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Histochemistry and cell biology (1)
The Journal of biological chemistry (1)
Maier, Susanne (2)
Ellinger, Adolf (1)
Freissmuth, Michael (1)
Liu, Yiting (1)
Meißlitzer-Ruppitsch, Claudia (1)
Neumüller, Josef (1)
Pavelka, Margit (1)
Rothstein, Jeffrey D. (1)
Ruggiero, Alicia M. (1)
Sitte, Harald H. (1)
Stangl, Herbert (1)
Vetterlein, Monika (1)
Vidensky, Svetlana (1)
Year of Publication
Electron microscopic visualization of fluorescent signals in cellular compartments and organelles by means of DAB-photoconversion
Histochemistry and cell biology
In this work, we show the photoconversion of the fluorochromes enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), and BODIPY into electron dense diaminobenzidine (DAB)-deposits using the examples of five different target proteins, and the lipid ceramide. High spatial resolution and specificity in the localization of the converted protein-fluorochrome complexes and the fluorochrome-labelled lipid were achieved by methodical adaptations around the DAB-photooxidation step, such as fixation, illumination, controlled DAB-precipitation, and osmium postfixation. The DAB-deposits at the plasma membrane and membranous compartments, such as endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus in combination with the fine structural preservation and high membrane contrast enabled differential topographical analyses, and allowed three-dimensional reconstructions of complex cellular architectures, such as trans-Golgi–ER junctions. On semithin sections the quality, distribution and patterns of the signals were evaluated; defined areas of interest were used for electron microscopic analyses and correlative microscopy of consecutive ultrathin sections. The results obtained with the proteins golgin 84 (G-84), protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), scavenger receptor classB type1 (SR-BI), and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter 1 (GAT1), on one hand closely matched with earlier immunocytochemical data and, on the other hand, led to new information about their subcellular localizations as exemplified by a completely novel sight on the subcellular distribution and kinetics of the SR-BI, and provided a major base for the forthcoming research.
DAB-photoconversion; Green fluorescent protein; Yellow fluorescent protein; BODIPY; Golgi apparatus
Reticulon RTN2B Regulates Trafficking and Function of Neuronal Glutamate Transporter EAAC1*
Ruggiero, Alicia M.
Sitte, Harald H.
Rothstein, Jeffrey D.
The Journal of biological chemistry
Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) are the primary regulators of extracellular glutamate concentrations in the central nervous system. Their dysfunction may contribute to several neurological diseases. To date, five distinct mammalian glutamate transporters have been cloned. In brain, EAAC1 (excitatory amino acid carrier 1) is the primary neuronal glutamate transporter, localized on the perisynaptic membranes that are near release sites. Despite its potential importance in synaptic actions, little is known concerning the regulation of EAAC1 trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the cell surface. Previously, we identified an EAAC1-associated protein, GTRAP3-18, an ER protein that prevents ER exit of EAAC1 when induced. Here we show that RTN2B, a member of the reticulon protein family that mainly localizes in the ER and ER exit sites interacts with EAAC1 and GTRAP3-18. EAAC1 and GTRAP3-18 bind to different regions of RTN2B. Each protein can separately and independently form complexes with EAAC1. RTN2B enhances ER exit and the cell surface composition of EAAC1 in heterologous cells. Expression of short interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of RTN2B decreases the EAAC1 protein level in neurons. Overall, our results suggest that RTN2B functions as a positive regulator in the delivery of EAAC1 from the ER to the cell surface. These studies indicate that transporter exit from the ER controlled by the interaction with its ER binding partner represents a critical regulatory step in glutamate transporter trafficking to the cell surface.
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