020; Exon 7) was associated with decreased risk of large-vessel stroke (OR: 0.35, P=0.047) in Caucasians. No significant associations were observed in the small African American series.
Cysteine-affecting NOTCH3 mutations are rare in patients with typical ischemic stroke, however our observation that common NOTCH3 variants may be associated with risk of ischemic stroke warrants further study.
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in complex phenotypes, including psychiatric disorders, have yielded many replicated findings, yet individual markers account for only a small fraction of the inherited differences in risk. We tested the performance of polygenic models in discriminating between cases and healthy controls and among cases with distinct psychiatric diagnoses.
GWAS results in bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), schizophrenia (SZ), and Parkinson’s disease (PD) were used to assign weights to individual alleles, based on odds ratios. These weights were used to calculate allele scores for individual cases and controls in independent samples, summing across many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). How well allele scores discriminated between cases and controls and between cases with different disorders was tested by logistic regression.
Large sets of SNPs were needed to achieve even modest discrimination between cases and controls. The most informative SNPs were overlapping in BD, SZ, and MDD, with correlated effect sizes. Little or no overlap was seen between allele scores for psychiatric disorders and those for PD.
BD, SZ, and MDD all share a similar polygenic component, but the polygenic models tested lack discriminative accuracy and are unlikely to be useful for clinical diagnosis.
genome-wide association; polygenic model; allele burden; psychosis; prediction
Brown–Vialetto–Van Laere syndrome was first described in 1894 as a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive sensorineural deafness in combination with childhood amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Mutations in the gene, SLC52A3 (formerly C20orf54), one of three known riboflavin transporter genes, have recently been shown to underlie a number of severe cases of Brown–Vialetto–Van Laere syndrome; however, cases and families with this disease exist that do not appear to be caused by SLC52A3 mutations. We used a combination of linkage and exome sequencing to identify the disease causing mutation in an extended Lebanese Brown–Vialetto–Van Laere kindred, whose affected members were negative for SLC52A3 mutations. We identified a novel mutation in a second member of the riboflavin transporter gene family (gene symbol: SLC52A2) as the cause of disease in this family. The same mutation was identified in one additional subject, from 44 screened. Within this group of 44 patients, we also identified two additional cases with SLC52A3 mutations, but none with mutations in the remaining member of this gene family, SLC52A1. We believe this strongly supports the notion that defective riboflavin transport plays an important role in Brown–Vialetto–Van Laere syndrome. Initial work has indicated that patients with SLC52A3 defects respond to riboflavin treatment clinically and biochemically. Clearly, this makes an excellent candidate therapy for the SLC52A2 mutation-positive patients identified here. Initial riboflavin treatment of one of these patients shows promising results.
motor neuron disease; ALS; riboflavin; BVVL; SLC52A2
There has been tremendous progress toward understanding the genetic basis of Parkinson’s disease and related movement disorders. We summarize the genetic, clinical and pathological findings of autosomal dominant disease linked to mutations in SNCA, LRRK2, ATXN2, ATXN3, MAPT, GCH1, DCTN1 and VPS35. We then discuss the identification of mutations in PARK2, PARK7, PINK1, ATP13A2, FBXO7, PANK2 and PLA2G6 genes. In particular we discuss the clinical and pathological characterization of these forms of disease, where neuropathology has been important in the likely coalescence of pathways highly relevant to typical PD. In addition to the identification of the causes of monogenic forms of PD, significant progress has been made in defining genetic risk loci for PD; we discuss these here, including both risk variants at LRRK2 and GBA, in addition to discussing the results of recent genome-wide association studies and their implications for PD. Finally, we discuss the likely path of genetic discovery in PD over the coming period and the implications of these findings from a clinical and etiological perspective.
Parkinson’s disease; Genetics; Pathology; Synuclein; LRRK2; PARK2; PARK6; PARK7
Association studies have identified several signals at the LRRK2 locus for Parkinson's disease (PD), Crohn's disease (CD) and leprosy. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms mediating these effects. To further characterize this locus, we fine-mapped the risk association in 5,802 PD and 5,556 controls using a dense genotyping array (ImmunoChip). Using samples from 134 post-mortem control adult human brains (UK Human Brain Expression Consortium), where up to ten brain regions were available per individual, we studied the regional variation, splicing and regulation of LRRK2. We found convincing evidence for a common variant PD association located outside of the LRRK2 protein coding region (rs117762348, A>G, P = 2.56×10−8, case/control MAF 0.083/0.074, odds ratio 0.86 for the minor allele with 95% confidence interval [0.80–0.91]). We show that mRNA expression levels are highest in cortical regions and lowest in cerebellum. We find an exon quantitative trait locus (QTL) in brain samples that localizes to exons 32–33 and investigate the molecular basis of this eQTL using RNA-Seq data in n = 8 brain samples. The genotype underlying this eQTL is in strong linkage disequilibrium with the CD associated non-synonymous SNP rs3761863 (M2397T). We found two additional QTLs in liver and monocyte samples but none of these explained the common variant PD association at rs117762348. Our results characterize the LRRK2 locus, and highlight the importance and difficulties of fine-mapping and integration of multiple datasets to delineate pathogenic variants and thus develop an understanding of disease mechanisms.
Circulating inflammatory markers may play an important role in cognitive impairment at older ages. Mice deficient for the chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2 (CCR2) develop an accelerated Alzheimer-like pathology. CCR2 is also important in neurogenesis. To identify human gene transcripts most closely associated with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores, we undertook a genome-wide and inflammation specific transcriptome screen in circulating leukocytes from a population-based sample.
We measured in vivo transcript levels by microarray analysis in 691 subjects (mean age 72.6 years) in the InCHIANTI study (Invecchiare in Chianti, aging in the Chianti area). We assessed expression associations with MMSE performance at RNA collection and prior 9-year change in MMSE score in linear regression models.
In genome-wide analysis, raised CCR2 expression was cross-sectionally the most strongly associated transcript with lower MMSE score (beta=−0.16, p=5.1×10−6, false discovery rate (FDR; q=0.077). Amongst inflammatory transcripts, only CCR2 expression was associated with both MMSE score and accelerated decline in score over the preceding 9 years (beta=−0.16, p=5.1×10−6, q=0.003; and beta=−0.13, p=5.5×10−5, q=0.03, respectively). CCR2 expression was also positively associated with apolipoprotein E (ApoE) e4 Alzheimer disease risk haplotype.
We show for the first time that CCR2 expression is associated with lower MMSE scores in an older human population. Laboratory models of Ccr2-mediated β-amyloid removal and regulation of neurogenesis affecting cognitive function may be applicable in humans. CCR2-mediated pathways may provide a possible focus for intervention to potentiate protective reactions to Alzheimer pathology in older people, including for people with an adverse ApoE haplotype.
Homozygous loss-of-function mutations in TREM2, encoding the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 protein, have previously been associated with an autosomal recessive form of early-onset dementia.
We used genome, exome, and Sanger sequencing to analyze the genetic variability in TREM2 in a series of 1092 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 1107 controls (the discovery set). We then performed a meta-analysis on imputed data for the TREM2 variant rs75932628 (predicted to cause a R47H substitution) from three genomewide association studies of Alzheimer's disease and tested for the association of the variant with disease. We genotyped the R47H variant in an additional 1887 cases and 4061 controls. We then assayed the expression of TREM2 across different regions of the human brain and identified genes that are differentially expressed in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease and in control mice.
We found significantly more variants in exon 2 of TREM2 in patients with Alzheimer's disease than in controls in the discovery set (P = 0.02). There were 22 variant alleles in 1092 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 5 variant alleles in 1107 controls (P<0.001). The most commonly associated variant, rs75932628 (encoding R47H), showed highly significant association with Alzheimer's disease (P<0.001). Meta-analysis of rs75932628 genotypes imputed from genomewide association studies confirmed this association (P = 0.002), as did direct genotyping of an additional series of 1887 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 4061 controls (P<0.001). Trem2 expression differed between control mice and a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.
Heterozygous rare variants in TREM2 are associated with a significant increase in the risk of Alzheimer's disease. (Funded by Alzheimer's Research UK and others.)
Genome wide association studies have nominated many genetic variants for common human traits, including diseases, but in many cases the underlying biological reason for a trait association is unknown. Subsets of genetic polymorphisms show a statistical association with transcript expression levels, and have therefore been nominated as expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL). However, many tissue and cell types have specific gene expression patterns and so it is not clear how frequently eQTLs found in one tissue type will be replicated in others. In the present study we used two appropriately powered sample series to examine the genetic control of gene expression in blood and brain. We find that while many eQTLs associated with human traits are shared between these two tissues, there are also examples where blood and brain differ, either by restricted gene expression patterns in one tissue or because of differences in how genetic variants are associated with transcript levels. These observations suggest that design of eQTL mapping experiments should consider tissue of interest for the disease or other trait studied.
Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have been limited by the reliance on common variants present on microarrays or imputable from the HapMap Project data. More recently, the completion of the 1000 Genomes Project has provided variant and haplotype information for several million variants derived from sequencing over 1,000 individuals. To help understand the extent to which more variants (including low frequency (1% ≤ MAF <5%) and rare variants (<1%)) can enhance previously identified associations and identify novel loci, we selected 93 quantitative circulating factors where data was available from the InCHIANTI population study. These phenotypes included cytokines, binding proteins, hormones, vitamins and ions. We selected these phenotypes because many have known strong genetic associations and are potentially important to help understand disease processes. We performed a genome-wide scan for these 93 phenotypes in InCHIANTI. We identified 21 signals and 33 signals that reached P<5×10−8 based on HapMap and 1000 Genomes imputation, respectively, and 9 and 11 that reached a stricter, likely conservative, threshold of P<5×10−11 respectively. Imputation of 1000 Genomes genotype data modestly improved the strength of known associations. Of 20 associations detected at P<5×10−8 in both analyses (17 of which represent well replicated signals in the NHGRI catalogue), six were captured by the same index SNP, five were nominally more strongly associated in 1000 Genomes imputed data and one was nominally more strongly associated in HapMap imputed data. We also detected an association between a low frequency variant and phenotype that was previously missed by HapMap based imputation approaches. An association between rs112635299 and alpha-1 globulin near the SERPINA gene represented the known association between rs28929474 (MAF = 0.007) and alpha1-antitrypsin that predisposes to emphysema (P = 2.5×10−12). Our data provide important proof of principle that 1000 Genomes imputation will detect novel, low frequency-large effect associations.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a genetically complex disorder for which the definite diagnosis is only accomplished post mortem. Mutations in three genes (APP, PSEN1 and PSEN2) are known to cause AD, but a large number of familial cases do not harbor mutations in these genes and several unidentified genes that contain disease-causing mutations are thought to exist. We performed whole exome sequencing in a Turkish patient clinically diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease from a consanguineous family with a complex history of neurological and immunological disorders and identified a mutation in NOTCH3 (p.R1231C), previously described as causing cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). Complete screening of NOTCH3 in a cohort of 95 early onset AD cases and 95 controls did not reveal any additional pathogenic mutations.
Although the complex history of disease in this family precluded us to establish segregation of the mutation found with disease, our results show that exome sequencing is a rapid, cost-effective and comprehensive tool to detect genetic mutations, allowing for the identification of unexpected genetic causes of clinical phenotypes. As etiological based therapeutics become more common, this method will be key in diagnosing and treating disease.
Alzheimer's disease; NOTCH3; CADASIL; Exome sequencing
Research focusing on the role of APOE in Parkinson’s disease (PD) has been largely inconclusive, creating a broad discrepancy in association studies.
To elucidate the role of APOE alleles in PD risk by studying a large sample size and controlling for population substructure.
Patients and Methods
In total, 3465 case and control samples were genotyped, obtained from the NINDS Neurogenetics repository.
No significant differences in ε4 dosages exist between PD cases and controls. The frequency of ε4 carriers differed slightly between cases and controls at 24% (580/2412) and 26% (270/1053), respectively. Likewise, mean dosages of APOE ε2 were not significantly different between cases and controls. APOE ε2 carriers were observed at a frequency of 13.6% (329/2412) among cases and 15% (158/1053) among controls. Logistic regression models evaluating PD as possibly associated with ε4 or ε2 carrier status and allele dosages yielded no significant results. The mean MMSE score among all PD cases was 28.35 (SD = 2.58) and memory loss was reported in only 11.9% (105/879) of cases. Linear regression models comparing MMSE scores as predicted by ε4 or ε2 carrier status and allele dosages were not significant.
There is no association between APOE epsilon alleles and Parkinson’s disease.
Parkinson’s disease; genetics; APOE
α-Synuclein (α-Syn) is a chaperone-like protein that is highly implicated in Parkinson’s disease (PD) as well as in Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB). Rare forms of PD occur in individuals with mutations of α-Syn or triplication of wild type α-Syn, and in both PD and DLB the intraneuronal inclusions known as Lewy bodies contain aggregated α-Syn that is highly phosphorylated on serine 129. In neuronal cells and in the brains of α-Syn overexpressing transgenic mice, soluble α-Syn stimulates the activity of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a major serine/threonine phosphatase. Serine 129 phosphorylation of α-Syn attenuates its stimulatory effects on PP2A and also accelerates α-Syn aggregation, however, it is unknown if aggregation of α-Syn into Lewy–bodies impairs PP2A activity. To assess for this, we measured the impact of α-Syn aggregation on PP2A activity in vitro and in vivo. In cell free assays, aggregated α-Syn had ~50 % less PP2A-stimulatory-effects than soluble recombinant α-Syn. Similarly in DLB and α-Syn triplication brains, which contain robust α-Syn aggregation with high levels of serine 129 phosphorylation, PP2A activity was also ~50% attenuated. As α-Syn normally stimulates PP2A activity, our data suggest that overexpression of α-Syn or sequestration of α-Syn into Lewy bodies has the potential to alter the phosphorylation state of key PP2A substrates; raising the possibility that all forms of synucleinopathy will benefit from treatments aimed at optimizing PP2A activity.
Synucleinopathy; hyperphosphorylation; dephosphorylation; phosphatase; enzymatic regulation
Polymorphisms in the target mRNA sequence can greatly affect the binding affinity of microarray probe sequences, leading to false-positive and false-negative expression quantitative trait locus (QTL) signals with any other polymorphisms in linkage disequilibrium. We provide the most complete solution to this problem, by using the latest genome and exome sequence reference data to identify almost all common polymorphisms (frequency >1% in Europeans) in probe sequences for two commonly used microarray panels (the gene-based Illumina Human HT12 array, which uses 50-mer probes, and exon-based Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 ST array, which uses 25-mer probes). We demonstrate the impact of this problem using cerebellum and frontal cortex tissues from 438 neuropathologically normal individuals. We find that although only a small proportion of the probes contain polymorphisms, they account for a large proportion of apparent expression QTL signals, and therefore result in many false signals being declared as real. We find that the polymorphism-in-probe problem is insufficiently controlled by previous protocols, and illustrate this using some notable false-positive and false-negative examples in MAPT and PRICKLE1 that can be found in many eQTL databases. We recommend that both new and existing eQTL data sets should be carefully checked in order to adequately address this issue.
The advent of high-content genomic mapping technologies has provided numerous clues about the genetic architecture of complex disease and the tools with which to understand the biological framework resulting from this architecture. We believe that understanding and mapping epigenetic marks, in particular DNA methylation, which is suited to such assays, offers a timely opportunity in this context. Here, we make an argument for this work, describing this opportunity, the likely path ahead, and the problems and pitfalls associated with such work.
Methylation; Genetic variability; Quantitative trait loci; Genome-wide association