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author:("Huan, jiannao")
1.  A novel regulatory pathway for autoimmune disease: Binding of partial MHC class II constructs to monocytes reduces CD74 expression and induces both specific and bystander T-cell tolerance 
Journal of autoimmunity  2012;40:96-110.
Treatment with partial (p)MHC class II-β1α1 constructs (also referred to as recombinant T-cell receptor ligands – RTL) linked to antigenic peptides can induce T-cell tolerance, inhibit recruitment of inflammatory cells and reverse autoimmune diseases. Here we demonstrate a novel regulatory pathway that involves RTL binding to CD11b+ mononuclear cells through a receptor comprised of MHC class II invariant chain (CD74), cell-surface histones and MHC class II itself for treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Binding of RTL constructs with CD74 involved a previously unrecognized MHC class II-α1/CD74 interaction that inhibited CD74 expression, blocked activity of its ligand, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, and reduced EAE severity. These findings implicate binding of RTL constructs to CD74 as a key step in both antigen-driven and bystander T-cell tolerance important in treatment of inflammatory diseases.
doi:10.1016/j.jaut.2012.08.004
PMCID: PMC3789252  PMID: 23026773
Partial MHC class II; CD74; EAE; MIF
2.  Effective Arrestin–Specific Immunotherapy of Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis with RTL: A Prospect for Treatment of Human Uveitis 
Purpose:
To evaluate the immunotherapeutic efficacy of recombinant T cell receptor ligands (RTLs) specific for arrestin immunity in treatment of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) in humanized leukocyte antigen (HLA-DR3) transgenic (Tg) mice.
Methods:
We generated de novo recombinant human DR3-derived RTLs bearing covalently tethered arrestin peptides 291–310 (RTL351) or 305–324 (RTL352). EAU was induced by immunization of HLA-DR3 mice with arrestin or arrestin peptide and treated with RTLs by subcutaneous delivery. T cell proliferation and cytokine expression was measured in RTL-treated and control mice.
Results:
RTL351 prevented the migration of cells outside of the spleen and the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the eye, and provided full protection against inflammation from EAU induced with arrestin or arrestin peptides. RTL351 significantly inhibited T cell proliferation and secretion of inflammatory cytokines interleukin 2 (IL-2), interferon γ (IFN-γ), IL-6, and IL-17 and chemokines (macrophage inflammatory proteins [MIP-1a] and regulated and normal T cell expressed and secreted [RANTES]), which is in agreement with the suppression of intraocular inflammation. RTL350 (“empty,” no peptide) and RTL352 were not effective.
Conclusions:
Immunotherapy with a single RTL351 successfully prevented and treated arrestin-induced EAU in HLA-DR3 mice and provided proof of concept for therapy of autoimmune uveitis in human patients. The beneficial effects of RTL351 should be attributed to a significant decrease in Th1/Th17 mediated inflammation.
Translational Relevance:
Successful therapies for autoimmune uveitis must specifically inhibit pathogenic inflammation without inducing generalized immunosuppression. RTLs can offer such an option. The single retina-specific RTLs may have a value as potential immunotherapeutic drug for human autoimmune uveitis because they effectively prevent disease induced by multiple T cell specificities.
doi:10.1167/tvst.2.2.1
PMCID: PMC3763891  PMID: 24049712
experimental autoimmune uveitis; immunotherapy; inflammation
3.  MHC Class II Derived Recombinant T Cell Receptor Ligands Protect DBA/1LacJ Mice from Collagen-Induced Arthritis1 
We previously demonstrated the therapeutic effects of MHC class II derived recombinant T cell receptor ligands (RTL), single-chain two domain complexes of the α1 and β1 domains of MHC class II molecules genetically linked with an immunodominant peptide, in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In the current study, we produced a monomeric murine I-Aq-derived RTL construct covalently linked with bovine collagen type II peptide (bCII257–270) suitable for use in DBA/1LacJ mice that develop collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), an animal model of human rheumatoid arthritis, after immunization with bCII protein in CFA. In this study, we demonstrate that the I-Aq-derived RTLs reduced the incidence of the disease, suppressed the clinical and histological signs of CIA and induced long-term modulation of T cells specific for arthritogenic Ags. Our results showed that the I-Aq/bCII257–270 molecule could systemically reduce proinflammatory IL-17 and IFN-γ production and significantly increase anti-inflammatory IL-10, IL-13, and FoxP3 gene expression in splenocytes. Moreover, I-Aq/bCII257–270 molecule could also selectively inhibit IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-23 expression in local joint tissue. This is the first report demonstrating effective prevention of joint inflammation and clinical signs of CIA with an I-Aq-derived RTL, thus supporting the possible clinical use of this approach for treating rheumatoid arthritis in humans.
PMCID: PMC3457790  PMID: 18178865
4.  Rationally designed mutations convert complexes of human recombinant T cell receptor ligands into monomers that retain biological activity 
Single-chain human recombinant T cell receptor ligands derived from the peptide binding/TCR recognition domain of human HLA-DR2b (DRA*0101/DRB1*1501) produced in Escherichia coli with and without amino-terminal extensions containing antigenic peptides have been described previously. While molecules with the native sequence retained biological activity, they formed higher order aggregates in solution. In this study, we used site-directed mutagenesis to modify the β-sheet platform of the DR2-derived RTLs, obtaining two variants that were monomeric in solution by replacing hydrophobic residues with polar (serine) or charged (aspartic acid) residues. Size exclusion chromatography and dynamic light scattering demonstrated that the modified RTLs were monomeric in solution, and structural characterization using circular dichroism demonstrated the highly ordered secondary structure of the RTLs. Peptide binding to the `empty' RTLs was quantified using biotinylated peptides, and functional studies showed that the modified RTLs containing covalently tethered peptides were able to inhibit antigen-specific T cell proliferation in vitro, as well as suppress experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in vivo. These studies demonstrated that RTLs encoding the Ag-binding/TCR recognition domain of MHC class II molecules are innately very robust structures, capable of retaining potent biological activity separate from the Ig-fold domains of the progenitor class II structure, with prevention of aggregation accomplished by modification of an exposed surface that was buried in the progenitor structure.
doi:10.1002/jctb.1086
PMCID: PMC3438139  PMID: 22973070
major histocompatibility complex; protein structure; drug design; autoimmunity
5.  GILT REQUIRED FOR RTL550-CYS-MOG TO TREAT EXPERIMENTAL AUTOIMMUNE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS 
Metabolic Brain Disease  2012;27(2):143-149.
MHC class II-derived recombinant T cell receptor ligands (RTLs) modulate the behavior of pathogenic T cells and can reverse clinical and histological signs of autoimmune disease in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), and are currently in clinical trials for treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). To expand the utility of these rationally-designed biologics and explore their mechanism(s) of activity in vivo, we have engineered RTL constructs bearing cysteine-tethered antigenic peptides and demonstrate that the appropriate cysteine-tethered RTLs effectively treat EAE. The data presented here suggests that the mechanism by which antigen-specific tolerance induction by RTLs bearing cysteine-tethered antigenic peptides in vivo involves delivery of RTL/antigen to endosomal compartments for processing and re-presentation by full-length MHC class II, with RTLs bearing cysteine-tethered antigenic peptides requiring gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol-reductase (GILT) for therapeutic activity.
doi:10.1007/s11011-012-9289-7
PMCID: PMC3348371  PMID: 22392628
EAE; GILT mice; RTL550-CYS-Mog; MHC Class II

Results 1-5 (5)