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1.  Paraoxonase promoter and intronic variants modify risk of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 
Background
The paraoxonases, PON1–3, play a major protective role both against environmental toxins and as part of the antioxidant defence system. Recently, non‐synonymous coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), known to lower serum PON activity, have been associated with sporadic ALS (SALS) in a Polish population. A separate trio based study described a detrimental allele at the PON3 intronic variant INS2+3651 (rs10487132). Association between PON gene cluster variants and SALS requires external validation in an independent dataset.
Aims
To examine the association of the promoter SNPs PON1−162G>A and PON1−108T>C; the non‐synonymous functional SNPs PON1Q192R and L55M and PON2C311S and A148G; and the intronic marker PON3INS2+3651A>G, with SALS in a genetically homogenous population.
Methods
221 Irish patients with SALS and 202 unrelated control subjects were genotyped using KASPar chemistries. Statistical analyses and haplotype estimations were conducted using Haploview and Unphased software. Multiple permutation testing, as implemented in Unphased, was applied to haplotype p values to correct for multiple hypotheses.
Results
Two of the seven SNPs were associated with SALS in the Irish population: PON155M (OR 1.52, p = 0.006) and PON3INS2+3651 G (OR 1.36, p = 0.03). Two locus haplotype analysis showed association only when both of these risk alleles were present (OR 1.7, p = 0.005), suggesting a potential effect modification. Low functioning promoter variants were observed to influence this effect when compared with wild‐type.
Conclusions
These data provide additional evidence that genetic variation across the paroxanase loci may be common susceptibility factors for SALS.
doi:10.1136/jnnp.2006.112581
PMCID: PMC2117866  PMID: 17702780
2.  Analysis of IFT74 as a candidate gene for chromosome 9p-linked ALS-FTD 
BMC Neurology  2006;6:44.
Background
A new locus for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis – frontotemporal dementia (ALS-FTD) has recently been ascribed to chromosome 9p.
Methods
We identified chromosome 9p segregating haplotypes within two families with ALS-FTD (F476 and F2) and undertook mutational screening of candidate genes within this locus.
Results
Candidate gene sequencing at this locus revealed the presence of a disease segregating stop mutation (Q342X) in the intraflagellar transport 74 (IFT74) gene in family 476 (F476), but no mutation was detected within IFT74 in family 2 (F2). While neither family was sufficiently informative to definitively implicate or exclude IFT74 mutations as a cause of chromosome 9-linked ALS-FTD, the nature of the mutation observed within F476 (predicted to truncate the protein by 258 amino acids) led us to sequence the open reading frame of this gene in a large number of ALS and FTD cases (n = 420). An additional sequence variant (G58D) was found in a case of sporadic semantic dementia. I55L sequence variants were found in three other unrelated affected individuals, but this was also found in a single individual among 800 Human Diversity Gene Panel samples.
Conclusion
Confirmation of the pathogenicity of IFT74 sequence variants will require screening of other chromosome 9p-linked families.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-6-44
PMCID: PMC1764752  PMID: 17166276

Results 1-2 (2)