The commonest pediatric brain tumors are low-grade gliomas (LGGs). We utilized whole genome sequencing to discover multiple novel genetic alterations involving BRAF, RAF1, FGFR1, MYB, MYBL1 and genes with histone-related functions, including H3F3A and ATRX, in 39 LGGs and low-grade glioneuronal tumors (LGGNTs). Only a single non-silent somatic alteration was detected in 24/39 (62%) tumors. Intragenic duplications of the FGFR1 tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) and rearrangements of MYB were recurrent and mutually exclusive in 53% of grade II diffuse LGGs. Transplantation of Trp53-null neonatal astrocytes containing TKD-duplicated FGFR1 into brains of nude mice generated high-grade astrocytomas with short latency and 100% penetrance. TKD-duplicated FGFR1 induced FGFR1 autophosphorylation and upregulation of the MAPK/ERK and PI3K pathways, which could be blocked by specific inhibitors. Focusing on the therapeutically challenging diffuse LGGs, our study of 151 tumors has discovered genetic alterations and potential therapeutic targets across the entire range of pediatric LGGs/LGGNTs.
The process of peritoneal metastasis involves the diapedesis of intra-abdominal exfoliated gastric cancer cells through the mesothelial cell monolayers; however, the related molecular mechanisms for this process are still unclear. Heterocellular gap-junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) between gastric cancer cells and mesothelial cells may play an active role during diapedesis. In this study we detected the expression of connexin 43 (Cx43) in primary gastric cancer tissues, intra-abdominal exfoliated cancer cells, and matched metastatic peritoneal tissues. We found that the expression of Cx43 in primary gastric cancer tissues was significantly decreased; the intra-abdominal exfoliated cancer cells and matched metastatic peritoneal tissues exhibited increasing expression compared with primary gastric cancer tissues. BGC-823 and SGC-7901 human gastric cancer cells were engineered to express Cx43 or Cx43T154A (a mutant protein that only couples gap junctions but provides no intercellular communication) and were co-cultured with human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs). Heterocellular GJIC and diapedesis through HPMC monolayers on matrigel-coated coverslips were investigated. We found that BGC-823 and SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells expressing Cx43 formed functional heterocellular gap junctions with HPMC monolayers within one hour. A significant increase in diapedesis was observed in engineered Cx43-expressing cells compared with Cx43T154A and control group cells, which suggested that the observed upregulation of diapedesis in Cx43-expressing cells required heterocellular GJIC. Further study revealed that the gastric cancer cells transmigrated through the intercellular space between the mesothelial cells via a paracellular route. Our results suggest that the abnormal expression of Cx43 plays an essential role in peritoneal metastasis and that Cx43-mediated heterocellular GJIC between gastric cancer cells and mesothelial cells may be an important regulatory step during metastasis. Finally, we observed that the diapedesis of exfoliated gastric cancer cells through mesothelial barriers is a viable route of paracellular migration.
Lysine is the limiting amino acid in cereal grains, which represent a major source of human food and animal feed worldwide, and is considered the most important of the essential amino acids. In this study, β-casein, αS2-casein, and lactotransferrin cDNA clone fragments encoding lysine-rich peptides were fused together to generate a lysine-rich (LR) gene and the mammary gland-specific expression vector pBC1-LR-NEOr was constructed. Transgenic mice were generated by pronuclear microinjection of the linearized expression vectors harboring the LR transgene. The transgenic mice and their offspring were examined using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blotting, reverse transcriptase–PCR, in situ hybridization, and Western blotting techniques. Our results showed that the LR gene was successfully integrated into the mouse genome and was transmitted stably. The specific LR gene expression was restricted to the mammary gland, active alveoli of the transgenic female mice during lactation. The lysine level of the two transgenic lines was significantly higher than that of nontransgenic controls (p<0.05). In addition, the growth performance of transgenic pups was enhanced by directly feeding them the LR protein-enriched transgenic milk. Our results demonstrated that lysine-rich gene was successfully constructed and expressed in mammary gland of transgenic mice. This study will provide a better understanding of how mammary gland expression systems that increase the lysine content of milk can be applied to other mammals, such as cows.
They demonstrate the successful production of a transgenic mouse expressing a lysine-rich gene in milk and suggest its potential application for drug development.
Direct reprogramming of somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provides an invaluable resource for regenerative medicine. Because of some ethical and logistical barriers, human iPSCs cannot be used to generate a chimera, which is one of markers representing pluripotency. As the most attractive model for preclinical studies, pigs offer another path to improve clinical medicine. In this study, porcine adult stem cells (pASCs), including adipose mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), were collected and cultured under the same conditions in vitro. Real-time PCR, immunocytochemical staining, apoptosis analysis, and induced differentiation and reprogramming techniques were used to investigate the proliferative capacity and pluripotent characteristics of pASCs. Our results showed that both AMSCs and BMSCs displayed a similar immunophenotype, and their proliferative capacity appeared as a downward trend as the cell passage number increased. The cell proliferative capacity of AMSCs was significantly lower than that of BMSCs (p<0.05). Moreover, each type of pASCs went through 20 passages without undergoing alterations in the expression of reprogramming transcriptional factors (Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Nanog). All pASCs had adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation potential. In addition, they also could be reprogrammed to pig induced pluripotent stem cells (piPSCs) with similar time and efficiency. In conclusion, porcine BMSCs had a higher proliferative capacity than AMSCs, and the pluripotency of pASCs was stable in long-term culture.
To evaluate the in-flight performance of a new hyperspectral sensor onboard an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV-HYPER), a comprehensive field campaign was conducted over the Baotou test site in China on 3 September 2011. Several portable reference reflectance targets were deployed across the test site. The radiometric performance of the UAV-HYPER sensor was assessed in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the calibration accuracy. The SNR of the different bands of the UAV-HYPER sensor was estimated to be between approximately 5 and 120 over the homogeneous targets, and the linear response of the apparent reflectance ranged from approximately 0.05 to 0.45. The uniform and non-uniform Lambertian land surface reflectance was retrieved and validated using in situ measurements, with root mean square error (RMSE) of approximately 0.01–0.07 and relative RMSE of approximately 5%–12%. There were small discrepancies between the retrieved uniform and non-uniform Lambertian land surface reflectance over the homogeneous targets and under low aerosol optical depth (AOD) conditions (AOD = 0.18). However, these discrepancies must be taken into account when adjacent pixels had large land surface reflectance contrast and under high AOD conditions (e.g. AOD = 1.0).
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) have proved to be involved in the detoxifying several carcinogens and may play an important role in carcinogenesis of cancer. Previous studies on the association between Glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) polymorphism and gastric cancer risk reported inconclusive results. To clarify the possible association, we conducted a meta-analysis of eligible studies.
We searched in the Pubmed, Embase, and Wangfang Medicine databases for studies assessing the association between GSTT1 null genotype and gastric cancer risk. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was calculated to assess the strength of the association. A total of 48 studies with a total of 24,440 individuals were ultimately eligible for meta-analysis.
Overall, GSTT1 null genotype was significantly associated with increased risk of gastric cancer (Random-effect OR = 1.23, 95%CI 1.13–1.35, P OR <0.001, I2 = 45.5%). Significant association was also found in Caucasians, East Asians, and Indians (P Caucasians = 0.010; P East Asians = 0.003; P Indians = 0.017). After adjusting for other confounding variables, GSTT1 null genotype was also significantly associated with increased risk of gastric cancer (Random-effect OR = 1.43, 95%CI 1.20–1.71, P OR <0.001, I2 = 48.1%).
The meta-analysis provides strong evidence for the significant association between GSTT1 null genotype and increased risk of gastric cancer.
Peritoneal implantation metastasis of gastric cancer cells is associated with poor prognosis. Peritoneal macrophages are the most important immune cells in the abdominal cavity to control tumor metastasis. In the present study, the immunosuppressive effects of mouse forestomach cells on macrophages were examined. Conditioned medium from mouse forestomach cell cultures were used to treat isolated peritoneal macrophages. A colorimetry-based phagocytosis assay was performed to investigate the functional change of macrophages. The alteration of cytokine secretion by macrophages was measured by ELISA assay. Specific markers of macrophage polarization were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. TGF-β1 signaling was evaluated by western blotting. Neutralization experiments were performed using an anti-TGF-β1 antibody. Conditioned medium reduced the phagocytotic capability of macrophages. Lower TNF-α and IL-1β levels and higher IL-10 and VEGF levels were observed. Real-time RT-PCR showed increased mRNA levels of M2 macrophage markers. Further study revealed that TGF-β1 was significantly elevated in the conditioned medium and TGF-β1 signaling was activated in the macrophages by the treatment of conditioned medium. Neutralization of TGF-β1 reversed the immunosuppressive effects on macrophages. Immunosuppressive macrophages can be induced by conditioned medium from mouse forestomach cell cultures. These effects appeared to occur through the production of TGF-β1 by the tumor cells. Targeted TGF-β1 intervention may help to control peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancers.
mouse forestomach carcinoma cells; macrophages; transforming growth factor-β1; immunosuppression
We study the Cramer-Rao bounds of parameter estimation and coherence performance for the next generation radar (NGR). In order to enhance the performance of NGR, the signal model of NGR with master-slave architecture based on a single pulse is extended to the case of pulse trains, in which multiple pulses are emitted from all sensors and then integrated spatially and temporally in a unique master sensor. For the MIMO mode of NGR where orthogonal waveforms are emitted, we derive the closed-form Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) for the estimates of generalized coherence parameters (GCPs), including the time delay differences, total phase differences and Doppler frequencies with respect to different sensors. For the coherent mode of NGR where the coherent waveforms are emitted after pre-compensation using the estimates of GCPs, we develop a performance bound of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gain for NGR based on the aforementioned CRBs, taking all the estimation errors into consideration. It is shown that greatly improved estimation accuracy and coherence performance can be obtained with pulse trains employed in NGR. Numerical examples demonstrate the validity of the theoretical results.
next generation radar (NGR); Cramer-Rao bound (CRB); Fisher information matrix (FIM); pulse trains; parameter estimation; coherence performance
MSCs (mesenchymal stem cells) are a stem cell source that can be easily obtained from bone marrow. Despite the increasing importance of the pig as a large animal model, little is known about foetal pMSCs (porcine MSCs). In this study, we observed the gene expression of pluripotent markers in foetal pMSCs and the capacity of pMSCs to differentiate into adipocytes, osteocytes and neural-like cells using quantitative RT–PCR (reverse transcription–PCR), normal histological staining and immunohistochemistry. Foetal pMSCs have either a spindle or a flattened shape, and flow cytometry revealed the expression of the MSC-related proteins CD44 and CD105 (endoglin) but not CD34 and CD45. pMSCs express pluripotent markers such as Oct4 (octamer-binding transcription factor 4) and Nanog at the protein and mRNA levels. qRT-PCR (quantitative real-time PCR) analyses revealed that pMSCs expressed nestin [for NSCs (neural stem cells)]. Immunocytochemical and RT–PCR data showed that 29% and 23% of pMSCs expressed MAP2 (microtubule-associated protein 2) for neurons and β-tubulin III (Tuj1) for immature neurons, respectively, after induction of neural differentiation. These findings demonstrate the plasticity of pMSCs and their potential for use in cellular replacement therapy for neural diseases.
differentiation; mesenchymal stem cell; octamer-binding transcription factor 4; porcine bone marrow; reverse transcription–PCR; bFGF, basic fibroblast growth factor; COC, cumulus–oocyte complex; DMEM, Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium; EGF, epidermal growth factor; ESC, embryonic stem cell; FBS, foetal bovine serum; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; IVM, in vitro maturation; MAP2, microtubule-associated protein 2; MSC, mesenchymal stem cell; NSC, neural stem cell; Oct4, octamer-binding transcription factor 4; PB, parthenogenetic blastocyst; PI, propidium iodide; pMSC, porcine MSC; PPARG, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ; PVA, poly(vinyl alcohol); qRT-PCR, quantitative real-time PCR; RA, retinoic acid; RT–PCR, reverse transcription–PCR; TGFβ, transforming growth factor β
The VPAC1 receptor, a member of the vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors (VIPRs), is overexpressed in the most frequently occurring malignant tumors and plays a major role in the progression and angiogenesis of a number of malignancies. Recently, phage display has become widely used for many applications, including ligand generation for targeted imaging, drug delivery and therapy. In this work, we developed a panning procedure using a phage display peptide library to select a peptide that specifically binds to the VPAC1 receptor to develop a novel targeted probe for molecular imaging and therapy.
CHO-K1 cells stably expressing VPAC1 receptors (CHO-K1/VPAC1 cells) were used to select a VPAC1-binding peptide from a 12-mer phage peptide library. DNA sequencing and homologous analysis of the randomly selected phage clones were performed. A cellular ELISA was used to determine the most selectively binding peptide for further investigation. Binding specificity to the VPAC1 receptor was analyzed by competitive inhibition ELISA and flow cytometry. The binding ability of the selected peptide to CHO-K1/VPAC1 cells and colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines was confirmed using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry.
A significant enrichment of phages that specifically bound to CHO-K1/VPAC1 cells was obtained after four rounds of panning. Of the selected phage clones, 16 out of 60 shared the same peptide sequence, GFRFGALHEYNS, which we termed the VP2 peptide. VP2 and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) competitively bound to the VPAC1 receptor. More importantly, we confirmed that VP2 specifically bound to CHO-K1/VPAC1 cells and several CRC cell lines.
Our results demonstrate that the VP2 peptide could specifically bind to VPAC1 receptor and several CRC cell lines. And VP2 peptide may be a potential candidate to be developed as a useful diagnostic molecular imaging probe for early detection of CRC.
Embelin is a small molecular inhibitor extracted from Myrsinaceae plants that specifically inhibits XIAP, affecting the proliferation and apoptosis of various types of tumor cells. In our previous studies, we have demonstrated that embelin is able to induce the apoptosis of MCF-7 breast cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. However, its mechanism of action is not yet clear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the involvement of the mitochondrial pathway in embelin-induced apoptosis and the effect of embelin on the cell cycle. Different doses of embelin were added to MCF-7 breast cancer cells and it was found that embelin was able to induce apoptosis of MCF-7 breast cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that embelin caused changes in the MCF-7 cell mitochondrial membrane potential and blocked the cell cycle of MCF-7 cells in the G2/M phase. Moreover, embelin was demonstrated to promote mitochondrial release of cytochrome C via regulation of Bax and Bcl-2, resulting in the activation of caspase-3 and -9, while no significant changes in the level of caspase-8 were observed. The results have demonstrated that embelin-induced apoptosis of MCF-7 breast cancer cells involves the mitochondrial pathway.
embelin; XIAP; breast cancer MCF-7 cell; apoptosis; mitochondria
Oxaliplatin is included in a number of effective combination regimens used as first and subsequent lines of therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer. Accumulating evidence indicates that autophagy plays a significant role in response to cancer therapy. However, the role of autophagy in oxaliplatin-induced cell death remains to be clarified. In this study, we showed that oxaliplatin induced cell death and autophagy in Caco-2 colorectal cancer cells. The suppression of autophagy using either pharmacologic inhibitors (3-methyladenine, bafilomycin A1) or RNA interference in essential autophagy genes (ATG5 or Beclin1) enhanced the cell death and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production induced by oxaliplatin in Caco-2 cells. Blocking oxaliplatin-induced ROS production by using ROS scavengers (NAC or Tiron) decreased autophagy. Furthermore, numerous dilated endoplasmic reticula (ER) were present in oxaliplatin-treated Caco-2 cells, and blocking ER stress by RNA interference against candidate of metastasis-1 (P8) and C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) decreased autophagy and ROS production. Taken together, these data indicate that oxaliplatin activates autophagy as a cytoprotective response via ER stress and ROS in human colorectal cancer cells.
Nanog is a pivotal transcription factor in embryonic stem (ES) cells and is essential for maintaining the pluripotency and self-renewal of ES cells. SUMOylation has been proved to regulate several stem cell markers' function, such as Oct4 and Sox2. Nanog is strictly regulated by Oct4/Sox2 heterodimer. However, the direct effects of SUMOylation on Nanog expression remain unclear. In this study, we reported that SUMOylation repressed Nanog expression. Depletion of Sumo1 or its conjugating enzyme Ubc9 increased the expression of Nanog, while high SUMOylation reduced its expression. Interestingly, we found that SUMOylation of Oct4 and Sox2 regulated Nanog in an opposing manner. SUMOylation of Oct4 enhanced Nanog expression, while SUMOylated Sox2 inhibited its expression. Moreover, SUMOylation of Oct4 by Pias2 or Sox2 by Pias3 impaired the interaction between Oct4 and Sox2. Taken together, these results indicate that SUMOylation has a negative effect on Nanog expression and provides new insights into the mechanism of SUMO modification involved in ES cells regulation.
Alpinetin is a novel plant flavonoid derived from Alpinia katsumadai Hayata, found to possess strong anticancer effects. However, the antitumor effect of alpinetin on pancreatic cancer cells and the detailed mechanism remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate alpinetin's beneficial effect on pancreatic cancer and the possible molecular mechanism involved. Pancreatic cancer cell lines were treated with alpinetin at various doses and for different times, and the effect of alpinetin on cell growth inhibition, apoptosis and the cell cycle was determined. The expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, XIAP and Bax, the activity of caspases and the levels of cytochrome c released were measured. The results showed that alpinetin inhibited the viability of three pancreatic cancer cell lines and induced apoptosis of BxPC-3 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This was accompanied by regulation of the expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Bax and XIAP. Furthermore, alpinetin treatment led to the release of cytochrome c and activation of caspases-3, −8 and −9 proteins. Taken together, our studies indicate that alpinetin inhibited the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells possibly through the regulation of the Bcl-2 family and XIAP expression, release of cytochrome c and the activation of caspases. Alpinetin may serve as a potential agent for the development of pancreatic cancer cell therapies.
alpinetin; pancreatic cancer; proliferation; apoptosis; caspases; cell cycle
Polymorphisms in genes involved in folate metabolism may modulate the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but data from published studies are conflicting. The current meta-analysis was performed to address a more accurate estimation. A total of 41 (17,552 cases and 26,238 controls), 24(8,263 cases and 12,033 controls), 12(3,758 cases and 5,646 controls), and 13 (5,511 cases and 7,265 controls) studies were finally included for the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1289C, methione synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G, methionine synthase (MTR) A2756G polymorphisms and the risk of CRC, respectively. The data showed that the MTHFR 677T allele was significantly associated with reduced risk of CRC (OR = 0.93, 95%CI 0.90-0.96), while the MTRR 66G allele was significantly associated with increased risk of CRC (OR = 1.11, 95%CI 1.01-1.18). Sub-group analysis by ethnicity revealed that MTHFR C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with reduced risk of CRC in Asians (OR = 0.80, 95%CI 0.72-0.89) and Caucasians (OR = 0.84, 95%CI 0.76-0.93) in recessive genetic model, while the MTRR 66GG genotype was found to significantly increase the risk of CRC in Caucasians (GG vs. AA: OR = 1.18, 95%CI 1.03-1.36). No significant association was found between MTHFR A1298C and MTR A2756G polymorphisms and the risk of CRC. Cumulative meta-analysis showed no particular time trend existed in the summary estimate. Probability of publication bias was low across all comparisons illustrated by the funnel plots and Egger's test. Collectively, this meta-analysis suggested that MTHFR 677T allele might provide protection against CRC in worldwide populations, while MTRR 66G allele might increase the risk of CRC in Caucasians. Since potential confounders could not be ruled out completely, further studies were needed to confirm these results.
Colorectal cancer; Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase; Methione synthase reductase; Methionine synthase; Folate.
Alpinetin is a type of novel plant flavonoid derived from Alpinia katsumadai Hayata, found to possess strong anti-hepatoma effects. However, the detailed antitumor mechanism of Alpinetin remains unclear. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-7 (MKK7) can regulate cellular growth, differentiation and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of MKK7 in the anti-hepatoma effect mediated by Alpinetin. HepG2 cells were treated with Alpinetin at various doses and for different times, and the levels of phosphorylated MKK7 (p-MKK7) and total MKK7 were tested by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Following transient transfection with RNA interference, cell viability and cell cycle stage were determined using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay and flow cytometry, in order to assess the antitumor action of Alpinetin. In addition, chemosensitization to cis-diammined dichloridoplatium (CDDP) by Alpinetin was assessed by cell counting array and the cell growth inhibitory rate was calculated. The results showed that Alpinetin suppressed HepG2 cell proliferation and arrested cells in the G0/G1 phase by up-regulating the expression levels of p-MKK7. On the contrary, inhibiting the expression of MKK7 reversed the antitumor effect of Alpinetin. Moreover, Alpinetin enhanced the sensitivity of HepG2 hepatoma cells to the chemotherapeutic agent CDDP. Taken together, our studies indicate that activation of MKK7 mediates the anti-hepatoma effect of Alpinetin. MKK7 may be a putative target for molecular therapy against hepatoma and Alpinetin could serve as a potential agent for the development of hepatoma therapy.
alpinetin; hepatocellular carcinoma; proliferation; MKK7; cis-diammined dichloridoplatium
Recent studies of genetic abnormalities in pediatric low-grade gliomas (LGGs) have focused on activation of the ERK/MAPK pathway by KIAA1549-BRAF gene fusions in the majority of pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) and by rare mutations in elements of the pathway across histopathologically diverse LGGs. This study reports that MYB, an oncogene not previously implicated in gliomagenesis, is activated in a diverse subset of pediatric LGGs. The study cohort comprised 57 pediatric LGGs and a comparative cohort of 59 pediatric high-grade gliomas (HGGs). The LGG cohort included 34 PAs and 23 diffuse gliomas; fibrillary astrocytomas (n=14), oligodendroglial tumors (n=7), and angiocentric gliomas (n=2). MYB copy number abnormalities were disclosed using Affymetrix 6.0 SNP arrays and confirmed using interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization. Novel MYB amplifications that upregulate MYB RNA and protein expression were demonstrated in 2/14 diffuse astrocytomas. In addition, focal deletion of the terminal region of MYB was seen in 1 of 2 angiocentric gliomas (AGs). Increased expression of MYB was demonstrated by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. MYB upregulation at the protein level was demonstrated in a proportion of diffuse LGGs (60%), pilocytic astrocytomas (41%), and HGGs (19%), but abnormalities at the genomic level were only a feature of diffuse gliomas. Our data suggest that MYB may have a role in a subset of pediatric gliomas, through a variety of mechanisms in addition to MYB amplification and deletion.
MYB; glioma; pediatric; amplification
Schistosomiasis japonica is a zoonotic parasitic disease and oral vaccine delivery system would be benefit for prevention of this disease. Although attenuated salmonella has been used as an antigen expression vector for oral vaccine development, the membrane-bound vacuoles in which bacteria reside hinders the presentation of expressed heterologous antigens to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. The present work used an attenuated Salmonella typhimurium strain VNP20009 to secretory expression of Sj23LHDGST bivalent antigen from Schistosoma japonicum and tested the protective efficacy against S. japonicum infection in orally immunized mice.
Promoters (nirB or pagC) were used to express the antigen (Sj23LHDGST) and the Salmonella type III or α-hemolysin secretion system was employed to secrete it. The immunoblotting analysis and fluorescent microscopy revealed that the antigen was effectively expressed and delivered to the cytosol of macrophages in vitro. Among recombinant vaccine strains, an engineered VNP20009 which expressed the antigen by nirB promoter and secreted it through type III secretion system (nirB-sopE1–104-Sj23LHD-GST) efficiently protected against S. japonicum infection in a mouse model. This strain elicited a predominantly IgG2a antibody response and a markedly increase in the production of IL-12 and IFN-γ. The flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that this strain caused T cell activation as evidenced by significantly increased expression of CD44 and CD69.
Oral delivery of antigen by nirB-driven Salmonella typhimurium type III secretion system is a novel, safe, inexpensive, efficient and convenient approach for schistosome vaccine development.
Schistosomiasis japonica is a zoonotic parasitic disease and occurs predominantly in Southeast Asia and China. Using a simple, cheap, yet efficient oral method to deliver the vaccine antigen would benefit to control its transmission in that the oral vaccine could be made into a preparation and mixed with feedstuffs of livestock hosts. In this study, we used an attenuated S. typhimurium strain VNP20009, whose safety has been demonstrated in phase I clinical trial, to express the bivalent Schistosoma japonicum antigen Sj23LHD-GST by an intracellular activated promoter (nirB) and deliver it to host cells through type III secretion system. After oral vaccination of this recombinant strain, efficient protection against S. japonicum challenge was induced in mice. Mean while, granuloma formation in the liver was improved significantly in the immunized mice. This protective immune response was Th1 specific type as evidenced by increase in the production of IL-12 and IFN-γ. This work provides an alternative S. japonicum vaccine for livestock and humans.
One important protein family that functions in nucleotide excision repair (NER) factors is the SNF2 family. A newly identified mouse ERCC6-like gene, Ercc6l (excision repair cross-complementing rodent repair deficiency, complementation group 6-like), has been shown to be another developmentally related member of the SNF2 family.
In this study, Sika deer Ercc6l cDNA was first cloned and then sequenced. The full-length cDNA of the Sika deer Ercc6l gene is 4197 bp and contains a 3732 bp open reading frame that encodes a putative protein of 1243 amino acids. The similarity of Sika deer Ercc6l to Bos taurus Ercc6l is 94.05% at the amino acid sequence level. The similarity, however, is reduced to 68.42–82.21% when compared to Ercc6l orthologs in other mammals and to less than 50% compared to orthologs in Gallus gallus and Xenopus. Additionally, the expression of Ercc6l mRNA was investigated in the organs of fetal and adult Sika deer (FSD and ASD, respectively) by quantitative RT-PCR. The common expression level of Ercc6l mRNA in the heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, and stomach from six different developmental stages of 18 Sika deer were examined, though the expression levels in each organ varied among individual Sika deer. During development, there was a slight trend toward decreased Ercc61 mRNA expression. The highest Ercc6l expression levels were seen at 3 months old in every organ and showed the highest level of detection in the spleen of FSD. The lowest Ercc6l expression levels were seen at 3 years old.
We are the first to successfully clone Sika deer Ercc6l mRNA. Ercc6l transcript is present in almost every organ. During Sika deer development, there is a slight trend toward decreased Ercc61 mRNA expression. It is possible that Ercc6l has other roles in embryonic development and in maintaining the growth of animals.
Classical swine fever (CSF), caused by the Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), is an Office International des Epizooties (OIE) notifiable disease. However, we are far from fully understand the distribution, tissue tropism, pathogenesis, replication and excretion of CSFV in pigs. In this report, we investigated the dynamic distribution and tissue tropism of the virus in internal organs of the experimentally infected pigs using real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC).
A relative quantification real-time PCR was established and used to detect the virus load in internal organs of the experimentally infected pigs. The study revealed that the virus was detected in all 21 of the internal organs and blood collected from pigs at day 1 to day 8 post infections, and had an increasing virus load from day 1 to day 8 post infections. However, there was irregular distribution virus load in most internal organs over the first 2 days post infection. Blood, lymphoid tissue, pancreas and ileum usually contain the highest viral loads, while heart, duodenum and brain show relatively low viral loads.
All the data suggest that CSFV had an increasing virus load from day 1 to day 8 post infections in experimentally infected pigs detected by real-time RT-PCR, which was in consistent with the result of the IHC staining. The data also show that CSFV was likely to reproduce in blood, lymphoid tissue, pancreas and the ileum, while unlikely to replicate in the heart, duodenum and brain. The results provide a foundation for further clarification of the pathogenic mechanism of CSFV in internal organs, and indicate that blood, lymphoid tissue, pancreas and ileum may be preferred sites of acute infection.
Density functional computations were performed on two tetracoordinated Ni(II) complexes as high nitrogen content energetic materials (1: dinickel bishydrazine ter[(1H-Tetrazol-3-yl)methan-3yl]-1H-tetrazole and 2: dinickel tetraazide ter[(1H-Tetrazol-3-yl)methan-3yl]-1H-tetrazolate). The geometrical structures, relative stabilities and sensitivities, and thermodynamic properties of the complexes were investigated. The energy gaps of frontier molecular orbital (HOMO and LUMO) and vibrational spectroscopies were also examined. There are minor Jahn-Teller distortions in both complexes 1 and 2, with two long Ni–N bond lengths and two short ones. The enthalpies of combustion for both complexes are over 3600 kJ/mol. The N–N bond lengths in the moieties of hydrazine and azide ligands increase in the coordination process compared to those of the isolated molecules.
There is great potential for using transgenic technology to improve the quality of cow milk and to produce biopharmaceuticals within the mammary gland. Lysozyme, a bactericidal protein that protects human infants from microbial infections, is highly expressed in human milk but is found in only trace amounts in cow milk.
We have produced 17 healthy cloned cattle expressing recombinant human lysozyme using somatic cell nuclear transfer. In this study, we just focus on four transgenic cattle which were natural lactation. The expression level of the recombinant lysozyme was up to 25.96 mg/L, as measured by radioimmunoassay. Purified recombinant human lysozyme showed the same physicochemical properties, such as molecular mass and bacterial lysis, as its natural counterpart. Moreover, both recombinant and natural lysozyme had similar conditions for reactivity as well as for pH and temperature stability during in vitro simulations. The gross composition of transgenic and non-transgenic milk, including levels of lactose, total protein, total fat, and total solids were not found significant differences.
Thus, our study not only describes transgenic cattle whose milk offers the similar nutritional benefits as human milk but also reports techniques that could be further refined for production of active human lysozyme on a large scale.
We have previously described an analog peptide of type II collagen (CII) that can suppress collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). This analog peptide represents CII245-270, the immunodominant epitope of CII, but with substitutions at 260, 261, and 263 - CII245-270 (A260, B261, and N263) (A9). To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for suppression, we used mice transgenic for a collagen-specific T cell receptor (TCR). When we found that APCs pulsed with A9 failed to induce T cell phosphorylation of TCR-? and ZAP-70, we explored alternative signaling pathways. We determined that A9 instead induced phosphorylation of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk). The importance of Syk was confirmed by the use of chemical Syk inhibitors, which blocked both cytokine secretion and activation of GATA-3 mediated by peptide A9. In summary, T cells use an alternative pathway in response to A9 that involves Syk. This novel T cell pathway may represent an important means for altering T cell phenotypes.
Collagen II; T cells; altered peptide ligands; T cell signaling; Syk (spleen tyrosine kinase); autoimmunity
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic disease manifested by chronic inflammation in multiple articular joints, including the knees and small joints of the hands and feet. We have developed a unique modification to a clinically accepted method for delivering therapies directly to the synovium. Our therapy is based on our previous discovery of an analog peptide (A9) with amino acid substitutions made at positions 260 (I to A), 261 (A to B), and 263 (F to N) that could profoundly suppress immunity to type II collagen (CII) and arthritis in the collagen-induced arthritis model (CIA).
We engineered an adenoviral vector to contain the CB11 portion of recombinant type II collagen and used PCR to introduce point mutations at three sites within (CII124-402, 260A, 261B, 263D), (rCB11-A9) so that the resulting molecule contained the A9 sequence at the exact site of the wild-type sequence.
We used this construct to target intra-articular tissues of mice and utilized the collagen-induced arthritis model to show that this treatment strategy provided a sustained, local therapy for individual arthritic joints, effective whether given to prevent arthritis or as a treatment. We also developed a novel system for in vivo bioimaging, using the firefly luciferase reporter gene to allow serial bioluminescence imaging to show that luciferase can be detected as late as 18 days post injection into the joint.
Our therapy is unique in that we target synovial cells to ultimately shut down T cell-mediated inflammation. Its effectiveness is based on its ability to transform potential inflammatory T cells and/or bystander T cells into therapeutic (regulatory-like) T cells which secrete interleukin (IL)-4. We believe this approach has potential to effectively suppress RA with minimal side effects.