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1.  When and why a colonoscopist should discontinue colonoscopy by himself? 
AIM: To investigate when and why a colonoscopist should discontinue incomplete colonoscopy by himself.
METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 517 difficult colonoscope insertions (Grade C, Kudo’s difficulty classification) screened from 37800 colonoscopy insertions were collected from April 2004 to June 2014 by three 4th-level (Kudo’s classification) colonoscopists. The following common factors for the incomplete insertion were excluded: structural obstruction of the colon or rectum, insufficient colon cleansing, discontinuation due to patient’s discomfort or pain, severe colon disease with a perforation risk (e.g., severe ischemic colonopathy). All the excluded patients were re-scheduled if permission was obtained from the patients whose intubation had failed. If the repeat intubations were still a failure because of the difficult operative techniques, those patients were also included in this study. The patient’s age, sex, anesthesia and colonoscope type were recorded before colonoscopy. During the colonoscopic examination, the influencing factors of fixation, tortuosity, laxity and redundancy of the colon were assessed, and the insertion time (> 10 min or ≤ 10 min) were registered. The insertion time was analyzed by t-test, and other factors were analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression.
RESULTS: Three hundred and twenty-two (62.3%) of the 517 insertions were complete in the colonoscope insertion into the ileocecum, but 195 (37.7%) failed in the insertion. Fixation, tortuosity, laxity or redundancy occurred during the colonoscopic examination. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that fixation (OR = 0.06, 95%CI: 0.03-0.16, P < 0.001) and tortuosity (OR = 0.04, 95%CI: 0.02-0.08, P < 0.001) were significantly related to the insertion into the ileocecum in the left hemicolon; multivariate logistic regression analysis also revealed that fixation (OR = 0.16, 95%CI: 0.06-0.39, P < 0.001), tortuosity (OR 0.23, 95%CI: 0.13-0.43, P < 0.001), redundancy (OR = 0.12, 95%CI: 0.05-0.26, P < 0.001) and sex (OR = 0.35, 95%CI: 0.20-0.63, P < 0.001) were significantly related to the insertion into the ileocecum in the right hemicolon. Prolonged insertion time (> 10 min) was an unfavorable factor for the insertion into the ileocecum.
CONCLUSION: Colonoscopy should be discontinued if freedom of the colonoscope body’s insertion and rotation is completely lost, and the insertion time is prolonged over 30 min.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v21.i25.7834
PMCID: PMC4491970  PMID: 26167083
Colonoscopy; Colonoscope insertion; Insertion technique
3.  Association between the TERT Genetic Polymorphism rs2853676 and Cancer Risk: Meta-Analysis of 76 108 Cases and 134 215 Controls 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(6):e0128829.
Background
Several recent studies have identified that the TERT genetic polymorphism rs2853676 is associated with cancer risk, but presented inconsistent results. We investigated these inconclusive results by performing a meta-analysis to systematically evaluate the association.
Methods
We conducted a search in PubMed, Google Scholar and ISI Web of Science to select studies on the association between TERT rs2853676 and cancer risk. We conducted a stratified analysis using cancer type, ethnicity and source of controls. We calculated the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Article quality, heterogeneity, sensitivity, publication bias and statistical power were also assessed.
Results
26 articles covering 76 108 cases and 134 215 controls met our inclusion criteria. A significant association between TERT rs2853676 allele A and cancer susceptibility was demonstrated under a per-allele risk analysis (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.04-1.13). Stratification analysis revealed an increased cancer risk in subgroups of glioma, lung cancer and ovarian cancer. No significant increase was found in melanoma, breast cancer, pancreatic cancer and colorectal cancer. In a subgroup analysis of lung cancer, a statistically significant increase was only observed in adenocarcinoma. Moreover, a stratified analysis performed for ethnic groups revealed that the significant increase was only observed in Caucasians, whereas a non-significant increase was found in Asians.
Conclusions
This meta-analysis suggests that the TERT genetic polymorphism rs2853676 is associated with increased risk of glioma, lung adenocarcinoma and ovarian cancer among Caucasians. Further functional studies are warranted to validate this association and investigate further.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0128829
PMCID: PMC4456375  PMID: 26042809
4.  Identification of Development and Pathogenicity Related Gene in Botrytis cinerea via Digital Gene Expression Profile 
Background:
Botrytis cinerea, a haploid Euascomycete fungus that infects numerous crops, has been used as a model system for studying molecular phytopathology. Botrytis cinerea adopts various modes of infection, which are mediated by a number of pathogenicity and virulence-related genes. Many of these genes have not been reported previously.
Objectives:
This study aimed to investigate development and pathogenicity-related genes between a novel nonpathogenic mutant and the Wild Type (WT) in B. cinerea.
Materials and Methods:
Digital Gene Expression (DGE) tag profiling can reveal novel genes that may be involved in development and pathogenicity of plant pathogen. A large volume of B. cinerea tag-seq was generated to identify differential expressed genes by the Illumina DGE tag profiling technology.
Results:
A total of 4,182,944 and 4,182,021 clean tags were obtained from the WT and a nonpathogenic mutant stain (BCt89), respectively, and 10,410 differentially expressed genes were identified. In addition, 84 genes were expressed in the WT only while 34 genes were expressed in the mutant only. A total of 664 differentially expressed genes were involved in 91 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome pathways, including signaling and metabolic pathways.
Conclusions:
Expression levels of 1,426 genes were significantly up-regulated in the mutant compared to WT. Furthermore, 301 genes were down-regulated with False Discovery Rates (FDR) of < 0.001 and absolute value of log2 Ratio of ≥ 1.
doi:10.5812/jjm.8(4)2015.22432
PMCID: PMC4449859  PMID: 26034553
Botrytis cinerea; Pathogenicity; Development and Growth; Digital Gene Expression Profile
5.  Abnormal Expression of DNA Double-Strand Breaks Related Genes, ATM and GammaH2AX, in Thyroid Carcinoma 
ATM and γH2AX play a vital role in the detection of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) and DNA damage response (DDR). This study aims to investigate ATM and γH2AX expression in thyroid cancer and discuss possible relationship between thyroid function tests and DNA damage. The expression of ATM and γH2AX was detected by immunohistochemistry in 30 cases of benign nodular goiter, 110 cases of well differentiated thyroid cancer, 22 cases of poorly differentiated thyroid cancer, and 21 cases of anaplastic thyroid cancer. Clinicopathological features, including differentiation stages, distant metastasis, lymph node metastasis, T classification, TNM stage, and tests of thyroid functions (TPOAb, Tg Ab, T3, FT3, T4, FT4, TSH, and Tg), were reviewed and their associations with γH2AX and ATM were analyzed. γH2AX and ATM expressed higher in thyroid cancer tissues than in benign nodular goiter and normal adjacent tissues. γH2AX was correlated with ATM in thyroid cancer. Both γH2AX and ATM expression were associated with FT3. γH2AX was also associated with T classification, TNM stage, FT4, TSH, and differentiation status. Therefore both of ATM and γH2AX seem to correlate with thyroid hormones and γH2AX plays a role in the differentiation status of thyroid cancer.
doi:10.1155/2015/136810
PMCID: PMC4378699  PMID: 25861265
6.  Association between glutathione S-transferases M1 and T1 gene polymorphisms and esophageal cancer prognosi 
Objective: To investigate the independent factors affecting the prognosis of patients after resection of esophageal cancer, and to inquire into the relationship between GSTM1, GSTT1 gene polymorphisms and esophageal cancer prognosis. Methods: The clinical data of 273 patients with esophageal cancer were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were followed-up after their surgery, and the gene polymorphisms of GSTM1 and GSTT1 in each individual were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The clinical features along with the gene polymorphisms of GSTM1 and GSTT1 associated with the prognosis of patients were analyzed by using the method of univariate analysis and Cox proportional hazard model. The cumulative survival rate was estimated by Kaplan-Meier methods, and the survival curves were compared by using the log-rank test. Results: The overall cumulative survival rate of first year, third year and fifth year is 94.6%, 58.5% and 17.8%, respectively. The median survival time (MST) is 38.7 months. The results of univariate analysis showed that: infiltration depth, length of tumor, the number of lymph node metastasis, the region of lymph node metastasis and the genetic polymorphism of GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene loci were associated with the survival of postoperative patients. Cox multivariate analysis further indicated that the length of tumor, the number of lymph node metastasis and the combined genotype (1) [GSTM1 (+/+) or (+/-) & GSTT1 (-/-)] were the independent prognostic factors. The length of tumor, the number of lymph node metastasis were the risk factors for the prognosis, and the combined genotype (1) had protective effect on survival when compared with reference [GSTM1 (+/+) or (+/-) & GSTT1 (+/+) or (+/-)]. Conclusion: The length of tumor, the number of lymph node metastasis were confirmed as the independent prognostic factors of esophageal carcinoma, and the null genotypes for GSTT1 (-/-) might be a protective factor for survival and GSTM1 (-/-) might be a potential negative prognostic factor in patients with esophageal cancer.
PMCID: PMC4443053  PMID: 26064219
Esophageal carcinoma; GSTM1; GSTT1; prognostic factors
7.  Effects of α-enolase (ENO1) over-expression on malignant biological behaviors of AGS cells 
Objective: To investigate the effects of α-Enolase (ENO1) over-expression on the proliferative and migratory abilities of AGS cells. Methods: The target gene was cloned and mounted to the eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1(+), then was transfected into gastric cancer cell lines AGS. mRNA and protein level of ENO1 in AGS cells were verified by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and Western Blot, respectively. The effects of over-expression of ENO1 on proliferative and migratory abilities of AGS cells were detected by the experiments of CCK-8, colony formation and wound healing assays. Results: The eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1(+)/eno1 was successfully constructed, and verified by sequencing. It was shown from the cell proliferation curves that the proliferative ability of AGS-ENO1 transfected group was higher than that of the control group after 72 hours (t = 3.44, P = 0.04), meanwhile, the number of the cell-colonies of the AGS-ENO1 group were significantly greater than that of the control group (t = 5.26, P = 0.01). For the ability of migration, it was significantly enhanced in the over-expression ENO1 cells than in the negative cells (t = 7.35, P < 0.001). Conclusion: The over-expression of ENO1 protein can enhance the abilities of proliferation and migration in gastric cancer cells of AGS, which indicates that ENO1 may be an important potential tumor-marker associated with the development of gastric cancer.
PMCID: PMC4358447  PMID: 25784992
α-enolase; gastric cancer; proliferation; migration
8.  Theoretical design of multi-colored semi-transparent organic solar cells with both efficient color filtering and light harvesting 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:7036.
Solar cells incorporated with multi-coloring capability not only offer an aesthetic solution to bridge the gap between solar modules and building decorations but also open up the possibility for self-powered colorful display. In this paper, we proposed a multi-colored semi-transparent organic solar cells (TOSCs) design containing metallic nanostructures with the both high color purity and efficiency based on theoretical considerations. By employing guided mode resonance effect, the multi-colored TOSC behave like an efficient color filter that selectively transmits light with the desired wavelengths and generates electricity with light of other wavelengths. Broad range of coloring and luminosity adjusting for the transmission light can be achieved by simply tuning the period and the duty cycle of the metallic nanostructures. Furthermore, accompanying with the efficient color filtering characteristics, the optical absorption of TOSCs was improved due to the marked suppression of transmission loss at the off-resonance wavelengths and the increased light trapping in TOSCs. The mechanisms of the light guiding in photoactive layer and broadband backward scattering from the metallic nanostructures were identified to make an essential contribution to the improved light-harvesting. By enabling efficient color control and high efficiency simultaneously, this approach holds great promise for future versatile photovoltaic energy utilization.
doi:10.1038/srep07036
PMCID: PMC4229659  PMID: 25391756
9.  Association of HLA-DQA1 (rs9272219) with susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis in a Han Chinese population 
HLA-DQA1 (rs9272219) has been previously reported that it is a susceptibility locus in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of UK Caucasian population and North American; however, it has not reported in RA of Chinese population. Our study was to identify whether or not this relationship is reside between rs9272219 and RA in a Han Chinese population. 207 patients with RA and 199 control subjects were recruited. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of rs9272219 was tested in alleles and genotype frequencies and the data was analyzed by doing the statistic analysis of odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) from multivariate unconditional logistic regression analyses after pairwise linkage disequilibrium (LD) was estimated. Finally, the Alleles and genotype frequencies distribution of rs9272219 locus among RA patients and control subjects were in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. We found significant association between rs9272219 and RA of Chinese population (OR 0.494, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.354-0.688, P = 0 and OR 2.541, 95% CI 1.695-3.808, P = 0, respectively). In this study, we found that the SNP of rs9272219 in HLA-DQA1 is a potential susceptibility locus in RA of Han Chinese population; the results suggest that HLA-DQA1 may be related to the development of RA.
PMCID: PMC4270615  PMID: 25550865
Rheumatoid arthritis; HLA-DQA1; single nucleotide polymorphism
10.  Apo E Gene Polymorphism Affects Development of Type 2 Diabetic Nephropathy in Asian Populations, Especially in East Asians: An Updated Meta-Analysis 
Background
Many studies have determined the correlation between the Apolipoprotein E (APO E) gene polymorphisms and diabetic nephropathy, but their results are inconclusive.
Material/Methods
With the aim to confirm this correlation, we performed a meta-analysis of 16 studies. The dichotomous data are presented as the odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI).
Results
The results of our study indicate that APO ɛ2 allele among the pooled Asian populations were more likely to show high risk of DN development (2 allele vs. ɛ3 allele: pooled OR =1.629, 95% CI=1.010–2.628, P=0.045). For further analysis, the APO ɛ2 allele was associated with progress of DN in the group with duration >10 years, but not in the group with duration <10 years (ɛ2 allele vs. ɛ3 allele: pooled OR=1.920, 95% CI=1.338–2.754, P<0.001). The APO ɛ2 polymorphism increased the susceptibility to DN in Asian population compared with healthy people (ɛ2 allele vs. ɛ3 allele: pooled OR=1.629, 95% CI=1.010–2.628, P=0.045).
Conclusions
Development of DN is associated with APO E polymorphisms in Asian populations, especially in East Asians.
doi:10.12659/MSM.892111
PMCID: PMC4166221  PMID: 25196797
Diabetic Nephropathies; Disease Susceptibility; Meta-Analysis
11.  The phytotoxin coronatine is a multifunctional component of the virulence armament of Pseudomonas syringae 
Planta  2014;240(6):1149-1165.
Plant pathogens deploy an array of virulence factors to suppress host defense and promote pathogenicity. Numerous strains of Pseudomonas syringae produce the phytotoxin coronatine (COR). A major aspect of COR function is its ability to mimic a bioactive jasmonic acid (JA) conjugate and thus target the JA-receptor COR-insensitive 1 (COI1). Biological activities of COR include stimulation of JA-signaling and consequent suppression of SA-dependent defense through antagonistic crosstalk, antagonism of stomatal closure to allow bacterial entry into the interior of plant leaves, contribution to chlorotic symptoms in infected plants, and suppression of plant cell wall defense through perturbation of secondary metabolism. Here, we review the virulence function of COR, including updates on these established activities as well as more recent findings revealing COI1-independent activity of COR and shedding light on cooperative or redundant defense suppression between COR and type III effector proteins.
doi:10.1007/s00425-014-2151-x
PMCID: PMC4228168  PMID: 25156488
Phytotoxin; Coronatine; Plant hormones; Hormone crosstalk; Plant defense; Type III effectors
12.  The prevalence of transmitted HIV drug resistance among MSM in Anhui province, China 
Background
To optimize treatment regimens, we assessed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diversity and the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Anhui province, China.
Methods
A total of 139 MSM who were newly diagnosed and antiretroviral treatment-naive were enrolled in Anhui in 2011. A partial pol fragment was amplified and sequenced, and HIV subtypes were determined by phylogenetic analyses. Surveillance/transmitted drug resistance mutations (SDRMs) were identified according to the 2009 World Health Organization (WHO) list.
Results
A total of 133 (95.7%) samples were successfully amplified and sequenced. Based on phylogenetic analyses of the pol fragment, CRF01_AE accounted for 55.6% (74/133) of the infections, followed by CRF07_BC with 32.3% (43/133), B with 5.3% (7/133), and unique recombinant forms with 6.8% (9/133). A total of 3.0% (4/133) of the subjects were found to harbor HIV variants with SDRMs, including 1.5% with NRTI-related mutations and 1.5% with NNRTI-related mutations. PI-related mutations were absent. The SDRMs included L210W (1.5%), Y181C (0.8%), and G190A (0.8%).
Conclusions
In Anhui, CRF01_AE strains contributed to most of the HIV infections among MSM, and the prevalence of TDR was relatively low in this population. Further studies should be performed to evaluate the trend of TDR among MSM in Anhui and to inform first-line antiretroviral treatment.
doi:10.1186/1742-6405-11-19
PMCID: PMC4102087  PMID: 25035709
HIV; Prevalence; Transmitted drug resistance; Treatment-naive; MSM
13.  Clinical application of contrast enhanced ultrasound to diagnose benign prostatic hyperplasia 
Diagnostic Pathology  2014;9:133.
Abstract
Background
This study aimed to investigate the clinical significance of contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) through comparing CEUS parameters between BPH and normal person.
Methods
A retrospective study of sixty BPH patients (aged 73.5 ± 20.5 years old) and thirty normal controls without prostate diseases (aged 75.3 ± 19.7 years old) who had accepted CEUS detection were performed. Time-intensity curves were obtained for all tests in regions of interest. Images were processed using ACQ software and the following parameters were obtained: arrival time (AT), peak intensity (P), time to peak (TP), area under the curve (AUC), mean transit time (MTT) and extinction time (ET). Differences in inner and outer gland of prostate between BPH and the normal tissue were evaluated.
Results
There was a clear boundary between the inner and outer gland of BPH prostate. AT, TP, MTT, ET and P in BPH outer gland were significantly higher than the control group. In inner gland, MTT, ET, AUC and P were also significantly higher than the controls. The accurate rate to diagnose BPH using CEUS was 95.6%, and the sensitivity and specificity were 95.0% and 96.7%, respectively.
Conclusions
Among these significantly changed parameters, the increases of MTT, ET and AUC in inner gland and AT, TP in outer gland were most likely related to BPH. These parameters provide an objective visual assessment to diagnosis of BPH.
Virtual Slides
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/4852383312229155
doi:10.1186/1746-1596-9-133
PMCID: PMC4108000  PMID: 24986664
Contrast enhanced ultrasound; Benign prostatic hyperplasia; Contrast agents
14.  Copy number changes of 4-gene set may predict early relapse in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer after initial platinum-paclitaxel chemotherapy 
For advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), time to recurrence (TTR) is an important indicator to gauge the therapeutic efficacy of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. Our objective was to determine the genes that could potentially distinguish patients with short versus long TTR after initial administration of platinum-paclitaxel combination chemotherapy in advanced EOC. Tumor samples of 159 patients were obtained during the primary cytoreduction. Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was carried with genomic DNA from 17 EOC samples (8 with TTR > 15 months and 9 with TTR ≤ 6 months) to screen candidate gene set, copy-number changes (CNC) of which were significantly different between early and late relapse cases. Seventeen candidate genes were identified by array CGH. The analysis of consistency between real-time PCR and array CGH revealed that 4 genes displayed consistent results, namely GSTT1, ISG20L1, STARD5 and FREM1. In a 142-case validation set, CNC of 4 candidate genes was evaluated and verified by real-time PCR. Sixty five point five percent of the patients were correctly divided into early (TTR ≤ 10 months) and late (TTR > 10 months) recurrent group by CNC of the 4 genes using discriminant analysis. The results showed that CNC of 4-gene set could potentially determine early (TTR ≤ 10 months) or late relapse (TTR > 10 months) after initial platinum-paclitaxel combination chemotherapy in advanced EOC.
PMCID: PMC4065409  PMID: 24959383
Epithelial ovarian cancer; paclitaxel; platinum; recurrence; array comparative genomic hybridization
15.  The Epidemic Characteristics and Changing Trend of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome in Hubei Province, China 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e92700.
Background
Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is caused by different hantaviruses within the Bunyaviridae family. HFRS is a fulminant, infectious disease that occurs worldwide and is endemic in all 31 provinces of China. Since the first HFRS case in Hubei Province was reported in 1957, the disease has spread across the province and Hubei has become one of the seriously affected areas in China with the greatest number of reported HFRS cases in the 1980's. However, the epidemic characteristics of HFRS in Hubei are still not entirely clear and long-term, systematic investigations of this epidemic area have been very limited.
Methods
The spatiotemporal distribution of HFRS was investigated using data spanning the years 1980 to 2009. The annual HFRS incidence, fatality rate and seasonal incidence between 1980 and 2009 were calculated and plotted. GIS-based spatial analyses were conducted to detect the spatial distribution and seasonal pattern of HFRS. A spatial statistical analysis, using Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic, was performed to identify clustering of HFRS.
Results
A total of 104,467 HFRS cases were reported in Hubei Province between 1980 and 2009. Incidence of and mortality due to HFRS declined after the outbreak in 1980s and HFRS cases have been sporadic in recent years. The locations and scale of disease clusters have changed during the three decades. The seasonal epidemic pattern of HFRS was characterized by the shift from the unimodal type (autumn/winter peak) to the bimodal type.
Conclusions
Socioeconomic development has great influence on the transmission of hantaviruses to humans and new epidemic characteristics have emerged in Hubei Province. It is necessary to reinforce preventative measures against HFRS according to the newly-presented seasonal variation and to intensify these efforts especially in the urban areas of Hubei Province.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0092700
PMCID: PMC3962441  PMID: 24658382
16.  Beneficial soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis (GB03) augments salt tolerance of white clover 
Soil salinity is an increasingly serious problem worldwide that reduces agricultural output potential. Selected beneficial soil bacteria can promote plant growth and augment tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Bacillus subtilis strain GB03 has been shown to confer growth promotion and abiotic stress tolerance in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we examined the effect of this beneficial soil bacterium on salt tolerance in the legume forage crop, white clover. Plants of white clover (Trifolium repens L. cultivar Huia) were grown from seeds with or without soil inoculation of the beneficial soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis GB03 supplemented with 0, 50, 100, or 150 mM NaCl water into soil. Growth parameters, chlorophyll content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content and osmotic potential were monitored during the growth cycle. Endogenous Na+ and K+ contents were determined at the time of harvest. White clover plants grown in GB03-inoculated soil were significantly larger than non-inoculated controls with respect to shoot height, root length, plant biomass, leaf area and chlorophyll content; leaf MDA content under saline condition and leaf osmotic potential under severe salinity condition (150 mM NaCl) were significantly decreased. Furthermore, GB03 significantly decreased shoot and root Na+ accumulation and thereby improved K+/Na+ ratio when GB03-inoculated plants were grown under elevated salt conditions. The results indicate that soil inoculation with GB03 promotes white clover growth under both non-saline and saline conditions by directly or indirectly regulating plant chlorophyll content, leaf osmotic potential, cell membrane integrity and ion accumulation.
doi:10.3389/fpls.2014.00525
PMCID: PMC4189326  PMID: 25339966
Bacillus subtilis; white clover; salt tolerance; MDA; osmotic potential; Na+ accumulation
17.  Ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plantlets to gradient saline stress 
Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that impacts plant growth and reduces the productivity of field crops. Compared to field plants, test tube plantlets offer a direct and fast approach to investigate the mechanism of salt tolerance. Here we examined the ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. c.v. “Longshu No. 3”) plantlets to gradient saline stress (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mM NaCl) with two consequent observations (2 and 6 weeks, respectively). The results showed that, with the increase of external NaCl concentration and the duration of treatments, (1) the number of chloroplasts and cell intercellular spaces markedly decreased, (2) cell walls were thickened and even ruptured, (3) mesophyll cells and chloroplasts were gradually damaged to a complete disorganization containing more starch, (4) leaf Na and Cl contents increased while leaf K content decreased, (5) leaf proline content and the activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased significantly, and (6) leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased significantly and stomatal area and chlorophyll content decline were also detected. Severe salt stress (200 mM NaCl) inhibited plantlet growth. These results indicated that potato plantlets adapt to salt stress to some extent through accumulating osmoprotectants, such as proline, increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as CAT and SOD. The outcomes of this study provide ultrastructural and physiological insights into characterizing potential damages induced by salt stress for selecting salt-tolerant potato cultivars.
doi:10.3389/fpls.2014.00787
PMCID: PMC4292236  PMID: 25628634
potato plantlets; saline stress; ultrastructure; antioxidant defense system; ion distribution
18.  Dominant resistance to Bt cotton and minor cross-resistance to Bt toxin Cry2Ab in cotton bollworm from China 
Evolutionary Applications  2013;6(8):1222-1235.
Evolution of resistance by insect pests threatens the long-term benefits of transgenic crops that produce insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Previous work has detected increases in the frequency of resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in populations of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, from northern China where Bt cotton producing Cry1Ac has been grown extensively for more than a decade. Confirming that trend, we report evidence from 2011 showing that the percentage of individuals resistant to a diagnostic concentration of Cry1Ac was significantly higher in two populations from different provinces of northern China (1.4% and 2.3%) compared with previously tested susceptible field populations (0%). We isolated two resistant strains: one from each of the two field-selected populations. Relative to a susceptible strain, the two strains had 460- and 1200-fold resistance to Cry1Ac, respectively. Both strains had dominant resistance to a diagnostic concentration of Cry1Ac in diet and to Bt cotton leaves containing Cry1Ac. Both strains had low, but significant cross-resistance to Cry2Ab (4.2- and 5.9-fold), which is used widely as the second toxin in two-toxin Bt cotton. Compared with resistance in other strains of H. armigera, the resistance in the two strains characterized here may be especially difficult to suppress.
doi:10.1111/eva.12099
PMCID: PMC3901552  PMID: 24478804
dominant resistance; resistance evolution; resistance management
19.  Oligodendroglia metabolically support axons and contribute to neurodegeneration 
Nature  2012;487(7408):443-448.
Summary
Oligodendroglia support axon survival and function through mechanisms independent of myelination and their dysfunction leads to axon degeneration in several diseases. The cause of this degeneration has not been determined, but lack of energy metabolites such as glucose or lactate has been hypothesized. Lactate is transported exclusively by monocarboxylate transporters, and changes to these transporters alter lactate production and utilization. We show the most abundant lactate transporter in the CNS, monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1), is highly enriched within oligodendroglia and that disruption of this transporter produces axon damage and neuron loss in animal and cell culture models. In addition, this same transporter is reduced in patients with, and mouse models of, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), suggesting a role for oligodendroglial MCT1 in pathogenesis. The role of oligodendroglia in axon function and neuron survival has been elusive; this study defines a new fundamental mechanism by which oligodendroglia support neurons and axons.
doi:10.1038/nature11314
PMCID: PMC3408792  PMID: 22801498
20.  New Emerging Recombinant HIV-1 Strains and Close Transmission Linkage of HIV-1 Strains in the Chinese MSM Population Indicate a New Epidemic Risk 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(1):e54322.
In recent years, the population of men who have sex with men (MSM) have become the most significant increasing group of HIV-1 transmission in China. To identify new recombinant strains and transmission patterns of HIV-1 in Chinese MSM population, a cross-sectional investigation of MSM in Anhui Province (in south-eastern China) was performed in 2011. The diagnosed AIDS case rate, CD4 T-cell counts, HIV subtypes, and origin of the recombinant strains were investigated in 138 collected samples. The phylogenetic and bootscan analyses demonstrated that, apart from three previously reported circulating strains (CRF07_BC, CRF01_AE, subtype B), various recombinant strains among subtype B, subtype C, CRF01_AE, and CRF07_BC were simultaneously identified in Chinese MSM for the first time. The introducing time of B subtype in Chinese MSM populations was estimated in 1985, CRF01_AE in 2000, and CRF07_BC in 2003; the latter two account for more than 85% of MSM infections. Notably, in comparison with B subtype infections in Anhui MSM, CRF01_AE, with the highest prevalence rate, may accelerate AIDS progression. Over half of patients (56%) infected with new recombinant strains infection are diagnosed as progression into AIDS. Both Bayes and phylogenetic analyses indicated that there was active HIV transmission among MSM nationwide, which may facilitate the transmission of the new 01B recombinant strains in MSM. In conclusion, new recombinant strains and active transmission were identified in the Chinese MSM population, which may lead to a new alarming HIV pandemic in this population due to the increased pathogenesis of the newly emerging strains.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054322
PMCID: PMC3553145  PMID: 23372706
21.  Amelioration of influenza virus-induced reactive oxygen species formation by epigallocatechin gallate derived from green tea 
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica  2012;33(12):1533-1541.
Aim:
To study whether epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a green tea-derived polyphenol, exerted anti-influenza A virus activity in vitro and in vivo.
Methods:
Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were tested. The antiviral activity of EGCG in the cells was determined using hemagglutination assay and qPCR. Time of addition assay was performed to determine the kinetics of inhibition of influenza A by EGCG. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined with confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. BALB/c mice were treated with EGCG (10, 20 or 40 mg·kg−1·d−1, po) for 5 d. On the 3rd d of the treatment, the mice were infected with influenza A virus. Histopathological changes, lung index and virus titers in the lungs were determined.
Results:
Treatment of influenza A-infected MDCK cells with EGCG (1.25–100 nmol/L) inhibited influenza A replication in a concentration-dependent manner (the ED50 value was 8.71±1.11 nmol/L). Treatment with EGCG (20 nmol/L) significantly suppressed the increased ROS level in MDCK cells following influenza A infection. In BALB/c mice infected with influenza virus, oral administration of EGCG (40 mg·kg−1·d−1) dramatically improved the survival rate, decreased the mean virus yields and mitigated viral pneumonia in the lungs, which was equivalent to oral administration of oseltamivir (40 mg·kg−1·d−1), a positive control drug.
Conclusion:
The results provide a molecular basis for development of EGCG as a novel and safe chemopreventive agent for influenza A infection.
doi:10.1038/aps.2012.80
PMCID: PMC4001843  PMID: 22941291
influenza A virus; epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG); oseltamivir; antiviral agent; ROS
22.  CpG island methylator phenotype and Helicobacter pylori infection associated with gastric cancer 
AIM: To investigate the association between the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) and serum Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) levels for clinical prediction of gastric cancer (GC) progression.
METHODS: We analyzed the serum CIMP status of 75 patients with GC using a methylation marker panel and a methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. Serum samples from 40 healthy persons were examined at the same time. The genes examined were APC, WIF-1, RUNX-3, DLC-1, SFRP-1, DKK and E-cad. H. pylori infection in serum was assayed with an anti-H. pylori immunoglobulin G antibody test and a rapid urease test.
RESULTS: The frequencies of high-level methylation in GC tissues for the seven genes were: 48% for APC, 57.33% for WIF-1, 56% for RUNX-3, 50.67% for DLC-1, 52% for SFRP-1, 54.67% for DKK, and 48% for E-cad. The frequencies in GC serum were 30.67% for APC, 34.67% for WIF-1, 37.33% for RUNX-3, 29.33% for DLC-1, 33.33% for SFRP-1, 32% for DKK, and 26.67% for E-cad. CIMP+ (defined as ≥ 3 methylated genes) was associated with 47 (62.67%) GC tissue samples and 44 (58.67%) GC serum samples. CIMP+ was not associated with non-neoplastic mucosal tissues or the serum of healthy persons. Of the 75 GC cases, 51 (68%) were H. pylori+, and 24 (32%) were H. pylori-. Of the 51 H. pylori+ cases, 36 were CIMP+ and 15 were CIMP-. In contrast, for the 24 H. pylori- cases, 11 were CIMP+, and 13 were CIMP-. The difference was significant between the H. pylori+ and H. pylori- groups (χ2 = 4.27, P < 0.05). Of the 51 H. pylori+ GC patients, 34 were CIMP+ and 17 were CIMP-, while among the 24 H. pylori- GC cases, 10 were CIMP+ and 14 were CIMP-. The difference was significant between the H. pylori+ and H. pylori- groups (χ2 = 4.21, P < 0.05). A 2-year follow-up showed significant difference in the rates of metastasis and recurrence between H. pylori+/CIMP+ cases and the H. pylori+/CIMP- cases or CIMP- cases associated with H. pylori assayed in serum (P < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in survival rates between the two groups.
CONCLUSION: H. pylori+/CIMP+ cases are associated with higher rates of metastasis and recurrence than H. pylori+/CIMP- cases. Serum may be useful for examining CIMP status.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v18.i36.5129
PMCID: PMC3460343  PMID: 23049225
CpG island methylator phenotype; Helicobacter pylori; Serum; Prognosis; Gastric cancer
23.  Intrathoracic displacement of the humeral head in a trauma patient 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2012;46(5):596-598.
Fracture and intrathoracic displacement of the humeral head is the result of severe high energy trauma and are extremely rare. Because of the exceedingly limited number of cases, appropriate treatment modality remains unclear. Hitherto, we describe a unique case of thoracic aorta injury caused by fragmented humeral head. Purposeful medical examination and fast locating of the humeral head fragment are crucial for the selection of appropriate treatment modality. Early aggressive intervention, e.g., emergency thoracoscopy exploring, can be performed to treat potential thoracic complications.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.101050
PMCID: PMC3491799  PMID: 23162158
Shoulder dislocation; humeral head fracture; thoracic cavity
24.  Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Detection of Synchronous Multiple Primary Cancers in Esophagus and Stomach: Single Center Experience from China 
The present study was undertaken to clarify the prevalence and clinicopathological features of synchronous multiple primary cancers (SMPCs) under upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examination. We enrolled 45,032 consecutive patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examination for digestive disease from January 2006 to December 2007 in our hospital and analyzed the clinicopathological features of SMPCs in esophagus and stomach. SMPCs are defined as two or over two different cancerous lesions developing in the same or other organs within 6 months. SMPCs were identified in 46 patients (0.1%). The gender ratio was 5.6 : 1 (male/female) and the mean age was 59.4 years. Synchronous esophageal and gastric cancers were the most frequent, being seen in 32 patients (0.07%). The most common histological types of SMPCs were squamous cell carcinoma in esophagus and adenocarcinoma in stomach, respectively. There were 27 (59%) SMPCs patients who had the history of simultaneous exposure to tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking. Additionally, 32 (78%) esophageal squamous cell cancers were associated with tobacco use. And 23 adenocarcinomas of the stomach were associated with Helicobacter pylori infection.
doi:10.1155/2012/432367
PMCID: PMC3320007  PMID: 22536217
25.  Molecular Comparison of GLT1+ and ALDH1L1+ Astrocytes In Vivo In Astroglial Reporter Mice 
Glia  2011;59(2):200-207.
Astrocyte heterogeneity remains largely unknown in the CNS due to lack of specific astroglial markers. In this study, molecular identity of in vivo astrocytes was characterized in BAC ALDH1L1 and BAC GLT1 eGFP promoter reporter transgenic mice. ALDH1L1 promoter is selectively activated in adult cortical and spinal cord astrocytes, indicated by the overlap of eGFP expression with ALDH1L1 and GFAP, but not with NeuN, APC, Olig2, IbaI, PDGFRα immunoreactivity in BAC ALDH1L1 eGFP reporter mice. Interestingly, ALDH1L1 expression levels (protein, mRNA, and promoter activity) in spinal cord were selectively decreased during postnatal maturation. In contrast, its expression was up-regulated in reactive astrocytes in both acute neural injury and chronic neurodegenerative (G93A mutant SOD1) conditions, similar to GFAP, but opposite of GLT1. ALDH1L1+ and GLT1+ cells isolated through fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) from BAC ALDH1L1 and BAC GLT1 eGFP mice share a highly similar gene expression profile, suggesting ALDH1L1 and GLT1 are co-expressed in the same population of astrocytes. This observation was further supported by overlap of the eGFP driven by the ALDH1L1 genomic promoter and the tdTomato driven by a 8.3kb EAAT2 promoter fragment in astrocytes of BAC ALDH1L1 eGFP X EAAT2-tdTomato mice. These studies support ALDH1L1 as a general CNS astroglial marker and investigated astrocyte heterogeneity in the CNS by comparing the molecular identity of the ALDH1L1+ and GLT1+ astrocytes from astroglial reporter mice. These astroglial reporter mice provide useful in vivo tools for the molecular analysis of astrocytes in physiological and pathological conditions.
doi:10.1002/glia.21089
PMCID: PMC3199134  PMID: 21046559
astroglia; BAC; ALDH1L1; GLT1; GFAP; oligodendroglia; ALS

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