PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-12 (12)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Year of Publication
1.  Tract-Based Spatial Statistics: Application to Mild Cognitive Impairment 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:713079.
Rationale and Objectives. The primary objective of the current investigation was to characterize white matter integrity in different subtypes of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using tract-based spatial statistics of diffusion tensor imaging. Materials and Methods. The study participants were divided into 4 groups of 30 subjects each as follows: cognitively healthy controls, amnestic MCI, dysexecutive MCI, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). All subjects underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment, apolipoprotein E genotyping, and 3-tesla MRI. The diffusion tensor was reconstructed and then analyzed using tract-based spatial statistics. The changes in brain white matter tracts were also examined according to the apolipoprotein E ε4 status. Results. Compared with controls, amnestic MCI patients showed significant differences in the cerebral white matter, where changes were consistently detectable in the frontal and parietal lobes. We found a moderate impact of the apolipoprotein E ε4 status on the extent of white matter disruption in the amnestic MCI group. Patients with AD exhibited similar but more extensive alterations, while no significant changes were observed in dysexecutive MCI patients. Conclusion. The results from this study indicate that amnestic MCI is the most likely precursor to AD as both conditions share significant white matter damage. By contrast, dysexecutive MCI seems to be characterized by a distinct pathogenesis.
doi:10.1155/2014/713079
PMCID: PMC4036605  PMID: 24900978
2.  Sex dimorphism of cortical water diffusion in normal aging measured by magnetic resonance imaging 
Background: The purpose of this study was to examine sex dimorphism in water diffusion in the brain throughout the normal aging process by magnetic resonance imaging.
Methods: Diffusion-weighted images covering the majority of the brain were acquired from 77 healthy participants. Both the mean water diffusivity and diffusion kurtosis were calculated from the cortical regions and parcellated according to the template in anatomical automatic labeling. The mean water diffusivity and diffusion kurtosis from both sexes were examined and subsequently correlated with age. Statistical significance was set at a threshold of p < 0.01 after correction for multiple comparisons. In regions that reached statistical significance, a linear regression model was performed. Analysis of variance was conducted to determine the interaction between aging and sex.
Results: Sex differences were observed for three aspects. First, compared to females, males presented increased mean water diffusivity and a decreased diffusion kurtosis in the frontal and temporal lobes. Second, a widespread age-related increase in mean water diffusivity was observed, which was more significant in the frontal, occipital, and temporal areas and in the cingulum in females. Third, the diffusion kurtosis decreased with aging but only in restricted areas for both sexes. For the interaction of aging and sex, the most significant change was observed with regards to mean diffusivity, mostly in the right amygdala.
Conclusions: A sex-related dimorphism in water diffusion throughout the aging process was observed in the cortex using magnetic resonance imaging.
doi:10.3389/fnagi.2013.00071
PMCID: PMC3840722  PMID: 24324433
mean diffusivity; sex dimorphism; aging; magnetic resonance imaging; diffusion kurtosis
3.  A two-stage genome-wide association study of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 
Human Molecular Genetics  2009;18(8):1524-1532.
The cause of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is largely unknown, but genetic factors are thought to play a significant role in determining susceptibility to motor neuron degeneration. To identify genetic variants altering risk of ALS, we undertook a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS): we followed our initial GWAS of 545 066 SNPs in 553 individuals with ALS and 2338 controls by testing the 7600 most associated SNPs from the first stage in three independent cohorts consisting of 2160 cases and 3008 controls. None of the SNPs selected for replication exceeded the Bonferroni threshold for significance. The two most significantly associated SNPs, rs2708909 and rs2708851 [odds ratio (OR) = 1.17 and 1.18, and P-values = 6.98 × 10−7 and 1.16 × 10−6], were located on chromosome 7p13.3 within a 175 kb linkage disequilibrium block containing the SUNC1, HUS1 and C7orf57 genes. These associations did not achieve genome-wide significance in the original cohort and failed to replicate in an additional independent cohort of 989 US cases and 327 controls (OR = 1.18 and 1.19, P-values = 0.08 and 0.06, respectively). Thus, we chose to cautiously interpret our data as hypothesis-generating requiring additional confirmation, especially as all previously reported loci for ALS have failed to replicate successfully. Indeed, the three loci (FGGY, ITPR2 and DPP6) identified in previous GWAS of sporadic ALS were not significantly associated with disease in our study. Our findings suggest that ALS is more genetically and clinically heterogeneous than previously recognized. Genotype data from our study have been made available online to facilitate such future endeavors.
doi:10.1093/hmg/ddp059
PMCID: PMC2664150  PMID: 19193627
4.  Structural genomic variation in ischemic stroke 
Neurogenetics  2008;9(2):101-108.
Technological advances in molecular genetics allow rapid and sensitive identification of genomic copy number variants (CNVs). This, in turn, has sparked interest in the function such variation may play in disease. While a role for copy number mutations as a cause of Mendelian disorders is well established, it is unclear whether CNVs may affect risk for common complex disorders. We sought to investigate whether CNVs may modulate risk for ischemic stroke (IS) and to provide a catalog of CNVs in patients with this disorder by analyzing copy number metrics produced as a part of our previous genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based association study of ischemic stroke in a North American white population. We examined CNVs in 263 patients with ischemic stroke (IS). Each identified CNV was compared with changes identified in 275 neurologically normal controls. Our analysis identified 247 CNVs, corresponding to 187 insertions (76%; 135 heterozygous; 25 homozygous duplications or triplications; 2 heterosomic) and 60 deletions (24%; 40 heterozygous deletions;3 homozygous deletions; 14 heterosomic deletions). Most alterations (81%) were the same as, or overlapped with, previously reported CNVs. We report here the first genome-wide analysis of CNVs in IS patients. In summary, our study did not detect any common genomic structural variation unequivocally linked to IS, although we cannot exclude that smaller CNVs or CNVs in genomic regions poorly covered by this methodology may confer risk for IS. The application of genome-wide SNP arrays now facilitates the evaluation of structural changes through the entire genome as part of a genome-wide genetic association study.
doi:10.1007/s10048-008-0119-3
PMCID: PMC2730937  PMID: 18288507
Stroke; Cerebral ischemia; Genetics; Copy number variants
5.  Evolutionary Toggling of the MAPT 17q21.31 Inversion Region 
Nature genetics  2008;40(9):1076-1083.
Using comparative sequencing approaches, we investigated the evolutionary history of the European-enriched 17q21.31 MAPT inversion polymorphism. We present a detailed, BAC-based sequence assembly of the inverted human H2 haplotype and contrast it with the sequence structure and genetic variation of the corresponding 1.5 Mb region for the non-inverted H1 human haplotype and that of chimpanzee and orangutan. We find that inversion of the MAPT region is similarly polymorphic in other great ape species and present evidence that the inversions have occurred independently in both chimpanzee and humans. In humans, the inversion breakpoints correspond to core duplications encoding the LRRC37 gene family. Our analysis favors the H2 configuration and sequence haplotype as the likely great ape/human ancestral state with inversion recurrences during primate evolution. We demonstrate that the H2 architecture has evolved more extensive sequence homology, perhaps explaining its preference to undergo microdeletion associated with mental retardation in European populations.
PMCID: PMC2684794  PMID: 19165922
6.  A genome-wide genotyping study in patients with ischaemic stroke 
Lancet neurology  2007;6(5):414-420.
Summary
Background
Despite evidence of a genetic role in stroke, the identification of common genetic risk factors for this devastating disorder remains problematic. We aimed to identify any common genetic variability exerting a moderate to large effect on risk of ischaemic stroke, and to generate publicly available genome-wide genotype data to facilitate others doing the same.
Methods
We applied a genome-wide high-density single-nucleotide-polymorphism (SNP) genotyping approach to a cohort of samples with and without ischaemic stroke (n=278 and 275, respectively), and did an association analysis adjusted for known confounders in a final cohort of 249 cases and 268 controls. More than 400 000 unique SNPs were assayed.
Findings
We produced more than 200 million genotypes in 553 unique participants. The raw genotypes of all the controls have been posted publicly in a previous study of Parkinson’s disease. From this effort, results of genotype and allele association tests have been publicly posted for 88% of stroke patients who provided proper consent for public release. Preliminary analysis of these data did not reveal any single locus conferring a large effect on risk for ischaemic stroke.
Interpretation
The data generated here comprise the first phase of a genome-wide association analysis in patients with stroke. Release of phase I results generated in these publicly available samples from each consenting individual makes this dataset a valuable resource for data-mining and augmentation.
doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(07)70081-9
PMCID: PMC2613843  PMID: 17434096
8.  Deletion at ITPR1 Underlies Ataxia in Mice and Spinocerebellar Ataxia 15 in Humans 
PLoS Genetics  2007;3(6):e108.
We observed a severe autosomal recessive movement disorder in mice used within our laboratory. We pursued a series of experiments to define the genetic lesion underlying this disorder and to identify a cognate disease in humans with mutation at the same locus. Through linkage and sequence analysis we show here that this disorder is caused by a homozygous in-frame 18-bp deletion in Itpr1 (Itpr1Δ18/Δ18), encoding inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor 1. A previously reported spontaneous Itpr1 mutation in mice causes a phenotype identical to that observed here. In both models in-frame deletion within Itpr1 leads to a decrease in the normally high level of Itpr1 expression in cerebellar Purkinje cells. Spinocerebellar ataxia 15 (SCA15), a human autosomal dominant disorder, maps to the genomic region containing ITPR1; however, to date no causal mutations had been identified. Because ataxia is a prominent feature in Itpr1 mutant mice, we performed a series of experiments to test the hypothesis that mutation at ITPR1 may be the cause of SCA15. We show here that heterozygous deletion of the 5′ part of the ITPR1 gene, encompassing exons 1–10, 1–40, and 1–44 in three studied families, underlies SCA15 in humans.
Author Summary
We have identified a spontaneous in-frame deletion mutation in the gene Itpr1 that causes a recessive movement disorder in mice. In an attempt to define whether any similar disease occurs in humans we performed a literature search for diseases linked to the human chromosomal region containing ITPR1. We identified the disease spinocerebellar ataxia 15 as linked to this region. High-density genomic analysis of affected members from three families revealed that disease in these patients was caused by deletion of a large portion of the region containing ITPR1. We show here that this mutation results in a dramatic reduction in ITPR1 in cells from these patients. These data show convincingly that ITPR1 deletion underlies spinocerebellar ataxia 15 in humans.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0030108
PMCID: PMC1892049  PMID: 17590087
9.  Deletion at ITPR1 Underlies Ataxia in Mice and Spinocerebellar Ataxia 15 in Humans 
PLoS Genetics  2007;3(6):e108.
We observed a severe autosomal recessive movement disorder in mice used within our laboratory. We pursued a series of experiments to define the genetic lesion underlying this disorder and to identify a cognate disease in humans with mutation at the same locus. Through linkage and sequence analysis we show here that this disorder is caused by a homozygous in-frame 18-bp deletion in Itpr1 (Itpr1Δ18/Δ18), encoding inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor 1. A previously reported spontaneous Itpr1 mutation in mice causes a phenotype identical to that observed here. In both models in-frame deletion within Itpr1 leads to a decrease in the normally high level of Itpr1 expression in cerebellar Purkinje cells. Spinocerebellar ataxia 15 (SCA15), a human autosomal dominant disorder, maps to the genomic region containing ITPR1; however, to date no causal mutations had been identified. Because ataxia is a prominent feature in Itpr1 mutant mice, we performed a series of experiments to test the hypothesis that mutation at ITPR1 may be the cause of SCA15. We show here that heterozygous deletion of the 5′ part of the ITPR1 gene, encompassing exons 1–10, 1–40, and 1–44 in three studied families, underlies SCA15 in humans.
Author Summary
We have identified a spontaneous in-frame deletion mutation in the gene Itpr1 that causes a recessive movement disorder in mice. In an attempt to define whether any similar disease occurs in humans we performed a literature search for diseases linked to the human chromosomal region containing ITPR1. We identified the disease spinocerebellar ataxia 15 as linked to this region. High-density genomic analysis of affected members from three families revealed that disease in these patients was caused by deletion of a large portion of the region containing ITPR1. We show here that this mutation results in a dramatic reduction in ITPR1 in cells from these patients. These data show convincingly that ITPR1 deletion underlies spinocerebellar ataxia 15 in humans.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0030108
PMCID: PMC1892049  PMID: 17590087
10.  A common genetic factor for Parkinson disease in ethnic Chinese population in Taiwan 
BMC Neurology  2006;6:47.
Background
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder, characterized clinically by resting tremor, bradykinesia, postural instability and rigidity. The prevalence of PD is approximately 2% of the population over 65 years of age and 1.7 million PD patients (age ≥ 55 years) live in China. Recently, a common LRRK2 variant Gly2385Arg was reported in ethnic Chinese PD population in Taiwan. We analyzed the frequency of this variant in our independent PD case-control population of Han Chinese from Taiwan.
Methods
305 patients and 176 genetically unrelated healthy controls were examined by neurologists and the diagnosis of PD was based on the published criteria. The region of interest was amplified with standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR fragments then were directly sequenced in both forward and reverse directions. Differences in genotype frequencies between groups were assessed by the X2 test, while X2 analysis was used to test for the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.
Results
Of the 305 patients screened we identified 27 (9%) with heterozygous G2385R variant. This mutation was only found in 1 (0.5%) in our healthy control samples (odds ratio = 16.99, 95% CI: 2.29 to 126.21, p = 0.0002). Sequencing of the entire open reading frame of LRRK2 in G2385R carriers revealed no other variants.
Conclusion
These data suggest that the G2385R variant contributes significantly to the etiology of PD in ethnic Han Chinese individuals. With consideration of the enormous and expanding aging Chinese population in mainland China and in Taiwan, this variant is probably the most common known genetic factor for PD worldwide.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-6-47
PMCID: PMC1764029  PMID: 17187665
11.  Multi-center analysis of glucocerebrosidase mutations in Parkinson disease 
The New England journal of medicine  2009;361(17):1651-1661.
Background
Recent studies indicate an increased frequency of mutations in the gene for Gaucher disease, glucocerebrosidase (GBA), among patients with Parkinson disease. An international collaborative study was conducted to ascertain the frequency of GBA mutations in ethnically diverse patients with Parkinson disease.
Methods
Sixteen centers participated, including five from the Americas, six from Europe, two from Israel and three from Asia. Each received a standard DNA panel to compare genotyping results. Genotypes and phenotypic data from patients and controls were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression models and the Mantel Haenszel procedure to estimate odds ratios (ORs) across studies. The sample included 5691 patients (780 Ashkenazi Jews) and 4898 controls (387 Ashkenazi Jews).
Results
All 16 centers could detect GBA mutations, L444P and N370S, and the two were found in 15.3% of Ashkenazi patients with Parkinson disease (ORs = 4.95 for L444P and 5.62 for N370S), and in 3.2% of non-Ashkenazi patients (ORs = 9.68 for L444P and 3.30 for N370S). GBA was sequenced in 1642 non-Ashkenazi subjects, yielding a frequency of 6.9% for all mutations, demonstrate that limited mutation screens miss half the mutant alleles. The presence of any GBA mutation was associated with an OR of 5.43 across studies. Clinically, although phenotypes varied, subjects with a GBA mutation presented earlier, and were more likely to have affected relatives and atypical manifestations.
Conclusion
Data collected from sixteen centers demonstrate that there is a strong association between GBA mutations and Parkinson disease.
doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0901281
PMCID: PMC2856322  PMID: 19846850
12.  Analysis of IFT74 as a candidate gene for chromosome 9p-linked ALS-FTD 
BMC Neurology  2006;6:44.
Background
A new locus for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis – frontotemporal dementia (ALS-FTD) has recently been ascribed to chromosome 9p.
Methods
We identified chromosome 9p segregating haplotypes within two families with ALS-FTD (F476 and F2) and undertook mutational screening of candidate genes within this locus.
Results
Candidate gene sequencing at this locus revealed the presence of a disease segregating stop mutation (Q342X) in the intraflagellar transport 74 (IFT74) gene in family 476 (F476), but no mutation was detected within IFT74 in family 2 (F2). While neither family was sufficiently informative to definitively implicate or exclude IFT74 mutations as a cause of chromosome 9-linked ALS-FTD, the nature of the mutation observed within F476 (predicted to truncate the protein by 258 amino acids) led us to sequence the open reading frame of this gene in a large number of ALS and FTD cases (n = 420). An additional sequence variant (G58D) was found in a case of sporadic semantic dementia. I55L sequence variants were found in three other unrelated affected individuals, but this was also found in a single individual among 800 Human Diversity Gene Panel samples.
Conclusion
Confirmation of the pathogenicity of IFT74 sequence variants will require screening of other chromosome 9p-linked families.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-6-44
PMCID: PMC1764752  PMID: 17166276

Results 1-12 (12)