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1.  How does the impact of a community trial on cardio-metabolic risk factors differ in terms of gender and living area? Findings from the Isfahan healthy heart program 
Objective:
To assess the impact of gender and living area on cardiovascular risk factors in the context of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention program.
Design:
Data from independent sample surveys before (2000--2001) and after (2007) a community trial, entitled the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) were used to compare differences in the intervention area (IA) and reference area (RA) by gender and living area.
Setting:
The interventions targeted the population living in Isfahan and Najaf-Abad counties as IA and Arak as RA.
Participants:
Overall, 12 514 individuals who were more than 19 years of age were studied at baseline, and 9570 were studied in postintervention phase.
Interventions:
Multiple activities were conducted in connection with each of the four main strategies of healthy nutrition, increasing physical activity, tobacco control, and coping with stress.
Main Outcomes:
Comparing serum lipids levels, blood pressure, blood glucose and obesity indices changes between IA and RA based on sex and living areas during the study.
Results:
In IA, while the prevalence of hypertension declined in urban and rural females (P < 0.05). In IA, the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia decreased in both females and males of urban and rural areas except for hypercholesterolemia in rural males (P < 0.01). In RA, the significant changes include both decrease in the hypercholesterolemia among rural males (P < 0.001) and hypertriglyceridemia in urban females (P < 0.01), while hypertriglyceridemia was significantly increased in rural females (P < 0.01).
Conclusions:
This comprehensive community trial was effective in controlling many risk factors in both sexes in urban and rural areas. These findings also reflect the transitional status of rural population in adopting urban lifestyle behaviors.
PMCID: PMC3687879  PMID: 23798939
Age; cardiovascular risk factor; community health program; health promotion; rural; sex; urban
2.  Smoking cessation support in Iran: Availability, sources & predictors 
Background & objectives:
Smoking cessation advice is known as an important factor in motivating smokers to quit smoking. We investigated the extent, sources and predictors of receiving unsolicited advice and seeking active advice for smoking cessation in Iran.
Methods:
A cross-sectional study was performed as a part of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) on 9093 adult individuals (both men and women) in 2004-2005. Demographic characteristics, smoking status, sources and preferences for smoking cessation support were recorded.
Results:
In the studied population, 66.8 and 14.4 per cent had received and asked for cessation support, respectively. Smokers had received advice from family (92.2%), friends (48.9%), physician (27.9%) and other health care providers (16.2%). Smokers had asked for cessation help more frequently from family (64.5%) and friends (42.0%). Women (OR: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.37-0.94) and singles (OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.36-0.71) received less advice. Hookah smokers received (OR: 0.23; 95% CI: 0.14-0.38) and asked (OR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.06-0.68) for cessation help less than cigarette smokers. Receiving advice increased the odds of seeking support (OR: 7.98; 95% CI: 4.37-14.57).
Interpretation & conclusions:
Smokers’ family and friends were more frequent sources for smoking cessation support. Tobacco control programmes can count on smokers’ family and friends as available sources for smoking cessation support in countries where smoking cessation counselling services are less available. However, the role of physicians and health care workers in the smoking cessation counselling needs to be strengthened.
PMCID: PMC3135990  PMID: 21727661
Cigarettes; hookah; Iran; smoking; smoking cessation
3.  Short-term results of community-based interventions for improving physical activity: Isfahan Healthy Heart Programme 
Introduction
To assess the effect of a comprehensive community-based programme for increasing physical activity (PA) after 2 years of interventions.
Material and methods
A 6-year, action-oriented, comprehensive, and integrated community-based study, entitled the Isfahan Healthy Heart Programme, was conducted in Iran from the year 2000. The interventions targeted the whole population of nearly 2,180,000 living in two cities, and were compared with another city considered as a reference. Educational, environmental and legislative interventions were conducted at the community level. Annual evaluations were performed among 6,000 representative individuals. This paper presents the changes in PA habits after 2 years of interventions for increasing PA. The PA habits were assessed by using the Baecke questionnaire, and an energy expenditure of 150 kcal for daily leisure time physical activity was adopted as a cut-off for defining active and inactive lifestyle.
Results
In the intervention and reference areas, respectively 85 and 83% of the population were physically inactive. From 2000 to 2002, the daily PA among both genders decreased in both intervention and reference communities. Meanwhile, the leisure-time PA increased significantly in the intervention area, but decreased in the reference area. The transportation PA did not significantly change in the intervention area, but showed a remarkable decline in the reference area.
Conclusions
We suggest that the synergism resulting from community collaborations has been effective in improving some aspects of PA in our community. The ongoing changes in environmental factors and policies can help in increasing the worksite and transportation PA in later stages of this community-based programme.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2010.13504
PMCID: PMC3278940  PMID: 22371717
lifestyle; physical activity; community-based intervention; prevention; non-communicable diseases

Results 1-3 (3)