Galectin-3 is highly expressed in epithelial cells including keratinocytes and is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory skin diseases by affecting the functions of immune cells. For example, galectin-3 can contribute to atopic dermatitis (AD) by promoting polarization toward a Th2 immune response by regulating dendritic cell (DC) and T cell functions. In addition, galectin-3 may be involved in the development of contact hypersensitivity by regulating the migratory capacity of antigen presenting cells. Galectin-3 may act as a regulator of epithelial tumor progression and development through various signaling pathways, such as inhibiting keratinocyte apoptosis through regulation of the activation status of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and activated protein kinase B (AKT). Galectin-3 is detected at different stages of melanoma development. In contrast, a marked decrease in the expression of galectin-3 is observed in non-melanoma skin cancers, such as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Galectin-3 may play an important role in tumor cell growth, apoptosis, cell motility, invasion, and metastasis. Galectin-3 may be a novel therapeutic target for a variety of skin diseases.
Keratinocytes undergo apoptosis in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions. Galectin-3 is a member of a family of β-galactoside-binding animal lectins expressed abundantly in keratinocytes and other epithelial cells. Here we have studied the regulatory role of galectin-3 in keratinocyte apoptosis by using cells from gene-targeted galectin-3 null (gal3−/−) mice. We showed that galectin-3 mRNA was transiently upregulated in ultraviolet-B (UVB)-irradiated wild-type keratinocytes. We found that gal3−/− keratinocytes were significantly more sensitive to apoptosis induced by UVB as well as various other stimuli, both in vitro and in vivo, than wild-type cells. Moreover, we demonstrated that increased apoptosis in gal3−/− keratinocytes was attributable to higher extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation and lower AKT activation after UVB irradiation. We conclude that endogenous galectin-3 is an anti-apoptotic molecule in keratinocytes functioning by suppressing ERK activation and enhancing AKT activation and may play a role in the development of apoptosis-related skin diseases.
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated signaling pathways are important in a variety of cellular processes, including cell migration and wound re-epithelialization. Intracellular trafficking of EGFR is critical for maintaining EGFR surface expression. Galectin-3, a member of an animal lectin family, has been implicated in a number of physiological and pathological processes. Through studies of galectin-3-deficient mice and cells isolated from these mice, we demonstrated that absence of galectin-3 impairs keratinocyte migration and skin wound re-epithelialization. We have linked this pro-migratory function to a crucial role of cytosolic galectin-3 in controlling intracellular trafficking and cell surface expression of EGFR after EGF stimulation. Without galectin-3, the surface levels of EGFR are dramatically reduced and the receptor accumulates diffusely in the cytoplasm. This is associated with reduced rates of both endocytosis and recycling of the receptor. We have provided evidence that this novel function of galectin-3 may be mediated through interaction with its binding partner Alix, which is a protein component of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery. Our results suggest that galectin-3 is potentially a critical regulator of a number of important cellular responses through its intracellular control of trafficking of cell surface receptors.
Galectin-3 (Gal-3), a β galactoside-binding lectin, is implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic airway inflammation and allergen-challenged mice deficient in Gal-3 (Gal-3-/-) exhibit decreased airway recruitment of eosinophils (Eos). Gal-3 is expressed and secreted by several cell types and can thus function extracellularly and intracellularly to regulate a variety of cellular responses. We sought to determine the role of Eos-expressed Gal-3 in promoting Eos trafficking and migration in the context of allergic airway inflammation using bone marrow (BM)-derived Eos from wild-type (WT) and Gal-3-/- mice. Airway recruitment of Eos in acute (4 weeks) and chronic (8–12 weeks) allergen-challenged WT mice correlated with Gal-3 expression in the lungs. BM-derived Eos were found to express Gal-3 on the cell surface and secrete soluble Gal-3 when exposed to eotaxin-1. Compared to WT Eos, Gal-3-/- Eos exhibited significantly reduced rolling on vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and decreased stable adhesion on intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) under conditions of flow in vitro. Evaluation of cytoskeletal rearrangement demonstrated that relatively fewer adherent Gal-3-/- Eos undergo cell spreading and formation of membrane protrusions. In addition, cell surface expression of integrin receptor αM (CD11b) was lower in Gal-3-/- Eos, which is likely to account for their altered adhesive interactions with VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. Gal-3-/- Eos also exhibited significantly decreased migration toward eotaxin-1 compared to WT Eos irrespective of similar levels of CCR3 expression. Further, eotaxin-induced migration of WT Eos remained unaffected in the presence of lactose, suggesting a role for intracellular Gal-3 in regulating Eos migration. Overall, our findings indicate that Gal-3 expression in the lungs correlates with Eos mobilization during allergic airway inflammation and signaling involving intracellular Gal-3 and/or secreted Gal-3 bound to the cell surface of Eos appears to be essential for Eos trafficking under flow as well as for migration.
eosinophils; galectin-3; allergic airway inflammation; cell trafficking; migration
Nanostructures containing 2,4-Dinitrophenyl (DNP) as antigen were designed and produced to investigate antibody-mediated activation of mast cells. The design consists of nanogrids of DNP termini inlaid in alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). Using scanning probe-based nanografting, nanometer precision was attained for designed geometry, size and periodicity. Rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells exhibited high sensitivity to the geometry and local environment of DNP presented on these nanostructures. The impact included cellular adherence, spreading, membrane morphology, cytoskeleton structure, and activation. The highest level of spreading and activation was induced by nanogrids of 17 nm line width and 40 nm periodicity, with DNP haptens 1.4 nm above the surroundings. The high efficacy is attributed to two main factors. First, DNP sites in the nanostructure are highly accessible by anti-DNP-IgE during recognition. Second, the arrangement or geometry of DNP termini in nanostructures promotes clustering of FcεRI receptors that are pre-linked to IgE. The clustering effectively initiates Lyn-mediated signaling cascades, ultimately leading to the degranulation of RBL cells. This work demonstrates an important concept, that nanostructures of ligands provide new and effective cues for directing cellular signaling processes.
atomic force microscopy; engineered nanostructures; self-assembled monolayers; mast cells; antibody-mediated activation; nanografting
Galectins are pleiotropic carbohydrate-binding lectins involved in inflammation, growth/differentiation, and tissue remodeling. The functional role of galectins in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is unknown. Expression studies revealed increases in galectin-1 mRNA and protein in spinal cords from SOD1G93A mice, and in galectin-3 and -9 mRNAs and proteins in spinal cords of both SOD1G93A mice and sporadic ALS patients. As the increase in galectin-3 appeared in early presymptomatic stages and increased progressively through to end stage of disease in the mouse, it was selected for additional study, where it was found to be mainly expressed by microglia. Galectin-3 antagonists are not selective and do not readily cross the blood–brain barrier; therefore, we generated SOD1G93A/Gal-3−/− transgenic mice to evaluate galectin-3 deletion in a widely used mouse model of ALS. Disease progression, neurological symptoms, survival, and inflammation were assessed to determine the effect of galectin-3 deletion on the SOD1G93A disease phenotype. Galectin-3 deletion did not change disease onset, but resulted in more rapid progression through functionally defined disease stages, more severely impaired neurological symptoms at all stages of disease, and expiration, on average, 25 days earlier than SOD1G93A/Gal-3+/+ cohorts. In addition, microglial staining, as well as TNF-α, and oxidative injury were increased in SOD1G93A/Gal-3−/− mice compared with SOD1G93A/Gal-3+/+ cohorts. These data support an important functional role for microglial galectin-3 in neuroinflammation during chronic neurodegenerative disease. We suggest that elevations in galectin-3 by microglia as disease progresses may represent a protective, anti-inflammatory innate immune response to chronic motor neuron degeneration.
Alternative activation; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; microglia; motor neuron disease; SOD1
Galectin-3 has been implicated in the tumor development via its mediation of the Wnt signaling pathway. Likewise, glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK3β) also plays a role in the Wnt signaling pathway by controlling the levels of cytoplasmic beta-catenin. Altered GSK3β expression has been described in various tumors, but to date, there are no studies evaluating its expression in models of oral carcinogenesis. Additionally, it is unknown whether the absence of galectin-3 regulates the expression of GSK3β. To this end, Gal3-deficient (Gal3-/-) and wild-type (Gal3+/+) male mice were treated with 4NQO for 16 weeks and sacrificed at week 16 and 32. The tongues were removed, processed, and stained with H&E to detect dysplasias and carcinomas. An immunohistochemical assay was performed to determine the level of P-GSK3β-Ser9 expression in both groups. Carcinomas were more prevalent in Gal3+/+ than Gal3-/- mice (55.5% vs. 28.5%), but no statistical difference was reached. In the dysplasias, the proportion of cells positive for P-GSK3β-Ser9 was slightly higher in Gal3+/+ than Gal3-/- mice (63% vs. 61%). In the carcinomas, a significant difference between Gal3+/+ and Gal3-/- mice was found (74% vs. 59%; p=0.02). P-GSK3β-Ser9-positive cells slightly decreased from the progression of dysplasias to carcinomas in Gal3-/- mice (61% vs. 59%; p>0.05). However, a significant increase in P-GSK3β-Ser9 expression was observed from dysplasias to carcinomas in Gal3+/+ mice (63% vs. 74%; p=0.01). In conclusion, these findings suggest that fully malignant transformation of the tongue epithelium is associated with increased P-GSK3β-Ser9 expression in Gal3+/+ mice, but not in Gal3-/- mice.
Oral carcinogenesis; immunohistochemistry; galectin-3; P-GSK3β-Ser9; tongue; mice
Galectin-12, a member of the galectin family of animal lectins, is preferentially expressed in adipocytes. We recently reported that this galectin is localized on lipid droplets, specialized organelles for fat storage. Galectin-12 regulates lipid degradation (lipolysis) by modulating lipolytic protein kinase A (PKA) signaling. Mice deficient in galectin-12 exhibit enhanced adipocyte lipolysis, increased mitochondria respiration, reduced adiposity and ameliorated insulin resistance associated with weight gain. The results suggest that galectin-12 may be a useful target for treatment of obesity-related metabolic conditions, such as insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. Most previously described galectins largely reside in the cytosol, although they can also be induced to become associated with membrane-containing structures. Along with an in-depth characterization of galectin-12, this mini-review comments on this first report of a galectin normally localized specifically in an organelle that performs an important intracellular function. Further studies will help shed light on how this protein regulates cellular homeostasis, especially energy homeostasis, and provide additional insight into the intracellular functions of galectins.
adipocyte; adipose tissue; galectin; galectin-12; insulin sensitivity; lipid metabolism; lipolysis
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is considered a model autoimmune disease due to the clinical homogeneity of patients and the classic hallmark of anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMAS). Indeed, the presence of AMAS is the most highly directed and specific autoantibody in autoimmune diseases. However, the contribution of B cells to the pathogenesis of PBC is unclear. Thus, although AMAs appear to interact with the biliary cell apotope and contribute to biliary pathology, there is no correlation of disease severity and titer of AMA. The recent development of well characterized mAbs specific for the B cell populations, anti-CD20 and anti-CD79, and the development of a well defined xenobiotic induced model of autoimmune cholangitis, prompted us to utilize these reagents and the model to address the contribution of B cells in the pathogenesis of murine PBC. Prior to the induction of autoimmune cholangitis, mice were treated with either anti-CD20, anti-CD79, or isotype matched control mAb and followed for B cell development, the appearance of AMAs, liver pathology and cytokine production. Results of the studies reported herein show that the in vivo depletion of B cells using either anti-CD20 or anti-CD79 led to the development of a more severe form of cholangitis than control mice which is in contrast with results from a number of other autoimmune models which have documented an important therapeutic role of B cell specific depletion. The anti-CD20/CD79 treated mice have increased liver T cell infiltrates and higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, our results reflect a novel disease protective role of B cells in PBC and suggest that B cell depletion therapy in humans with PBC should be approached with caution.
Expression of galectin-3 is associated with sarcoma progression, invasion and metastasis. Here we determined the role of extracellular galectin-3 on migration of sarcoma cells on laminin-111. Cell lines from methylcholanthrene-induced sarcomas from both wild type and galectin-3−/− mice were established. Despite the presence of similar levels of laminin-binding integrins on the cell surface, galectin-3−/− sarcoma cells were more adherent and less migratory than galectin-3+/+ sarcoma cells on laminin-111. When galectin-3 was transiently expressed in galectin-3−/− sarcoma cells, it inhibited cell adhesion and stimulated the migratory response to laminin in a carbohydrate-dependent manner. Extracellular galectin-3 led to the recruitment of SHP-2 phosphatase to focal adhesion plaques, followed by a decrease in the amount of phosphorylated FAK and phospho-paxillin in the lamellipodia of migrating cells. The promigratory activity of extracellular galectin-3 was inhibitable by wortmannin, implicating the activation of a PI-3 kinase dependent pathway in the galectin-3 triggered disruption of adhesion plaques, leading to sarcoma cell migration on laminin-111.
The role played by the β-galactoside-binding lectin galectin-3 (Gal-3) in airway remodeling, a characteristic feature of asthma that leads to airway dysfunction and poor clinical outcome in humans, was investigated in a murine model of chronic allergic airway inflammation. Wild-type (WT) and Gal-3 knock-out (KO) mice were subjected to repetitive allergen challenge with ovalbumin (OVA) up to 12 weeks and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue collected after the last challenge were evaluated for cellular features associated with airway remodeling. Compared to WT mice, chronic OVA challenge in Gal-3 KO mice resulted in diminished remodeling of the airways with significantly reduced mucus secretion, sub-epithelial fibrosis, smooth muscle thickness, and peribronchial angiogenesis. The higher degree of airway remodeling in WT mice was associated with higher Gal-3 expression in the BALF as well as lung tissue. Cell counts in BALF and lung immunohistology demonstrated that eosinophil infiltration in OVA-challenged Gal-3 KO mice was significantly reduced compared to WT mice. Evaluation of cellular mediators associated with eosinophil recruitment and airway remodeling revealed that levels of eotaxin-1, IL-5, IL-13, FIZZ1 and TGF-β were substantially lower in Gal-3 KO mice. Finally, leukocytes from Gal-3 KO mice demonstrated decreased trafficking (rolling) on vascular endothelial adhesion molecules compared to WT cells. Overall, these studies demonstrate that Gal-3 is an important lectin that promotes airway remodeling via airway recruitment of inflammatory cells, specifically eosinophils, and the development of a Th2 phenotype as well as increased expression of eosinophil-specific chemokines, pro-fibrogenic and angiogenic mediators.
Galectin-3 is a β-galactoside-binding protein that has been shown to regulate pathophysiological processes, including cellular activation, differentiation and apoptosis. Recently, we showed that galectin-3 acts as a potent inhibitor of B cell differentiation into plasma cells. Here, we have investigated whether galectin-3 interferes with the lymphoid organization of B cell compartments in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) during chronic schistosomiasis, using WT and galectin-3-/- mice. Schistosoma mansoni synthesizes GalNAcβ1-4(Fucα1-3)GlcNAc(Lac-DiNAc) structures (N-acetylgalactosamine β1-4 N-acetylglucosamine), which are known to interact with galectin-3 and elicit an intense humoral response. Antigens derived from the eggs and adult worms are continuously drained to MLNs and induce a polyclonal B cell activation. In the present work, we observed that chronically-infected galectin-3-/- mice exhibited a significant reduced amount of macrophages and B lymphocytes followed by drastic histological changes in B lymphocyte and plasma cell niches in the MLNs. The lack of galectin-3 favored an increase in the lymphoid follicle number, but made follicular cells more susceptible to apoptotic stimuli. There were an excessive quantity of apoptotic bodies, higher number of annexin V+/PI- cells, and reduced clearance of follicular apoptotic cells in the course of schistosomiasis. Here, we observed that galectin-3 was expressed in non-lymphoid follicular cells and its absence was associated with severe damage to tissue architecture. Thus, we convey new information on the role of galectin-3 in regulation of histological events associated with B lymphocyte and plasma cell niches, apoptosis, phagocytosis and cell cycle properties in the MLNs of mice challenged with S.mansoni.
Recent studies have shown that a carbohydrate-binding protein, galectin-3, is a novel pro-angiogenic molecule. The mechanism by which galectin-3 promotes angiogenesis remains unknown. We demonstrate here that galectin-3 is a mediator of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)- and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-mediated angiogenic response. Angiogenesis assays revealed that galectin-3 inhibitors, β-lactose and dominant-negative galectin-3, reduce VEGF- and bFGF-mediated angiogenesis in vitro and that VEGF- and bFGF-mediated angiogenic response is reduced in galectin-3 knockdown cells and Gal3−/− animals. Integrin αvβ3 was identified as the major galectin-3–binding protein and anti-αv, -β3, and -αvβ3 integrin function-blocking antibodies significantly inhibited the galectin-3–induced angiogenesis. Furthermore, galectin-3 promoted the clustering of integrin αvβ3 and activated focal adhesion kinase. Knockdown of GnTV, an enzyme that synthesizes high-affinity glycan ligands for galectin-3, substantially reduced: (a) complex N-glycans on αvβ3 integrins and (b) VEGF- and bFGF-mediated angiogenesis. Collectively, these data suggest that galectin-3 modulates VEGF- and bFGF-mediated angiogenesis by binding via its carbohydrate recognition domain, to the GnTV synthesized N-glycans of integrin αvβ3, and subsequently activating the signaling pathways that promote the growth of new blood vessels. These findings have broad implications for developing novel, carbohydrate-based therapeutic agents for inhibition of angiogenesis.
At present, it is highly controversial whether pure mast cells can serve as antigen presenting cells, and it is not known whether the capacity of antigen presenting function is temporally restricted to a particular subset of differentiated mast cells. Evidence is presented for a novel surface FcεRIhi , MHC II +, and c-kit + pure mast cell subset, temporally restricted as antigen-presenting cells in the immune axis of T-cell activation.
Bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC) cultured in the presence of IL-3 for three weeks are pure mast cells based on surface expression of lineage-specific marker, c-kit and FcεRI. Herein we present the first demonstration that approximately 98.7% c-kit + and FcεRI expressing BMMC, further depleted of any contaminated professional antigen-presenting cells, are still fully capable of presenting antigens, i.e., OVA protein, OVA peptide, and IgE-TNP-OVA, to OVA peptide-specific T-cell hybridomas. Notably, IgE-dependent antigen presentation is more efficient compared to that resulting from direct antigen uptake. Importantly, we present the novel finding that only surface FcεRIhi mast cells, also expressing surface MHC II exhibited antigen-presenting function. In contrast, surface FcεRIlo mast cells without expressing surface MHC II were not capable of antigen presentation. Interestingly, the antigen-presenting function of BMMC was irrevocably lost during the third and fourth week in IL-3 or SCF containing cultures.
This is the first observation to attribute a spatiotemporally restricted antigen-presenting function to a subset of three-week old pure BMMC expressing both high levels of surface FcεRI and surface MHC II. We propose that mast cells play an important role in immune deviating and/or sustaining the activation of infiltrating CD4 T-cells, and modulating T-cell mediated allergic inflammation via its flexibility to present antigens and antigen-IgE complexes.
The immune response is regulated, in part, by effector cells whose activation requires multiple signals. For example, T cells require signals emanating from the T cell antigen receptor and co-stimulatory molecules for full activation. Here, we present evidence indicating that IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions in vivo also require cognate signals to activate mast cells. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions in the conjunctiva are ablated in mice deficient in eotaxin-1, despite normal numbers of tissue mast cells and levels of IgE. To further define the co-stimulatory signals mediated by chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3), an eotaxin-1 receptor, effects of CCR3 blockade were tested with an allergic conjunctivitis model and in ex vivo isolated connective tissue-type mast cells. Our results show that CCR3 blockade significantly suppresses allergen-mediated hypersensitivity reactions as well as IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation. We propose that a co-stimulatory axis by CCR3, mainly stimulated by eotaxin-1, is pivotal in mast cell-mediated hypersensitivity reactions.
This study reveals a function of endogenous galectin-3, an animal lectin recognizing β-galactosides, in regulating dendritic cell motility both in vitroand in vivo,which to our knowledge is unreported. First, galectin-3-deficient (gal3−/−) bone marrow-derived dendritic cells exhibited defective chemotaxis compared to gal3+/+ cells. Second, cutaneous dendritic cells in gal3−/− mice displayed reduced migration to draining lymph nodes upon hapten stimulation compared to gal3+/+ mice. Moreover, gal3−/− mice were impaired in the development of contact hypersensitivity relative to gal3+/+ mice in response to a hapten, a process in which dendritic cell trafficking to lymph nodes is critical. In addition, defective signaling was detected in gal3−/− cells upon chemokine receptor activation. By immunofluorescence microscopy, we observed that galectin-3 is localized in membrane ruffles and lamellipodia in stimulated dendritic cells and macrophages. Furthermore, galectin-3 was enriched in lipid raft domains under these conditions. Finally, we determined that ruffles on gal3−/− cells contained structures with lower complexity compared to gal3+/+ cells. In view of the participation of membrane ruffles in signal transduction and cell motility, we conclude that galectin-3 regulates cell migration by functioning at these structures.
There is recent evidence that galectin-3 participates in immunity to infections, mostly by tuning cytokine production. We studied the balance of Th1/Th2 responses to P. brasiliensis experimental infection in the absence of galectin-3. The intermediate resistance to the fungal infection presented by C57BL/6 mice, associated with the development of a mixed type of immunity, was replaced with susceptibility to infection and a Th2-polarized immune response, in galectin-3-deficient (gal3−/−) mice. Such a response was associated with defective inflammatory and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions, high IL-4 and GATA-3 expression and low nitric oxide production in the organs of infected animals. Gal3−/− macrophages exhibited higher TLR2 transcript levels and IL-10 production compared to wild-type macrophages after stimulation with P. brasiliensis antigens. We hypothesize that, during an in vivo P. brasiliensis infection, galectin-3 exerts its tuning role on immunity by interfering with the generation of regulatory macrophages, thus hindering the consequent Th2-polarized type of response.
Neutrophil influx is an early inflammatory response that is essential for the clearance of bacteria and cellular debris during cutaneous wounding. A non-invasive real-time fluorescence imaging technique was developed to examine the kinetics of enhanced green fluorescence protein-polymorphonuclear leukocyte (EGFP-PMN) influx within a wound. We hypothesized that infection or systemic availability would directly regulate the dynamics of EGFP-PMN recruitment and the efficiency of wound closure. Neutrophil recruitment increased dramatically over the first 24 hours from 106 at 4 hours up to a maximum of 5×106 EGFP-PMNs at 18 hours. A high rate of EGFP-PMN turnover was evidenced by ∼80% decrease in EGFP signal within 6 hours. In response to wound colonization by Staphylococcus aureus or injection of GM-CSF, systemic PMNs increased twofold above saline control. This correlated with an increase in EGFP-PMN recruitment up to ∼107 within the wound. Despite this effect by these distinct inflammatory drivers, wound closure occurred at a rate similar to the saline-treated control group. In summary, a non-invasive fluorescence-based imaging approach combined with genetic labeling of neutrophils provides a dynamic inner view of inflammation and the kinetics of neutrophil infiltration into the wounded skin over extended durations.
The chemokines CCL21 and CCL19, and cell bound TNF family ligand lymphotoxin beta (LTβ), have been associated with numerous chronic inflammatory diseases. A general role in chronic inflammatory diseases cannot be assumed however; in the case of allergic inflammatory disease, CCL21/CCL19 and LTβ have not been associated with the induction, recruitment, or effector function of Th2 cells nor dendritic cells to the lung. We have examined the induction of allergic inflammatory lung disease in mice deficient in CCL21/CCL19 or LTβ and found that both kinds of mice can develop allergic lung inflammation. To control for effects of priming differences in knockout mice, adoptive transfers of Th2 cells were also performed, and they showed that such effector cells had equivalent effects on airway hyper-responsiveness in both knockout background recipients. Moreover, class II positive antigen presenting cells (B cells and CD11c+ dendritic cells) showed normal recruitment to the peribronchial spaces along with CD4 T cells. Thus, the induction of allergic responses and recruitment of both effector Th2 cells and antigen presenting cells to lung peribronchial spaces can develop independently of CCL21/CCL19 and LTβ.
asthma; dendritic cell; Th2; chemokine
Galectin-1, a mammalian lectin expressed in many tissues, induces death of diverse cell types, including lymphocytes and tumor cells. The galectin-1 T cell death pathway is novel and distinct from other death pathways, including those initiated by Fas and corticosteroids. We have found that galectin-1 binding to human T cell lines triggered rapid translocation of endonuclease G from mitochondria to nuclei. However, endonuclease G nuclear translocation occurred without cytochrome c release from mitochondria, without nuclear translocation of apoptosis inducing factor, and prior to loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Galectin-1 treatment did not result in caspase activation, nor was death blocked by caspase inhibitors. However, galectin-1 cell death was inhibited by intracellular expression of galectin-3, and galectin-3 expression inhibited the eventual loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Galectin-1 induced cell death proceeds via a caspase-independent pathway that involves a unique pattern of mitochondrial events, and different galectin family members can coordinately regulate susceptibility to cell death.
galectin; apoptosis; T lymphocyte; Endonuclease G; human; phosphatidylserine (PS); z-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe)-CH2F (zVAD-fmk); z-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp(OMe)-CH2F (zDEVD-fmk); poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP); 7-amino-actinomycin D (7AAD); z-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-7-amino-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin (zDEVD-AFC); mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm); endonuclease G (EndoG); 10-N-nonyl acridine orange (NAO); Apoptosis inducing factor (AIF); truncated Bid (tBid); propidium iodide (PI); fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)
Breakdown of the inner blood-retinal barrier (iBRB) occurs early in diabetes and is central to the development of sight-threatening diabetic macular edema (DME) as retinopathy progresses. In the current study, we examined how advanced glycation end products (AGEs) forming early in diabetes could modulate vasopermeability factor expression in the diabetic retina and alter inter-endothelial cell tight junction (TJ) integrity leading to iBRB dysfunction. We also investigated the potential for an AGE inhibitor to prevent this acute pathology and examined a role of the AGE-binding protein galectin-3 (Gal-3) in AGE-mediated cell retinal pathophysiology. Diabetes was induced in C57/BL6 wild-type (WT) mice and in Gal-3−/− transgenic mice. Blood glucose was monitored and AGE levels were quantified by ELISA and immunohistochemistry. The diabetic groups were subdivided, and one group was treated with the AGE-inhibitor pyridoxamine (PM) while separate groups of WT and Gal-3−/− mice were maintained as nondiabetic controls. iBRB integrity was assessed by Evans blue assay alongside visualisation of TJ protein complexes via occludin-1 immunolocalization in retinal flat mounts. Retinal expression levels of the vasopermeability factor VEGF were quantified using real-time RT-PCR and ELISA. WT diabetic mice showed significant AGE -immunoreactivity in the retinal microvasculature and also showed significant iBRB breakdown (P < .005). These diabetics had higher VEGF mRNA and protein expression in comparison to controls (P < .01). PM-treated diabetics had normal iBRB function and significantly reduced diabetes-mediated VEGF expression. Diabetic retinal vessels showed disrupted TJ integrity when compared to controls, while PM-treated diabetics demonstrated near-normal configuration. Gal-3−/− mice showed significantly less diabetes-mediated iBRB dysfunction, junctional disruption, and VEGF expression changes than their WT counterparts. The data suggests an AGE-mediated disruption of iBRB via upregulation of VEGF in the diabetic retina, possibly modulating disruption of TJ integrity, even after acute diabetes. Prevention of AGE formation or genetic deletion of Gal-3 can effectively prevent these acute diabetic retinopathy changes.
Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) is a rare group of hyperkeratotic,
papulosquamous disease that can be acquired or inherited. There
have been reported cases of rheumatologic associations, mainly arthritis
and dermatomyositis. In this review article, we will explore the clinical
presentation and classification, rheumatologic associations and treatment
modalities of PRP. In addition, we will also report a case of PRP with seronegative arthritis.
Galectin-3 is a member of a large family of animal lectins. This protein is expressed abundantly by macrophages, but its function in this cell type is not well understood. We have studied the effect of galectin-3 gene targeting on phagocytosis, a major function of macrophages. Compared with wild-type macrophages, galectin-3–deficient (gal3–/–) cells exhibited reduced phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized erythrocytes and apoptotic thymocytes in vitro. In addition, gal3–/– mice showed attenuated phagocytic clearance of apoptotic thymocytes by peritoneal macrophages in vivo. These mice also exhibited reduced IgG-mediated phagocytosis of erythrocytes by Kupffer cells in a murine model of autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Additional experiments indicate that extracellular galectin-3 does not contribute appreciably to the phagocytosis-promoting function of this protein. Confocal microscopic analysis of macrophages containing phagocytosed erythrocytes revealed localization of galectin-3 in phagocytic cups and phagosomes. Furthermore, gal3–/– macrophages exhibited a lower degree of actin rearrangement upon Fcγ receptor crosslinkage. These results indicate that galectin-3 contributes to macrophage phagocytosis through an intracellular mechanism. Thus, galectin-3 may play an important role in both innate and adaptive immunity by contributing to phagocytic clearance of microorganisms and apoptotic cells.
The potential of the paired Ig-like receptors of activating (PIR-A) and inhibitory (PIR-B) types for modifying an IgE antibody–mediated allergic response was evaluated in mouse bone marrow–derived mast cells. Although mast cells produced both PIR-A and PIR-B, PIR-B was found to be preferentially expressed on the cell surface, where it was constitutively tyrosine phosphorylated and associated with intracellular SHP-1 protein tyrosine phosphatase. PIR-B coligation with the IgE receptor (FcεRI) inhibited IgE-mediated mast cell activation and release of serotonin. Surprisingly, the inhibitory activity of PIR-B was unimpaired in SHP-1–deficient mast cells. A third functional tyrosine-based inhibitory motif, one that fails to bind the SHP-1, SHP-2, and SHIP phosphatases, was identified in parallel studies of FcεRI-bearing rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells transfected with constructs having mutations in the PIR-B cytoplasmic region. These results define the preferential expression of the PIR-B molecules on mast cells and an inhibitory potential that can be mediated via a SHP-1–independent pathway.
Asthma is thought to result from an abnormal expansion of CD4 T cells reactive with airborne allergens, and pathology is controlled by several cytokines of the T helper type 2 (Th2) family. The exact molecules which are involved in generating allergen-reactive T cells are not clear. Studies with blocking reagents or knockout animals have shown that the CD28/B7 interaction partially controls development of allergic asthma in mouse models, but may not be the sole molecule involved. In this report, we have investigated the role of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family member OX40 in allergic inflammation using OX40-deficient mice. OX40 has been shown to participate in regulating clonal expansion and memory development of CD4 T cells and may synergize with CD28. Our studies demonstrate that OX40−/− mice, primed with the model allergen ovalbumin and challenged through the airways with aerosolized antigen, are severely impaired in their ability to generate a Th2 response characterized by high levels of interleukin (IL)-5, IL-4, and immunoglobulin E. Moreover, OX40−/− mice exhibit diminished lung inflammation, including an 80–90% reduction in eosinophilia and mucus production, less goblet cell hyperplasia, and significantly attenuated airway hyperreactivity. These studies highlight the potential importance of OX40 in development of allergic asthma and suggest that targeting OX40 may prove useful therapeutically.
asthma; OX40; costimulation; allergy; inflammation