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1.  The Endoplasmic Reticulum Exit of Glutamate Transporter Is Regulated by the Inducible Mammalian Yip6b/GTRAP3-18 Protein*Ⓢ 
The Journal of biological chemistry  2007;283(10):6175-6183.
GTRAP3-18 interacts with and reduces the activity of the neuronal specific Na+/K+ glutamate transporter, EAAC1 both in vitro and in vivo. GTRAP3-18 and the related isoform, JM4, are distant relatives of the Rab GTPase-interacting factor PRA1, and share a topology of four transmembrane domains and cytosolic termini. GTRAP3-18 and JM4 are resident endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins. The physiological role of GTRAP3-18 is poorly understood. We demonstrate for the first time that GTRAP3-18 is a regulator of ER protein trafficking. Expression of GTRAP3-18 delays the ER exit of EAAC1, as well as other members of the excitatory amino acid transporter family. GTRAP3-18 uses hydrophobic domain interactions in the ER membrane to self-associate and cytoplasmic interactions at the C terminus to regulate trafficking. The features of GTRAP3-18 activity are consistent with recent phylogenic sequence analyses suggesting GTRAP3-18 and JM4 be reclassified as mammalian isoforms of the yeast protein family Yip, Yip6b, and Yip6a, respectively.
PMCID: PMC4502942  PMID: 18167356
2.  Sec24- and ARFGAP1-Dependent Trafficking of GABA Transporter-1 Is a Prerequisite for Correct Axonal Targeting 
The GABA transporter-1 (GAT1) is a prototypical protein of the synaptic specialization. Export of GAT1 from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is contingent on its interaction with the COPII (coatomer protein-II) coat subunit Sec24D. Here we show that silencing all four Sec24 isoforms strongly inhibits transport of GAT1 to the cell surface. In contrast, transport of GAT1-RL/AS, a mutant that is deficient in Sec24D recruitment, was not inhibited, suggesting a nonconventional, COPII-independent pathway. However, ARFGAP1 bound directly to the C terminus of both GAT1-RL/AS and wild-type GAT1. Surface expression of GAT1-RL/AS involved ARFGAP1. GAT1-RL/AS appeared to bypass the ER-Golgi-intermediate compartment, but its pathway to the plasma membrane still involved passage through the Golgi. Thus, the GAT1-RL/AS mutant allowed to test whether COPII-dependent ER-export is required for correct sorting of GAT1 to the axon terminal in neuronal cells. In contrast to wild-type GAT1, GAT1-RL/AS failed to be specifically enriched at the tip of neurite extensions of CAD.a cells (a neuroblastoma cell line that can be differentiated into a neuron-like phenotype) and in the axon terminals of hippocampal neurons. These findings indicate that correct sorting to the axon is contingent on ER export via the COPII machinery and passage through the ER-Golgi-intermediate compartment.
PMCID: PMC4503341  PMID: 19020038
GABA transporter-1; axonal targeting; ARFGAP1; COPII; Sec24; endoplasmic reticulum export
3.  Electron microscopic visualization of fluorescent signals in cellular compartments and organelles by means of DAB-photoconversion 
Histochemistry and cell biology  2008;130(2):407-419.
In this work, we show the photoconversion of the fluorochromes enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), and BODIPY into electron dense diaminobenzidine (DAB)-deposits using the examples of five different target proteins, and the lipid ceramide. High spatial resolution and specificity in the localization of the converted protein-fluorochrome complexes and the fluorochrome-labelled lipid were achieved by methodical adaptations around the DAB-photooxidation step, such as fixation, illumination, controlled DAB-precipitation, and osmium postfixation. The DAB-deposits at the plasma membrane and membranous compartments, such as endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus in combination with the fine structural preservation and high membrane contrast enabled differential topographical analyses, and allowed three-dimensional reconstructions of complex cellular architectures, such as trans-Golgi–ER junctions. On semithin sections the quality, distribution and patterns of the signals were evaluated; defined areas of interest were used for electron microscopic analyses and correlative microscopy of consecutive ultrathin sections. The results obtained with the proteins golgin 84 (G-84), protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), scavenger receptor classB type1 (SR-BI), and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter 1 (GAT1), on one hand closely matched with earlier immunocytochemical data and, on the other hand, led to new information about their subcellular localizations as exemplified by a completely novel sight on the subcellular distribution and kinetics of the SR-BI, and provided a major base for the forthcoming research.
PMCID: PMC3182540  PMID: 18463889
DAB-photoconversion; Green fluorescent protein; Yellow fluorescent protein; BODIPY; Golgi apparatus
4.  Reticulon RTN2B Regulates Trafficking and Function of Neuronal Glutamate Transporter EAAC1* 
The Journal of biological chemistry  2007;283(10):6561-6571.
Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) are the primary regulators of extracellular glutamate concentrations in the central nervous system. Their dysfunction may contribute to several neurological diseases. To date, five distinct mammalian glutamate transporters have been cloned. In brain, EAAC1 (excitatory amino acid carrier 1) is the primary neuronal glutamate transporter, localized on the perisynaptic membranes that are near release sites. Despite its potential importance in synaptic actions, little is known concerning the regulation of EAAC1 trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the cell surface. Previously, we identified an EAAC1-associated protein, GTRAP3-18, an ER protein that prevents ER exit of EAAC1 when induced. Here we show that RTN2B, a member of the reticulon protein family that mainly localizes in the ER and ER exit sites interacts with EAAC1 and GTRAP3-18. EAAC1 and GTRAP3-18 bind to different regions of RTN2B. Each protein can separately and independently form complexes with EAAC1. RTN2B enhances ER exit and the cell surface composition of EAAC1 in heterologous cells. Expression of short interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of RTN2B decreases the EAAC1 protein level in neurons. Overall, our results suggest that RTN2B functions as a positive regulator in the delivery of EAAC1 from the ER to the cell surface. These studies indicate that transporter exit from the ER controlled by the interaction with its ER binding partner represents a critical regulatory step in glutamate transporter trafficking to the cell surface.
PMCID: PMC2581797  PMID: 18096700

Results 1-4 (4)