Although inflammatory responses increase stroke severity, the role of immune cells specific for central nervous system (CNS) antigens remains controversial. Disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) during stroke allows CNS antigens to leak into the peripheral circulation and enhances access of circulating leukocytes to the brain, including those specific for CNS antigens such as myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) that can induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We here demonstrate for the first time that myelin reactive splenocytes specific for MOG transferred into severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice can migrate into the infarct hemisphere of recipients subjected to 60 minutes middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and 96 hours reperfusion; moreover these cells exacerbate infarct volume and worsen neurological deficits compared to animals transferred with naïve splenocytes. These findings indicate that autoimmunity in the CNS can exert detrimental injury on brain cells and worsen the damage from ischemic stroke.
experimental stroke; myelin reactive splenocytes; inflammatory responses; neurologic deficit
A major focus of our laboratory has been an in-depth evaluation as to how estrogens exert a pronounced protective effect on clinical and histological disease in the animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). An important issue regarding their therapeutic application has been the undesirable estrogenic side effects thought to be mediated primarily through 17β-estradiol (E2) binding to intracellular estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). With the discovery and characterization of GPR30 as the putative membrane estrogen receptor, we sought to study whether signaling through GPR30 was sufficient to mediate protection against EAE without engagement of ERα. Treatment of EAE in WT mice with G-1, a selective GPR30 agonist, retained estradiol’s ability to protect against clinical and histological EAE without estrogenic side effects. G-1 treatment deviated cytokine profiles and enhanced suppressive activity of CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells through a GPR30- and programmed death 1 (PD-1)-dependent mechanism. This novel finding was indicative of the protective effect of GPR30 activation in EAE and provides a strong foundation for the clinical application of GPR30 agonists such as G-1 in MS. However, future studies are needed to elucidate cross-signaling and evaluate possible additive effects of combined signaling through both GPR30 and ER-α. Deciphering the possible mechanism of involvement of GPR30 in estrogen-mediated protection against EAE may result in lowering treatment doses of E2 and GPR30 agonists that could minimize risks and maximize immunoregulation and therapeutic effects in MS. Alternatively, one might envision using E2 derivatives with reduced estrogenic activity alone or in combination with GPR30 agonists as therapies for both male and female MS patients.
EAE; Estrogen; ER-α; ER-β; GPR30; G-1; G-15; 17β-estradiol; encephalitogenic T cells; Tregs; dendritic cells; inflammation; IL-10; IL-17; MS
We previously demonstrated the therapeutic effects of MHC class II derived recombinant T cell receptor ligands (RTL), single-chain two domain complexes of the α1 and β1 domains of MHC class II molecules genetically linked with an immunodominant peptide, in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In the current study, we produced a monomeric murine I-Aq-derived RTL construct covalently linked with bovine collagen type II peptide (bCII257–270) suitable for use in DBA/1LacJ mice that develop collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), an animal model of human rheumatoid arthritis, after immunization with bCII protein in CFA. In this study, we demonstrate that the I-Aq-derived RTLs reduced the incidence of the disease, suppressed the clinical and histological signs of CIA and induced long-term modulation of T cells specific for arthritogenic Ags. Our results showed that the I-Aq/bCII257–270 molecule could systemically reduce proinflammatory IL-17 and IFN-γ production and significantly increase anti-inflammatory IL-10, IL-13, and FoxP3 gene expression in splenocytes. Moreover, I-Aq/bCII257–270 molecule could also selectively inhibit IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-23 expression in local joint tissue. This is the first report demonstrating effective prevention of joint inflammation and clinical signs of CIA with an I-Aq-derived RTL, thus supporting the possible clinical use of this approach for treating rheumatoid arthritis in humans.
Background and Purpose
Evaluation of infarct volumes and infiltrating immune cell populations in mice after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) strongly implicates a mixture of both pathogenic and regulatory immune cell subsets that affect stroke outcome. Our goal was to evaluate the contribution of the well-described co-inhibitory pathway, Programmed Death (PD)-1, to the development of MCAO.
Infarct volumes, functional outcomes and effects on infiltrating immune cell populations were compared in wild type C57BL/6 versus PD-1 deficient mice after 60min MCAO and 96h reperfusion.
The results clearly demonstrate a previously unrecognized activity of the PD-1 pathway to limit infarct volume, recruitment of inflammatory cells from the periphery, activation of macrophages and CNS microglia and functional neurological deficits. These regulatory functions were associated with increased percentages of circulating PD-Ligand (L)-1 and PD-L2 expressing CD19+ B-cells in blood, spleen and CNS with the capacity to inhibit activation of inflammatory T-cells and CNS macrophages and microglial cells through upregulated PD-1.
Our novel observations are the first to implicate PD-1 signaling as a major protective pathway for limiting CNS inflammation in MCAO. This inhibitory circuit would likely be pivotal in reducing stroke-associated TLR2- and TLR4-mediated release of neurotoxic factors by activated CNS microglia.
MCAO; inflammatory cells; Programmed Death-1; Co-inhibitory pathway
Evaluation of infarct volumes and infiltrating immune cell populations in mice after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) strongly implicates a mixture of both pathogenic and regulatory immune cell subsets in stroke pathogenesis and recovery. Our goal was to evaluate the contribution of B-cells to the development of MCAO by comparing infarct volumes and functional outcomes in WT versus B-cell deficient μMT−/− mice. The results clearly demonstrate larger infarct volumes, higher mortality, more severe functional deficits and increased numbers of activated T-cells, macrophages, microglial cells and neutrophils in the affected brain hemisphere of MCAO-treated μMT−/− vs. WT mice. These MCAO-induced changes were completely prevented in B-cell restored μMT−/− mice after transfer of highly purified WT GFP+ B-cells that were detected in the periphery, but not the CNS. In contrast, transfer of B-cells from IL-10−/− mice had no effect on infarct volume when transferred into μMT−/− mice. These findings strongly support a previously unrecognized activity of IL-10-secreting WT B-cells to limit infarct volume, mortality rate, recruitment of inflammatory cells and functional neurological deficits 48h after MCAO. Our novel observations are the first to implicate IL-10-secreting B-cells as a major regulatory cell type in stroke and suggest that enhancement of regulatory B-cells might have application as a novel therapy for this devastating neurologic condition.
Stroke induces a biphasic effect on the peripheral immune response that involves early activation of peripheral leukocytes followed by severe immunosuppression and atrophy of the spleen. Peripheral immune cells, including T lymphocytes, migrate to the brain and exacerbate the developing infarct. Recombinant T-cell receptor (TCR) Ligand (RTL)551 is designed as a partial TCR agonist for myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-reactive T cells and has demonstrated the capacity to limit infarct volume and inflammation in brain when administered to mice undergoing middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The goal of this study was to determine if RTL551 could retain protection when given within the therapeutically relevant 4h time window currently in clinical practice for stroke patients. RTL551 was administered subcutaneously 4h after MCAO, with repeated doses every 24h until the time of euthanasia. Cell numbers were assessed in the brain, blood, spleen and lymph nodes and infarct size was measured after 24 and 96h reperfusion. RTL551 reduced infarct size in both cortex and striatum at 24h and in cortex at 96h after MCAO and inhibited the accumulation of inflammatory cells in brain at both time points. At 24h post-MCAO, RTL551 reduced the frequency of the activation marker, CD44, on T-cells in blood and in the ischemic hemisphere. Moreover, RTL551 reduced expression of the chemokine receptors, CCR5 in lymph nodes and spleen, and CCR7 in the blood and lymph nodes. These data demonstrate effective treatment of experimental stroke with RTL551 within a therapeutically relevant 4h time window through immune regulation of myelin-reactive inflammatory T-cells.
MHC class II-derived recombinant T cell receptor ligands (RTLs) modulate the behavior of pathogenic T cells and can reverse clinical and histological signs of autoimmune disease in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), and are currently in clinical trials for treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). To expand the utility of these rationally-designed biologics and explore their mechanism(s) of activity in vivo, we have engineered RTL constructs bearing cysteine-tethered antigenic peptides and demonstrate that the appropriate cysteine-tethered RTLs effectively treat EAE. The data presented here suggests that the mechanism by which antigen-specific tolerance induction by RTLs bearing cysteine-tethered antigenic peptides in vivo involves delivery of RTL/antigen to endosomal compartments for processing and re-presentation by full-length MHC class II, with RTLs bearing cysteine-tethered antigenic peptides requiring gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol-reductase (GILT) for therapeutic activity.
EAE; GILT mice; RTL550-CYS-Mog; MHC Class II
Stroke is a sexually dimorphic disease with male gender considered a disadvatage in terms of risk and disease outcome. In intact males, stroke induces peripheral immunosuppression, characterized by decreased splenocyte numbers and proliferation and altered percentages of viable T, B and CD11b+ cells. To investigate whether the potent androgen and known immunomodulator, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), exacerbates post-stroke immunosuppression in castrated male mice after focal stroke, we evaluated the effect of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) on peripheral and central nervous system (CNS) immune responses in castrated mice with or without controlled levels of DHT. MCAO reduced spleen cell numbers in both groups, but altered T cell and B cell percentages in remaining splenocytes and concomitantly increased the percentage of CD11b+ blood cells solely in DHT-replaced animals at 24 h. Furthermore, DHT-replacement reduced splenocyte proliferation which was accompanied by an increased percentage of immunosuppressive regulatory T cells relative to castrates 96 h post-MCAO. In brain, the percentages of immune cell populations in the ischemic hemisphere relative to the non-ischemic hemisphere were similar between castrated and DHT-replaced mice after MCAO. These data suggest DHT modulates peripheral immunosuppression after MCAO but with relatively little effect on early immune response of the recovering CNS.
Ischemia; Stroke; Hormone; dihydrotestosterone; testosterone; Immunosuppression; regulatory T lymphocyte; neuroprotection
Antigen presenting cell-associated four-domain MHC class-II molecules play a central role in activating autoreactive CD4+ T-cells involved in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Type 1 Diabetes (T1D). In contrast, two-domain MHC-II structures with the same covalently-attached self peptide (Recombinant T-cell receptor Ligands=RTLs) can regulate pathogenic CD4+ T-cells and reverse clinical signs of experimental autoimmune diseases. RTL1000, comprised of the β1α1 domains of HLA-DR2 linked to the encephalitogenic human MOG-35-55 peptide, was recently shown to be safe and well-tolerated in a Phase I clinical trial in MS. To evaluate the opposing biological effects of four- vs. two-domain class-II structures, we screened phage Fab antibodies (Abs) for neutralizing activity of RTL1000. . Five different TCR-like Abs were identified that could distinguish between the two- vs. four-domain MHC peptide complexes, while the cognate TCR was unable to make such a distinction. Moreover, Fab detection of native two-domain HLA-DR structures in human plasma implies that there are naturally-occurring regulatory MHC-peptide complexes. These results demonstrate for the first time distinct conformational determinants characteristic of activating vs. tolerogenic MHC-peptide complexes involved in human autoimmunity.
Autoimmunity; Recombinant Antibodies; Immune tolerance; MHC class II
Background. Recombinant T-cell receptor ligand 1000 (RTL1000) is a single-chain protein construct containing the outer two domains of HLA-DR2 linked to myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein- (MOG-) 35–55 peptide. Analogues of RTL1000 induce T-cell tolerance, reverse clinical and histological disease, and promote repair in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in DR2 transgenic, C57BL/6, and SJL/J mice. Objective. Determining the maximum tolerated dose, safety, and tolerability of RTL1000 in multiple sclerosis (MS) subjects. Methods. This was a multicenter, Phase I dose-escalation study in HLA-DR2+ MS subjects. Consecutive cohorts received RTL1000 doses of 2, 6, 20, 60, 200, and 100 mg, respectively. Subjects within each cohort randomly received a single intravenous infusion of RTL1000 or placebo at a 4 : 2 ratio. Safety monitoring included clinical, laboratory, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluations. Results. Thirty-four subjects completed the protocol. All subjects tolerated the 2–60 mg doses of RTL1000. Doses ≥100 mg caused hypotension and diarrhea in 3 of 4 subjects, leading to discontinuation of further enrollment. Conclusions. The maximum tolerated dose of RTL1000 in MS subjects is 60 mg, comparable to effective RTL doses in EAE. RTL1000 is a novel approach for MS treatment that may induce immunoregulation without immunosuppression and promote neural repair.
Increased remissions in multiple sclerosis (MS) during pregnancy suggest that elevated levels of sex steroids exert immunoregulatory activity. Estrogen (E2=17β-estradiol) protects against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), but the cellular basis for E2-induced protection remains unclear. Studies demonstrate that depletion of B cells prior to induction of EAE exacerbates disease severity, implicating regulatory B cells. We thus evaluated pathogenic and E2-induced protective mechanisms in B cell deficient (µMT−/−) mice. EAE-protective effects of E2 were abrogated in µMT−/−) mice, with no reduction in disease severity, cellular infiltration or pro-inflammatory factors in the CNS compared to untreated controls. E2 treatment of WT mice selectively up-regulated expression of PD-L1 on B cells and increased the percentage of IL-10-producing CD1dhighCD5+ regulatory B cells. Upregulation of PD-L1 was critical for E2-mediated protection since E2 did not inhibit EAE in PD-L1−/− mice. Direct treatment of B cells with E2 significantly reduced proliferation of MOG35–55-specific T cells that required ERα. These results demonstrate for the first time a requirement for B cells in E2-mediated protection against EAE involving direct E2 effects on regulatory B cells mediated through ERα and the PD-1/PD-L1 negative co-stimulatory pathway. E2-primed B cells may represent an important regulatory mechanism in MS and have strong implications for women receiving current MS therapies that cause B-cell depletion.
EAE; Multiple Sclerosis; Estrogen; Regulatory B cells
Experimental cerebral ischemic stroke is exacerbated by inflammatory T-cells and is accompanied by systemic increases in CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T-cells (Treg). To determine their effect on ischemic brain injury, Treg were depleted in Foxp3DTR mice prior to stroke induction. In contrast to a recent Nature Medicine report, our results demonstrate unequivocally that Treg depletion did not affect stroke infarct volume, thus failing to implicate this regulatory pathway in limiting stroke damage.
Cerebral ischemia; T lymphocyte; T regulatory cells; middle cerebral artery occlusion; stroke
A human Recombinant T-cell receptor Ligand (RTL1000) consisting of DR2 α1 and β1 domains linked covalently to MOG-35-55 peptide can reverse clinical and histological signs of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), and was evaluated for safety in a Phase 1 randomized, placebo-controlled, escalating dose study in 34 subjects with multiple sclerosis (MS). RTL1000 was safe and well tolerated at a dose of ≤60mg that is well within the effective dose range for EAE and did not cause worsening of MS disease at doses ≤200mg. RTL1000 represents a novel approach for the treatment of MS that promises potent immunoregulation and CNS repair without global immunosuppression.
Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE); Multiple Sclerosis (MS); Recombinant T cell receptor Ligand (RTL); neuroprotection; clinical trial
Treatment strategies using therapeutic estrogen are being developed and tested for multiple sclerosis (MS). MS is an autoimmune inflammatory disease that attacks the central nervous system, damages myelin and produces neurode-generative changes associated with periodic and chronic progression of functional neurological deficit. Experimental studies in chimeric bone marrow transplant mice treated with 17β-estradiol (E2) have revealed that the estrogen receptor-1 (Esr-1, or -alpha) expressed exclusively within the non-hematopoietic tissue compartment is sufficient for mediating a beneficial neuroprotective therapeutic response in mice lacking Esr-1 expression on T lymphocytes or other bone marrow-derived cells. Less is known regarding requirements for estrogen receptor-2 (Esr-2, or -beta) expression in E2-mediated therapy. Here, we tested and compared requirements for Esr-2 expression within distinct tissue compartments in bone marrow transplant mice. Our studies support a crucial role for Esr-1 in E2 treatment and demonstrate that Esr-2 expressed by non-bone marrow-derived cells plays a role in sustaining the neuroprotective response mediated through Esr-1.
Autoimmune CNS inflammation; EAE; estrogen; gender
A key target for novel stroke therapy is the regulation of post-ischemic inflammatory mechanisms. Recent evidence emphasizes the role of T lymphocytes of differing subtypes in the evolution is ischemic brain damage. We have recently demonstrated the benefit of myelin antigen-specific immunodulatory agents known as recombinant T cell receptor ligands (RTLs) in a standard murine model of focal stroke. The aim of the current study was to extend this initial observation to RTL treatment in a therapeutically relevant timing after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and verify functional benefit to complement histological outcome measures. We observed that the administration of mouse-specific RTL551 reduced infarct size and improved sensorimotor outcome when administered within a 3 h post-ischemic therapeutic window. RTL551 treatment reduced cortical, caudate putamen, and total infarct volume as compared to vehicle-treated mice. Using a standard behavioral testing repertoire, we observed that RTL551 reduced sensorimotor impairment 3 days after MCAO. Humanized RTL1000 (HLA-DR2 moiety linked to hMOG-35-55 peptide) also reduced infarct size in HLA-DR2 transgenic mice. These data indicate that this neuroantigen-specific immunomodulatory agent reduces damage when administered in a therapeutically relevant reperfusion timeframe.
Cerebral ischemia; Cerebral infarction; Inflammation; T lymphocyte; Immunotherapy; Mouse; Middle cerebral artery occlusion; Stroke
Recombinant T cell ligands (RTLs) ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in antigen specific manner. We evaluated effects of RTL401 (I-As α1β1 + PLP-139-151) on splenocytes from mice with EAE to study RTL- T cell-tolerance-inducing mechanisms. RTLs bound to B, macrophages and DCs, through RTL-MHC-α1β1 moiety. RTL binding reduced CD11b expression on splenic macrophages/DC, and RTL401-conditioned macrophages/DC, not B cells, inhibited T cell activation. Reduced ability of RTL- incubated splenocytes to transfer EAE was likely mediated through macrophages/DC, since B cells were unnecessary for RTL treatment of EAE. These results demonstrate novel pathway of T cell regulation by RTL bound APCs.
EAE; RTLs; tolerance; APCs
Reduced risk and severity of stroke in adult females is thought to depend on normal endogenous levels of estrogen, a well-known neuroprotectant and immunomodulator. In male mice, experimental stroke induces immunosuppression of the peripheral immune system, characterized by a reduction in spleen size and cell numbers and decreased cytokine and chemokine expression. However, stroke-induced immunosuppression has not been evaluated in female mice. To test the hypothesis that estradiol (E2) deficiency exacerbates immunosuppression after focal stroke in females, we evaluated the effect of middle cerebral artery occlusion on infarct size and peripheral and CNS immune responses in ovariectomized mice with or without sustained, controlled levels of 17-β–E2 administered by s.c. implant or the putative membrane estrogen receptor agonist, G1. Both E2- and G1-replacement decreased infarct volume and partially restored splenocyte numbers. Moreover, E2-replacement increased splenocyte proliferation in response to stimulation with anti-CD3/CD28 Abs and normalized aberrant mRNA expression for cytokines, chemokines, and chemokine receptors and percentage of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T regulatory cells observed in E2-deficient animals. These beneficial changes in peripheral immunity after E2 replacement were accompanied by a profound reduction in expression of the chemokine, MIP-2, and a 40-fold increased expression of CCR7 in the lesioned brain hemisphere. These results demonstrate for the first time that E2 replacement in ovariectomized female mice improves stroke-induced peripheral immunosuppression.
Recombinant T cell receptor ligands (RTLs) that target encephalitogenic T-cells can reverse clinical and histological signs of EAE, and are currently in clinical trials for treatment of multiple sclerosis. To evaluate possible regulatory mechanisms, we tested effects of RTL therapy on expression of pathogenic and effector T-cell maturation markers, CD226, T-bet and CD44, by CD4+ Th1 cells early after treatment of MOG-35-55 peptide-induced EAE in C57BL/6 mice. We showed that 1–5 daily injections of RTL551 (two-domain I-Ab covalently linked to MOG-35-55 peptide), but not the control RTL550 (“empty” two-domain I-Ab without a bound peptide) or Vehicle, reduced clinical signs of EAE, prevented trafficking of cells outside the spleen, significantly reduced the frequency of CD226 and T-bet expressing CD4+ T-cells in blood and inhibited expansion of CD44 expressing CD4+ T-cells in blood and spleen. Concomitantly, RTL551 selectively reduced CNS inflammatory lesions, absolute numbers of CNS infiltrating T-bet expressing CD4+ T-cells and IL-17 and IFN-γ secretion by CNS derived MOG-35-55 reactive cells cultured ex vivo. These novel results demonstrate that a major effect of RTL therapy is to attenuate Th1 specific changes in CD4+ T-cells during EAE and prevent expansion of effector T-cells that mediate clinical signs and CNS inflammation in EAE.
Increasing evidence suggests that in addition to T cell dependent effector mechanisms, autoantibodies are also involved in the pathogenesis of MS, including demyelinating antibodies specific for myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). Our previous studies have demonstrated that recombinant T cell receptor ligands (RTLs) are very effective for treating T cell mediated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In order to expand the scope of RTL therapy in MS patients, it was of interest to study RTL treatment of EAE involving a demyelinating antibody component. Therefore, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of RTL551, specific for T cells reactive to mouse (m)MOG-35-55 peptide, on EAE induced with recombinant human (rh)MOG in C57BL/6 mice. We report that RTL551 therapy can reverse disease progression and reduce demyelination and axonal damage induced by rhMOG without suppressing the anti-MOG antibody response. This result suggests that T cell mediated inflammation and associated blood-brain barrier dysfunction are the central contributors to EAE pathogenesis, and that successful regulation of these key players restricts potential damage by demyelinating antibodies. The results of our study lend support for the use of RTL therapy for treatment of MS subjects whose disease includes inflammatory T cells as well as those with an additional antibody component.
EAE; MS; recombinant human MOG; CNS damage
The regulatory role of programmed death 1 (PD-1) was investigated in the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis. Typical EAE could be induced by immunization without pertussis toxin (PTX) in PD-1-null but not in wild-type (WT) mice. However, both strains developed a similar EAE phenotype when immunized with PTX or by adoptive transfer of pathogenic T cells. In WT mice that did not develop EAE after immunization without PTX, the frequency of CD4+FoxP3+ Treg cells was boosted in the periphery but not in the thymus. This increase in Treg frequency was abrogated by PD-1 deficiency or inclusion of PTX. In addition, PD-1 expression was critical to in vitro conversion of naïve myelin-specific CD4 T cells into Treg cells and was directly related to Treg suppressive activity. Finally, PD-1 was markedly down-modulated in the periphery of WT mice after administration of PTX. Therefore, down-modulation of PD-1 in Treg cells may abrogate Treg-mediated immune suppression, permitting the activation of myelin-reactive T cells and induction of EAE.
multiple sclerosis; experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis; programmed death 1; regulatory T cells; pertussis toxin
The inflammatory status of the brain in patients as well as animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been extensively studied. Accumulation of activated microglia producing TNF-α and MCP-1 contribute to the pathology of the disease. However, little is known about the changes in the spleen and associated peripheral immunity that might contribute to AD pathology. The goal of this study was to characterize phenotypic and functional changes in spleen, blood and brain cell populations that contribute to development of an AD-like disease in a triple transgenic (3xTg-AD) mouse model. The 3xTg-AD mice had increased percentages of brain Gr-1+ granulocytes, dendritic cells and macrophages, spleen and blood derived CD8+Ly6C+ memory T cells and CCR6+ B cells, as well as increased levels of secreted IL-6. Brain tissue from older 12 month old symptomatic 3xTg-AD female mice exhibited highly elevated mRNA expression of CCR6 compared to WT mice. Importantly, this pronounced increase in expression of CCR6 was also detected in brain and spleen tissue from pre-symptomatic 5-6 month old 3xTg-AD females and males. Our data demonstrate increased expression of CCR6 in the brain and peripheral immune organs of both pre-symptomatic and symptomatic 3xTg-AD mice, strongly suggesting an ongoing inflammatory process that precedes onset of clinical AD-like disease.
Alzheimer's disease; CCR6; 3xTg-AD mice; inflammation
Recombinant T cell receptor ligands (RTLs) are bio-engineered molecules that may serve as novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of neuroinflammatory conditions such as multiple sclerosis (MS). RTLs contain membrane distal α1 plus β1 domains of class II major histocompatibility complex linked covalently to specific peptides that can be used to regulate T cell responses and inhibit experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The mechanisms by which RTLs impede local recruitment and retention of inflammatory cells in the CNS, however, are not completely understood.
We have recently shown that RTLs bind strongly to B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells, but not to T cells, in an antigenic-independent manner, raising the question whether peripheral blood cells express a distinct RTL-receptor. Our study was designed to characterize the molecular mechanisms by which RTLs bind human blood platelets, and the ability of RTL to modulate platelet function.
Our data demonstrate that human blood platelets support binding of RTL. Immobilized RTL initiated platelet intracellular calcium mobilization and lamellipodia formation through a pathway dependent upon Src and PI3 kinases signaling. The presence of RTL in solution reduced platelet aggregation by collagen, while treatment of whole blood with RTL prolonged occlusive thrombus formation on collagen.
Platelets, well-known regulators of hemostasis and thrombosis, have been implicated in playing a major role in inflammation and immunity. This study provides the first evidence that blood platelets express a functional RTL-receptor with a putative role in modulating pathways of neuroinflammation.
Background and Purpose
Experimental stroke induces a biphasic effect on the immune response that involves early activation of peripheral leukocytes followed by severe immunodepression and atrophy of spleen and thymus. In tandem, the developing infarct is exacerbated by influx of numerous inflammatory cell types, including T and B lymphocytes. These features of stroke prompted our use of Recombinant T Cell Receptor Ligands (RTL), partial MHC class II molecules covalently bound to myelin peptides. We tested the hypothesis that RTL would improve ischemic outcome in brain without exacerbating defects in peripheral immune system function.
Four daily doses of RTL were administered subcutaneously to C57BL/6 mice after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and lesion size and cellular composition were assessed in brain, and cell numbers were assessed in spleen and thymus.
Treatment with RTL551 (I-Ab molecule linked to MOG-35−55 peptide) reduced cortical and total stroke lesion size by ∼50%, inhibited the accumulation of inflammatory cells, particularly macrophages/activated microglial cells and dendritic cells, and mitigated splenic atrophy. Treatment with RTL1000 (HLA-DR2 moiety linked to human MOG-35−55 peptide) similarly reduced the stroke lesion size in HLA-DR2 transgenic mice. In contrast, control RTL with a non-neuroantigen peptide or a mismatched MHC class II moiety had no effect on stroke lesion size.
These data are the first to demonstrate successful treatment of experimental stroke using a neuroantigen specific immunomodulatory agent administered after ischemia, suggesting therapeutic potential in human stroke.
Stroke; autoreactive T cells; recombinant TCR ligands; immunotherapy
Androstenediol (androst-5-ene-3β,17β-diol; 5-AED), a natural adrenal steroid, has been shown to suppress experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in female SJL/J mice. We here report that 5-AED limits inflammation and proinflammatory cytokines including TNFα in murine models of carrageenan-induced pleurisy and lippopolysaccaride- (LPS) induced septic shock. 5-AED binds to and transactivates sex steroid receptors with the same general rank order of potency (ERβ > ERα ≫ AR). 5-AED provides benefit in EAE in a dose-dependent fashion, even when treatment is delayed until onset of disease. The minimally effective dose may be as low as 4 mg/kg in mice. However, benefit was not observed when 5-AED was given in soluble formulation, leading to a short half-life and rapid clearance. These observations suggest that treatment with 5-AED limits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in these animal models and, ultimately, when formulated and administered properly, may be beneficial for patients with multiple sclerosis and other Th1-driven autoimmune diseases.
Remission of multiple sclerosis during periods of high ovarian hormone secretion (such as pregnancy) has led to a great deal of interest in the potential for estrogens to treat autoimmune disease. Previous work has established that 17β-estradiol can inhibit onset of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), while ethinyl estradiol (EE) can reduce the severity of established disease. In the current study, the influence of estrogen receptor-α (ERα) and the G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPR30 or GPER) on EE's ability to treat EAE was explored.
EE reduced disease severity in wild-type and ERα knockout (ERKO) mice, but did not alter disease in the GPR30KO group. Production of anti-inflammatory IL-10 increased in EE-ERKO mice (which showed reduced disease) but not in EE-GPR30KO mice (who did not have improved disease).
Differential production of IL-10 following EE treatment in ERKO and GPR30KO animals may be responsible for the distinctly different effects on disease severity. Increased IL-10 in ERKO-EE compared to ERKO-Controls is likely to be an important factor in reducing established disease. The inability of EE to reduce disease in GPR30KO mice indicates an important but still undefined role for GPR30 in regulating immune reactivity.