Search tips
Search criteria

Results 1-15 (15)

Clipboard (0)

Select a Filter Below

more »
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Psychometric Characteristics of the Persian (Farsi) Version of Attachment Style Questionnaire 
Background: Attachment relationship provides a secure base for the infants from which to explore the environment and a safe haven to return to in times of danger. Attachment style shapes the behavior of individuals in adulthood. There are many different measures of attachment and a lot of controversy about what they measure and how they relate to each other. Hence, we tried to evaluate the psychometric properties of one of such questionnaires on a sample of the Iranian population.
Methods: “Attachment style questionnaire” designed by Van Oudenhoven measures four dimensions: secure, preoccupied, fearful and dismissing. Psychometric properties of the questionnaire were evaluated in a cross sectional study on 730 adults in Isfahan, Iran. Statistical analysis of data was performed by the explanatory factor analysis with the principal component method, Cronbach’s alpha, Pearson correlation coefficients, and the multiple analysis of variance (MANCOVA).
Results: The Cronbach’s alpha for all items was 0.704. As a whole, the internal consistency was good. There was a high inter-scale correlation between preoccupied and fearful, also the secure style correlated negatively with fearful and preoccupied. The stability coefficient of the attachment scales were 0.625, 0.685, 0.777 and 0.605 for secure, fearful, preoccupied and dismissing styles respectively (P<0.001). Regarding construct validity, factor analysis showed that some items require iterations to fit the Iranian population.
Conclusion: This study showed that the Persian version of ASQ has a reasonable reliability and validity in general and the questionnaire is appropriate for use among the Iranian population in future studies.
PMCID: PMC4242984  PMID: 25429172
Iran; Questionnaire; Culture
2.  Effect of pomegranate flower extract on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats 
Journal of Nephropathology  2014;3(4):133-138.
Background: Chemotherapy with cisplatin (CP) is accompanied with nephrotoxicity.
Objectives: In the current study, pomegranate flower extract (PFE) has been evaluated as an antioxidant agent against CP-induced-renal toxicity.
Materials and Methods: Thirty two male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (6-8 in each group). The animals in groups 1 to 3 received PFE (25 mg/kg), PFE (50 mg/kg), and placebo (saline), respectively for 9 days, and onset of the day 3, they also received CP (2.5 mg/kg/day). Groups 4 and 5 were treated with PFE (25 and 50 mg/kg/day) for 9 days. Finally, the animals were sacrificed at day 9 after collecting blood samples. Kidneys were removed, weighted, and underwent histopathological investigation.
Results: The mean serum level of creatinine in group 3 (treated with CP and placebo) increased significantly (p<0.05), but the value decreased significantly (p<0.05) in group 1. Kidney weight in group 1 was lower than KW in groups 2 and 3, however it was significant when compared with group 2 (p<0.05). The serum nitrite level in group 2 was non-significantly lower than that in other groups, and no significant changes were observed in serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA). Tissue level of nitrite was significantly decreased in the positive control and high dose of PFE plus CP-treated groups (p<0.05). Among CP-treated groups, low dose of PFE significantly improved kidney nitrite level (p<0.05). The results from histopathological staining indicated less tissue damage in group 1 when compared with group 3.
Conclusions: It seems that low dose of PFE plays a protective role against CP-induced renal toxicity in rats.
PMCID: PMC4219615  PMID: 25374882
Pomegranate flower extract; Cisplatin; Nephrotoxicity
3.  The efficacy of Achilles millefolium topical gel along with intralesional injection of glucantime in the treatment of acute cutaneous leishmaniasis major 
Leishmaniasis is still one of the endemic parasitic infections in many countries comprising Iran. During the past decades, several medical and surgical approaches have been applied and studied to achieve the best option to treat the cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran and the world. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of topical Achilles millefolium in conjunction with intralesional glucantime on acute cutaneous leishmanial lesions.
Materials and Methods:
sixty patients with confirmed acute cutaneous leishmaniasis were recruited in the study. Patients were randomly allocated into two groups to receive twice daily topical gel of Achilles millefolium 5% (containing 5% poly phenol) (group A) or placebo (group B) for four weeks along with weekly injection of intralesional Glucantime.
There was no significant difference between the two groups according to age, gender, and duration of the disease. Also, there was no significant difference in complete and relative cure rates between the two groups (P = 0.35) using Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Application site reactions were occurred in 12 patients including redness in 8 cases in group-A and 2 cases in group-B, severe itching in one case in group-A and increasing wound secretion in another case in group-A (P = 0.014).
Given the result of the present study, there is no significant difference in cure rates of lesions between yarrow and placebo topical gels as an adjuvant drugs with intralesional glucantime in treatment of acute cutaneous leishmanial lesions.
PMCID: PMC4009745  PMID: 24804185
Cutaneous leishmaniasis; Achilles millefolium; glucantime
4.  Cytotoxicity of different extracts of arial parts of Ziziphus spina-christi on Hela and MDA-MB-468 tumor cells 
It has been shown that plants from the family Rhamnaceae possess anticancer activity. In this study, we sought to determine if Ziziphus spina-christi, a species from this family, has cytotoxic effect on cancer cell lines.
Materials and Methods:
Using maceration method, different extracts of leaves of Z. spina-christi were prepared. Hexane, chloroform, chloroform-methanol (9:1), methanol-water (7:1) methanol, butanol and water were used for extraction, after preliminary phytochemical analyses were done. The cytotoxic activity of the extracts against Hela and MDA-MB-468 tumor cells was evaluated by MTT assay. Briefly, cells were seeded in microplates and different concentrations of extracts were added. After incubation of cells for 72 h, their viability was evaluated by addition of tetrazolium salt solution. After 3 h medium was aspirated, dimethyl sulfoxide was added and absorbance was determined at 540 nm with an ELISA plate reader. Extracts were considered cytotoxic when more than 50% reduction on cell survival was observed.
Hexane, chloroform, chloroform-methanol, butanol, methanol-water and aqueous extracts of Z. spina-christi significantly and concentration-dependently reduced viability of Hela and MAD-MB-468 cells. In the both cell lines, chloroform-methanol extract of Z. spina-christi was more potent than the other extracts.
From the finding of this study it can be concluded that Z. spina-christi is a good candidate for further study for new cytotoxic agents.
PMCID: PMC3949327  PMID: 24627846
Cytotoxicity; Hela; MDA-MB-468; 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2; 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay; Ziziphus spina-christi
5.  Pistacia atlantica Resin Has a Dose-Dependent Effect on Angiogenesis and Skin Burn Wound Healing in Rat 
Objectives. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Pistacia atlantica resin extract on the rat skin burn wound healing. Methods. Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided into four groups and treated by vehicle, 5%, 10%, and 20% concentration of Pistacia atlantica resin extract for 14 days (G1, G2, G3, and G4, resp.). The efficacy of treatment was assessed based on reduction of burn wound size and histological and molecular characteristics. Results. α-Pinene (46.57%) was the main content of essential oil of resin. There were no statistically significant differences between groups according to wound size analysis. The mean histological wound healing scores were not statistically different. Capillary counts of G2 and G3 were significantly higher than those of the G1 (P = 0.042 and 0.032, resp.). NO concentration in wound fluids on the 5th day of study was not significantly different between groups (P = 0.468). But bFGF concentration in G2 and G3 and PDGF concentration in G3 were significantly higher in comparison to G1 (P = 0.043, 0.017, and 0.019, resp.). Conclusion. Our results revealed that Pistacia atlantica resin extract has a concentration-dependent effect on the healing of burn wounds after 14 days of treatment by increasing the concentration of bFGF and PDGF and also through improving the angiogenesis.
PMCID: PMC3826334  PMID: 24285978
6.  Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Pinus eldarica Bark Extract 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:639725.
Recently, development of reliable experimental protocols for synthesis of metal nanoparticles with desired morphologies and sizes has become a major focus of researchers. Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles using organisms has emerged as a nontoxic and ecofriendly method for synthesis of metal nanoparticles. The objectives of this study were production of silver nanoparticles using Pinus eldarica bark extract and optimization of the biosynthesis process. The effects of quantity of extract, substrate concentration, temperature, and pH on the formation of silver nanoparticles are studied. TEM images showed that biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (approximately in the range of 10–40 nm) were predominantly spherical in shape. The preparation of nano-structured silver particles using P. eldarica bark extract provides an environmentally friendly option, as compared to currently available chemical and/or physical methods.
PMCID: PMC3780616  PMID: 24083233
7.  The Psychometric Properties of the Persian Migraine-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire Version 2.1 in Episodic and Chronic Migraines 
The Scientific World Journal  2013;2013:950245.
Background. Migraine-specific quality of life (MSQ) is a valid and reliable questionnaire. Linguistic validation of Persian MSQ questionnaire, analysis of psychometric properties between chronic and episodic migraine patients, and capability of MSQ to differentiate between chronic and episodic migraines were the aims of this study. Method. Participants were selected from four different neurology clinics that were diagnosed as chronic or episodic migraine patients. Baseline data included information from MSQ v. 2.1, MIGSEV, SF-36, and symptoms questionnaire. At the third week from the baseline, participants filled out MSQ and MIGSEV. Internal consistency (Cronbach alpha) and test-retest reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficients) were used to assess reliability. Convergent and discriminant validities were also assessed. Results. A total of 106 participants were enrolled. Internal consistencies of MSQ among all patients, chronic and episodic migraines, were 0.92, 0.91, and 0.92, respectively. Test-retest correlation of MSQ dimensions between visits 1 and 2 varied from 0.41 to 0.50. Convergent, item discriminant, and discriminant validities were approved. In all visits MSQ scores were lower in chronic migraine than episodic migraine; however, the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion. Persian translation of MSQ is consistent with original version of MSQ in terms of psychometric properties in both chronic and episodic migraine patients.
PMCID: PMC3771439  PMID: 24068887
8.  The effects of unripe grape extract on systemic blood pressure, nitric oxide production, and response to angiotensin II administration 
Pharmacognosy Research  2013;5(2):60-64.
Hypertension is the most common disease in the world. In Iranian folk medicine, unripe grape juice has been used as antihypertention remedy, but no data is documented for this popular belief. This study was designed to determine the effect of unripe grape extract (UGE) on blood pressure and the response to angiotensin II in rat.
Materials and Methods:
Unripe grape was collected, air dried, and extracted and concentrated. Four groups of Wistar rats received single doses of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg of UGE or saline, respectively. The direct blood pressure and the serum nitrite level were measured one hour post UGE administration. The animals also were subjected to the infusion of various angiotensin II concentrations (100, 300, and 1000 μg/kg/min), and blood pressure was determined.
Mean arterial, systolic, and diastolic pressures (MAP, SP, and DP) in all UGE treated groups were less than the control group, but only at the dose of 125 mg/kg (Group 1) they were significantly different (P < 0.05). The level of nitrite in groups 1-3 were significantly greater than the control group (P < 0.05). No significant differences were detected for the MAP, SP, and DP to different concentrations of angiotensin II among these groups.
UGE potentially attenuate MAP, SP, and DP via vasodilatation induced by nitric oxide production.
PMCID: PMC3685765  PMID: 23798878
Angiotensin II; blood pressure; nitric oxide; unripe grape extract; VitisVinifera
9.  Physical activity, sex, and socioeconomic status: A population based study 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2013;9(1):51-60.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate physical activity by socioeconomic status (SES) and sex in an Iranian adult population.
In a cross-sectional study, 6622 adults, who participated in the Isfahan Healthy Heart program (IHHP) surveys in 2004 and 2005 and were living in urban areas, were studied. Daily leisure time, household, occupational, and transportation physical activity, and total physical activity were calculated and compared in 3 socioeconomic status groups classified by the two-step cluster analysis procedure.
Statistically significant variations were found in all physical activity levels, except transportation, by sex. Men were more active than women in all fields, except household physical activity. Leisure time physical activity of men and women were significantly higher in higher SES levels. There was an opposite correlation between SES and total physical activity in men.
Considering the importance of physical activity as a component of a healthy lifestyle, differences among varying socioeconomic status and sex must be considered while planning for healthy lifestyle programs. Women with low SES, in particular, may need more attention.
PMCID: PMC3653259  PMID: 23696760
Physical Activity; Socioeconomic Status; Leisure Time; Gender; Cluster Analysis
10.  Evaluation of DNA damage of hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extract of Echium amoenum and Nardostachys jatamansi 
Today most of herbal medicines are marketing without any standard safety profiles. Although common assumption is that these products are nontoxic but this assumption may be incorrect and dangerous, so toxicological studies should be done for herbal drugs. According to the frequent use of Echium amoenum as immunostimulant and useful in conditions including pain, cough, sore throat and arthritis, and Nardostachys jatamansi as tranquilizer and sleep inducer and evidences of some toxicities, we assessed the probable effect of their extracts on DNA of hepG2 cells using the comet assay.
Materials and Methods:
Different concentrations of above extracts of the plants are incubated with hepG2 cells for 24 h. A mixture of cell suspension and agarose gel were put on slides, then slides were embedded in a lysing solution and were put in electrophoresis buffer (pH = 13). Then the electrophoresis procedure took place in an alkaline solution and after neutralization stage, colorization was done by ethidium bromide and comets were observed using a fluorescence microscope. At least 100 cells of each sample were evaluated and three parameters including comet length, percent of DNA in tail, and tail moment were assessed.
Both Aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extract of E. amoenum were genotoxic in the concentrations of 25 mg/ml and aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extract of N. jatamansi were genotoxic in the concentrations 5 and 10 mg/ml, respectively.
Although E. amoenum and N. jatamansi are highly used in medicine, these herbs have genotoxic effects in determined concentrations and they should be used cautiously.
PMCID: PMC3687887  PMID: 23798947
Comet assay; DNA damage; Echium amoenum; Nardostachys jatamansi
11.  The effects of red clover on quality of life in post-menopausal women 
Due to symptoms and its complications, menopause influences the mental, psychological and physical health, social performance and familial relationships. Because of the undesirable side effects of hormone replacement therapy, tendency and desire toward alternative treatments in relieving menopausal symptoms have increased. Among the alternative therapies are herbs and among those, herbs with phytoestrogens are more preferable. Red clover is a rich source of phytoestrogens. The present study investigated the effect of red clover on quality of life in post-menopausal women.
Materials and Methods:
In a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 72 menopausal women who at least obtained 15 scores in Kupperman Menopausal Index, after two weeks of monitoring, were randomly allocated to receive either placebo or 45 mg of red clover isoflavones for eight weeks. Before the treatment and at the end of the study, menopause-specific quality of life questionnaire (MENQOL) was completed in the two groups.
A total of 55 women completed the study, 28 subjects in red clover and 27 in placebo group. Mean score of total quality of life (p < 0.001 in both groups), mean score of quality of life in vasomotor domain (p < 0.001 in both groups), psycho-social domain (p < 0.001 in red clover and p = 0.02 in placebo group) and physical domain (p < 0.001 red clover and p = 0.01 placebo group) significantly reduced compared to the baseline values. However, the differences between two groups were significant neither for total quality of life nor for its domains. Red clover had no side effects and all the subjects in the red clover group were satisfied with the prescribed administration
In the present study, the effect of red clover supplementation on menopausal women's quality of life showed no difference with the placebo. Further clinical trials are recommended.
PMCID: PMC3590693  PMID: 23493172
Menopause; phytoestrogens; quality of life; red clover; symptoms
12.  Stress Level and Smoking Status in Central Iran: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2011;6(4):144-148.
Individuals are faced with numerous stressful life events which can negatively influence mental health. Many individuals use smoking as a means of confronting stress. Given the relatively high prevalence of smoking in central Iran, the present study was conducted to compare stress levels in smokers, non-smokers and those who had quit smoking.
This study was conducted as part of Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Program on 9752 individuals in the cities of Isfahan, Arak, and Najafabad in 2008. Sampling was performed using multi-stage cluster randomization method. Data on age, sex, demographic characteristics, and smoking status was collected through interviews. Stress level detected by General Health questionnaire.Logistic regression and chi- squere test was used for data analyzing.
In the present study, 30% of non-smokers, 32.1% ex- smoker and 36.9% of smokers had GHQ of 4 and higher (P=0.01). In regression analysis, the final model which was controlled for age, sex, socioeconomic statues (including place of residence, marital status and education level) showed that the odds ratio of stress in smokers and ex- smoker was significantly higher than in non-smokers (OR=1.66 and OR=1.12, respectively).
Since in conducted studies, mental problems and stresses have had an important role in people's smoking, it seems suitable to use the results of this study to present intervention for correct methods of coping with stress towards reducing the prevalence of smoking in the community.
PMCID: PMC3347833  PMID: 22577433
Cigarette; Stress; Community-based Program.
13.  Effect of Hydroalcoholic and Buthanolic Extract of Cucumis sativus Seeds on Blood Glucose Level of Normal and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats 
Seed of Cucumis sativus Linn. is one of the herbal remedies has been traditionally used for diabetes mellitus treatment. We studied the effect of hydroalcoholic and buthanolic extract obtained from C. sativus seeds in a model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic (type I) rats.
Materials and Methods
Normal and diabetic male Wistar rats (STZ, 60 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) were treated daily with vehicle (5 ml/kg), hydroalcoholic (0.2, 0.4, 0.8 g/kg) and buthanolic extract (0.2, 0.4, 0.8 g/kg) and glibenclamide (1 & 3 mg/kg) separately and treatment was continued for 9 days. Blood samples were taken at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 8 hr of the first day and the day 9 (216 hr) of treatments for measuring the blood glucose levels.
Our findings indicated that C. sativus seeds extracts were not effective on reducing blood glucose levels (BGL) in normal and diabetic rats for initial phase of treatments. However, both hydroalcoholic (22.5-33.8 %) and buthanolic (26.6- 45.0 %) extracts were effective on diminishing BGL and controling the loss of body weight in diabetic rats compared to controls after 9 days of continued daily therapy. Glibenclamide on the other hand, had hypoglycemic action in normal (27.8-31.0 %) and diabetic rats (36.0-50.0 %) after acute and prolonged treatments.
It is concluded that C. sativus seeds extracts (hydroalcoholic and buthanolic) had a role in diabetes control probably through a mechanism similar to euglycemic agents. Further studies are warranted to clarify the mechanisms and the exact role of this herbal medicine in control of metabolic disorders.
PMCID: PMC3586845  PMID: 23493930
Animal model; Blood Glucose; Diabetes mellitus; Hypoglycemic agents; Plant extract
14.  The impact of obesity on hypertension and diabetes control following healthy Lifestyle Intervention Program in a developing country setting 
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of obesity and overweight on diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HTN) control in a healthy lifestyle intervention program in Iran.
Within the framework of the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP), a community trial that was conducted to prevent and control cardiovascular disease and its risk factors, two intervention counties (Isfahan and Najafabad) and one reference county (Arak) were selected. Demographic information, medical history, anti-diabetic and anti-hypertensive medications use were asked by trained interviewers in addition to physical examination and laboratory tests for 12514 adults aged more than 19 years in 2001 and were repeated for 9572 adults in 2007.
In women, the frequency of HTN control change significantly neither in normal weight nor in those with high body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) or waist to hip ratio (WHR). In men, the frequency of HTN control was only significant among those with high WHR, whereas the interaction between changes in intervention compared to reference area from 2001 to 2007 was significant in men with normal or high WC or WHR. In intervention area, the number of women with high BMI who controlled their DM increased significantly from 2001 to 2007 (p = 0.008), however, this figure decreased in men. In reference area, obesity indices had no significant association with DM control. The percentage of diabetic subjects with high WC who controlled their DM decreased non-significantly in intervention area compared to reference area in 2007. A non-significant increase in controlled DM among men and women with high WHR was observed between intervention and reference areas.
Our lifestyle interventions did not show any improving effect on HTN or DM control among obese subjects based on different obesity indices. Other lifestyle intervention strategies are suggested.
PMCID: PMC3252770  PMID: 22247721
Hypertension; Diabetes; Obesity; Control; Prevention; Iran
15.  Antihyperlipidemic Effect of Peucedanum Pastinacifolium Extract in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats 
Clinics  2010;65(6):629-633.
Dyslipidemia is one of the most common complications of diabetes mellitus, significantly contributing to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Peucedanum pastinacifolium Boiss. & Hausskn. is commonly used as an antihyperlipidemic vegetable in Iranian folk medicine.
In this study, we examined a hydroalcoholic extract of the aerial parts of Peucedanum pastinacifolium to determine its lipid-lowering activity in normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Experimental diabetes mellitus was induced by a single intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin. Normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were separated into four groups. The groups were fed with 0, 125, 250 or 500 mg/kg body weight of Peucedanum Pastinacifolium hydroalcoholic Extract (PPE) in aqueous solution for 30 days.
The results show that there were significant (P < 0.05) increases in total serum cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and a decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with PPE over a period of a month returned these levels close to control levels.
These results suggest that PPE has hypolipidemic effects in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
PMCID: PMC2898543  PMID: 20613940
P. pastinacifolium; Lipoproteins; Cholesterol; Hypercholesterolemia

Results 1-15 (15)