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1.  Factors affecting quality of life in postmenopausal women, Isfahan, 2011 
Various studies have shown that quality of life in women after menopause undergoes radical changes. Several factors such as psycho-social factors are associated with the quality of life during menopausal period.
The present study surveyed the factors associated with quality of life of postmenopausal women in Isfahan, based on Behavioral Analysis Phase of PRECEDE model.
Settings and Design:
This cross-sectional study was conducted through stratified random sampling among 200 healthy postmenopausal women in Isfahan in 2011.
Subjects and Methods:
Data were collected by two valid and reliable questionnaires (one to assess the quality of life and the other to survey the factors associated with the Behavioral Analysis Phase of PRECEDE model). Data analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 18) and analytical and descriptive statistics.
Pearson correlation indicated a positive and significant correlation between the quality of life and attitude toward menopause, perceived self-efficacy, and enabling and reinforcing factors, but there was no significant relationship between the quality of life and knowledge about menopause. Also, the quality of life in postmenopausal women had significant correlation with their age, education level, marital status, and employment status.
Based on the present study, attitude, perceived self-efficacy, perceived social support, and enabling factors are associated with the quality of life in postmenopausal women. So, attention to these issues is essential for better health planning of women.
PMCID: PMC3908491  PMID: 24520556
Behavioral analysis; menopause; PRECEDE model; quality of life
2.  The mental health and substance abuse among youths aged 18 to 29: A comparative study 
Drug abuse, as a social phenomenon, is one of the health problems of the present era. Inclination to drug abuse like other social phenomena is complex and multi-causal. Emphasizing on the psychological factors, the present study attempts to compare the amount of depression, anxiety and stress between drug abusers and the comparison group.
Material and Methods:
The research method is descriptive-analytic and its design is comparative. The population includes the youths of ages of 18-29 (with and without drug abuse behavior). The sampling is random and the sample size in drug abuser group is 183 and in the comparison group, it is 207 persons. The data collection instrument is questionnaire of personal information containing 6 questions and the standard questionnaire is DASS-21. The data were analyzed through SPSS-18 and statistic tests independent T, chi square, Mann-Whitney, and logistic regression analysis.
The average age of the drug abusers is 25.9 ± 2.96 years and the comparison group is 24.2 ± 3.36. The most amount of methamphetamine is 75.9%. A significant correlation was observed between the education level and drug abuse behavior (P < 0.001). The score of the stress, anxiety and stress in drug abusers is more than the comparison group and this relationship was significant (P < 0.001). Based on the logistic regression analysis results, anxiety has the highest correlation with drug abuse behavior.
The low level of education is an effective factor in drug abuse. According to the strong correlation between psychological factors and drug abuse behavior, it is necessary to suggest social plans of prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
PMCID: PMC3778556  PMID: 24083284
Drug abuse behavior; mental disorders; youths
3.  An investigation on occupational stress of the operating room staffs in hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and its association with some factors 
Stress is a nonspecific reaction to everything the body needs. Although occupational stress exists in every occupation, it is seen with more frequency and intensity amongst those occupations related to human health. In this study, we aimed to investigate the level of occupational stress in operating room staffs working in the hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and its association with some factors.
Materials and Methods:
This is a descriptive co-relational study conducted in summer 2010. The population studied comprised 100 OP staffs working in hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. The data were collected by a questionnaire including two sections of personal information and Toft-Anderson Standard occupational stress inventory. The first section contained 13 questions and the second included 34 questions on stressful factors, measured through Likert's scale in which the scores of 0-33 indicated mild stress, 34-66 indicated moderate stress, and 67-100 indicated acute stress. The data were analyzed through SPSS. The statistical tests of Pearson correlation, variance analysis, and independent t-test were employed to analyze the data (P < 0 0.05 was considered significant).
Based on the findings, mean score of staffs’ stress (out of 100) was 32.3 (12.9) and was in the range of 1-65. The highest frequencies were for mild stress (57.4%) and moderate stress (42.6). In addition, mean score of stress was not the same in different domains. There was a significant inverse association between the score of stress and monthly working hours (r = -0.21, P = 0.049). Mean score of stress was 28.1 (12.3) among those with average income and 33.8 (12.8) for the low-income subjects, showing a significant difference (P = 0.048).
Discussion and Conclusion:
The present study showed that most of the subjects suffer from mild stress. Since the highest level of stress was for work overload, it is suggested to reduce the staffs’ work overload by employing capable and knowledgeable work force and enhancing their scientific and practical abilities.
PMCID: PMC3748563  PMID: 23983737
Iran; operating rooms; stress
4.  Breastfeeding status during the first two years of infants’ life and its risk factors based on BASNEF model structures in Isfahan 
Breastfeeding depends on social and cultural conditions of societies. Behavior,Attitude, Subjective Norms, Enabling Factors (BASNEF) model is one of the comprehensive models of behavior study, especially in developing countries. This study was performed to investigate the status of breastfeeding during the first two years of infants’ life and its risk factors through BASNEF model structures.
Materials and Methods:
In this cross-sectional descriptive-analytical study, 406 mothers with 6-24-month-old babies were selected by multistage cluster sampling method. The data were collected using a questionnaire with five sections based on the BASNEF model structures. Demographic characteristics of the studied population were also recorded and analyzed using Chi-square tests and analysis of variance in SPSS18 statistical software.
The prevalence of breastfeeding was 86.4% (351 mothers). Three hundred and thirty three mothers (82%) had good knowledge and there was a significant relationship between knowledge and breastfeeding behavior of mothers (P < 0.05). Two hundred and eighty five mothers (70.2%) had good and very good attitude in this regard. There was no significant relationship between attitude and breastfeeding behavior of mothers (P > 0.05). There was a significant relationship between breastfeeding behavior of mothers and subjective norms of husbands, mother and mother-in-law (P < 0.05); however, no significant relationship was found with regard to enabling factors (P > 0.05). Moreover, no significant relationship was observed between type of children nutrition and variables of delivery mode, maternal age and number of children (P > 0.05).
In addition to knowledge of nursing mothers, supports and encouragement of husbands, mothers and mother-in-laws, as subjective norms of behavior, have a positive impact on the breastfeeding behavior of mothers. Thus, breastfeeding programs should pay more attention to the role of these mentioned factors.
PMCID: PMC3778647  PMID: 24083259
BASNEF model; breastfeeding; enabling factors; infant; subjective norms
5.  Relationship between junk foods intake and weight in 6-7 years old children, Shahin Shahr and Meymeh, Iran 
Healthy nutrition is very important considering the weight status especially in children. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between junk foods intake and weight in 6-7-years old children.
Materials and Methods:
This cross-sectional study was carried out in Shahin Shahr and Meymeh, Iran, in 2009. Anthropometrics measures were done and 24-hour food recall used for dietary information and analyzed with food processor 2 and then compared with dietary reference intakes 2008 (DRI).
61.1 percent of the subjects were residing in dormitories and 12.7 percent were marred. Prevalence of overweight or obesity and abdominal obesity was 6.9 percent and 46.1 percent respectively. Mean (±SD) systolic blood pressure was 105.2 ± 15.6 mm/Hg and diastolic was 62.2 ± 10.4 mm/Hg. Totally, 3.9 percent of the subjects had hypertension. The analysis of food intake indicate that (B12, folate, magnesium, potassium, calcium) with level below the recommended ones, and (vitamin C, E, pantothenic acid, B1, B3, phosphate, zinc) with up levels the recommended ones, and energy intake, macronutrient, vitamin A, pyridoxine, iron, selenium were in general appropriate.
These results indicated appropriate level of macronutrients intake and unbalance mainly existed in micronutrients. It is recommended to increase intake important food groups such as dairy, vegetable, fruit that include good source of micronutrients, and also it is suggested that need for strategies can improve competence in the area of nutrition.
PMCID: PMC3778561  PMID: 24083252
Children; junk foods; weight
6.  A Study on Work Ability Index and Physical Work Capacity on the Base of Fax Equation VO2 Max in Male Nursing Hospital Staff in Isfahan, Iran 
The purpose of this research is to establish the ability of employees by work ability index (WAI), physical work capacity (PWC), and finding the correlation between them. Establishing the PWC index with attention to WAI values for the purpose of saving in costs and time of PWC measurements is another aim of this project.
The present research is an analytic cross-sectional and one-trail study. The study population consists of 228 randomly selected registered nurses from hospitals in Isfahan (Iran). The WAI and PWC were established through WAI questionnaire and Fax equation and by using ergometer bicycle, respectively. The resulting data were analyzed using SPSS 16 software.
Average WAI and PWC among the study population were 38.25±4.4 and 4.45±0.7, respectively. Pearson test results showed no significant correlation between PWC and WAI in different age groups (r=0.3 and P>0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the variables of age and diagnosed diseases were the most effective factors of WAI (β=0.18 and P>0.05). Pearson test revealed a significant correlation between the number of diagnosed diseases and PWC index in age groups of 40-49 years.
Average WAI in this research, like other studies on similar jobs is in the acceptable level of >36. Work ability index and PWC index in different age groups did not show a significant correlation and this suggests that there are essential discrepancies in work ability evaluations made by each index and it is not possible to predict PWC index using WAI values. Given the PWC results and the level of nursing staff's activity (low, medium) the WAI is a suitable instrument to establish the professionals’ abilities. This study revealed that 27.6% of individuals were subject to medium-low work ability risk (WAI<37), which was 1.8 times that of Finland's professional health Institute, which could be caused by shift working and increased working hours.
PMCID: PMC3506089  PMID: 23189229
Fax equation; hospital nurses; physical work capacity; work ability index
7.  The survey of nurse's knowledge and attitude toward cancer pain management: Application of Health Belief Model 
Effective cancer pain management requires accurate knowledge, attitudes, and assessment skills. The purpose of this study was to obtain information about the knowledge and attitudes of nurses concerning cancer pain management with the use Health Belief Model (HBM) as conceptual framework.
Materials and Methods:
The study was a descriptive survey and included 98 randomly selected nurses from Alzahra hospital, Isfahan, Iran. A self-administered questionnaire which was designed on the basis of HBM was used to collect the data. Knowledge, attitudes, and HBM constructs regarding cancer pain were the main research variables. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS (version11.5) using descriptive statistics, independent t–test, and Pearson correlation at the significant level of α=0.05.
Ninety-eight nurses aged 38.7 ± 7.04 years were studied in this survey. From the 10 pain knowledge questions assessed, the mean number of correctly answered question was 61.2 (SD=16.5), with a range of 30–100. There was a direct correlation between knowledge and attitude of nurses with HBM constructs except for perceived barriers and perceived threat. Among the HBM constructs, the highest score was related to self-efficacy with mean score of 87.2 (SD=16.4).
The findings support the concern of inadequate knowledge and attitudes in relation to cancer pain management. We believe that basic and continuing education programs may improve the knowledge level of nursing about pain management.
PMCID: PMC3577415  PMID: 23555118
Attitude; cancer; Health Belief Model; knowledge; nurse; pain management
8.  An investigation on the effect of gastric cancer education based on Health Belief Model on knowledge, attitude and nutritional practice of housewives 
Planning the educational programs and informing people regarding the prevention of widespread diseases like cancers is necessary. With regard to high mortality rate of gastric cancer, the present study was conducted to define the effect of education based on Health Belief Model on knowledge, attitude and nutritional practice of homemakers.
Materials and Methods:
In this interventional study, 84 housewives were randomly divided into two groups. The study group underwent seven sessions of education based on Health Belief Model. Control group did not receive the education. Both groups filled valid and reliable questionnaires before and 2 months after program.
There was no significant difference between the two groups in demographic characteristics. While mean scores of knowledge, attitude and practice were not significantly different before education, the intervention group showed significantly higher scores after education (p < 0.001).
Health education based on Health Belief Model increases the knowledge and improves the attitudes and practices of housewives regarding prevention of the gastric cancer. It seems essential to development this sort of educational programs.
PMCID: PMC3702143  PMID: 23833623
Feeding behaviours; health behaviours; health education; gastric cancer; Iran
9.  The effects of an educational program based on PRECEDE model on depression levels in patients with coronary artery bypass grafting 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2012;8(1):36-42.
Depression is among the most important barriers to proper treatment ofcardiac patients. It causes failure in accepting their conditions, decreases their motivation infollowing the therapeutic recommendations, and thus negatively affects their functionality andquality of life. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of an educational programbased on Predisposing, Reinforcing, Enabling Constructs in Educational Diagnosis andEvaluation (PRECEDE) model on depression level in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)surgery patients.
This was a quasi-experimental study in which 54 post-bypass surgery patients ofIsfahan Cardiovascular Research Center were investigated. The patients were randomly dividedinto two groups of intervention and control. The data was collected using two questionnaires.Primarily, the cardiac depression scale was used to measure the degree of depression followedby PRECEDE model-based educational questionnaire to identify the role of the educationalintervention on patients. The PRECEDE model-based intervention composed of 9 educationalsessions per week (60-90 minutes each). The patients were followed up for two months postintervention.
Following the educational intervention, mean scores of predisposing, enabling,and reinforcing factors, and self-helping behaviors significantly increased in the interventiongroup compared to the control group (P < 0.001). In addition, a significant difference in meanscores of depression was observed between the two groups following the educationalintervention (P < 0.001).
The findings of the current study confirmed the practicability and effectivenessof the PRECEDE model-based educational programs on preventing or decreasing depressionlevels in CABG patients.
PMCID: PMC3448400  PMID: 23056099
Educational Program; PRECEDE Model; Depression; Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery.
10.  The Role of Maternal Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor Blocking Antibodies in the Etiology of Congenital Hypothyroidism in Isfahan, Iran 
Considering the role of maternal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor blocking antibody (TRAb) in the etiology of congenital hypothyroidism (CH), this study aimed to determine TRAb among patients with CH in Isfahan, Iran.
In this case–control study, patients with CH and their mothers were compared with a group of healthy neonates and their mothers. Venous blood samples were obtained for measurement of TRAb using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method among mothers and their neonates. TSH of mothers was also determined.
The case group consisted of 65 patients with CH and their mothers; controls were 148 healthy neonates and their mothers. The prevalence of positive TRAb in patients with CH and their mothers was higher than in the control group (81.5% vs. 1.3% in mothers and 80% vs. 0% in neonates, respectively, P<0.05). The relationship between the TRAb and occurrence of CH was significant (P<0.05), whereas the corresponding figure was not significant for TRAb and the level of maternal and neonatal TSH in case and control groups (P>0.05).
It seems that autoimmunity has an important role in the etiology of CH. Further studies are necessary to determine other autoantibodies in CH patients.
PMCID: PMC3278878  PMID: 22347610
Congenital hypothyroidism; etiology; thyroid stimulating hormone receptor blocking; autoimmunity
11.  The relationship of hemoglobin and hematocrit in the first and second half of pregnancy with pregnancy outcome 
Considering the relationship of low and high levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit with some pregnancy complications, we decided to study their relationship with pregnancy outcome. This study also aimed to investigate the changes in hemoglobin and hematocrit values during the second and first half of pregnancy and its relationship with pregnancy outcome.
Materials and Methods:
In a prospective cohort study, 520 Iranian pregnant women, aged 15 to 45 years that were supported by health centers in Isfahan, Iran, were recruited using quota sampling method. Exclusion criteria comprised of 36 conditions that were related to the maternal and infant outcomes. Hemoglobin and hematocrit were measured in eligible mothers during the 6th-11th weeks and 26th-30th weeks of pregnancy. They were monitored until delivery and the data regarding their pregnancy outcome were collected.
Low levels of hemoglobin during the first half of pregnancy was associated with preeclampsia (p = 0.024). Moreover, low levels of hemoglobin during the second half of pregnancy was associated with the risk of preterm premature rupture of membranes (p = 0.01). In addition, mothers with lower blood dilution, as a physiological process during pregnancy, were more prone to preeclampsia (p = 0.04).
Hemoglobin levels in the first and second half of pregnancy can predict preeclampsia and premature preterm rupture of membranes. Increased hematocrit levels in the second half of pregnancy or lack of reduction of hematocrit levels in the second half compared to the first half can estimate preeclampsia.
PMCID: PMC3696966  PMID: 23833600
Hemoglobin; hematocrit; pregnancy outcome
12.  Impact of health belief modification on intention to make smoke free home among pregnant women 
This study examined the effects of health education on modification of health belief and intention among pregnant women to have smoke free home.
In this randomized controlled study, 91 pregnant women completed the study in two groups. Intervention group was educated about the harms of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure. The Health Belief Model (HBM) was a framework for analyzing the beliefs. After 10-12 weeks, the HBM constructs and weekly ETS exposure at home were compared between the two groups.
After performing educational program, the subjects in intervention group perceived more susceptibility and severity and reported lower weekly ETS exposure at home than subjects in control group; but, the self efficacy and perceived barrier were not different. The relationships between HBM constructs and weekly ETS exposure were significant; but, there was no significant difference in point prevalence of having smoke free home.
This study indicated that the health education about ETS exposure can modify health belief and reduce EST exposure among pregnant women, but cannot affect the self efficacy and perceived barrier. To have smoke free home, they need to increase their self efficacy.
PMCID: PMC3214389  PMID: 22091300
Health belief model; environmental tobacco smoke exposure; pregnant women
13.  The relationship between learning organization and organizational commitment among nursing managers in educational hospitals of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2008-9 
Old methods of administrating can’t cover the rapid changes of today. These changes redounded new organizations like learning organizations to be formed. The purpose of this research was to study the relationship between learning organization and organizational commitment among nursing managers.
This was a descriptive analytic survey. The population of study included 90 nursing managers of 9 educational hospitals. Data gathering was done via learning organizational (LO) and organizational commitment (OC) questionnaires. Data analysis was done using SPSS software.
The mean score of LO was 56.9 ± 18.1 among nursing mangers, and the mean score of OC was 62.3 ± 10.1. In general, there was a significant relationship between LO and OC and there was a significant relationship between LO and job experience based on ANOVA test.
In today’s changing environment of very rapid changes which have been seen in different areas of science and technology and the increasing complexity and dynamics of environmental factors, only organizations with active adaptation (dynamic equilibrium) can survive and remain capable of growth. This aim can be fulfilled just in learning organizations.
PMCID: PMC3093178  PMID: 21589785
Learning organizations; personnel management; administration; nurses
14.  Effect of aquatic exercise on the multiple sclerosis patients’ quality of life 
The appearance of a new innovation in medical science named aquatic exercise has faded the effects of other preventive exercises in patients with multiple sclerosis to a large extent. Since exercise is one of the beneficial factors in enhancement of quality of life, researchers decided to investigate the role of aquatic exercise on the patients’ quality of life.
This study is a semi experimental research that was performed on 22 patients chosen by simple random sampling. The standard SF-36 questionnaire was used and data was gathered by interview before and after aquatic exercise. Data was analyzed by paired t test via SPSS software version 10.
The mean age of participants was 32.86 years. 68.2% of participants were married and 45.5% of them were high school graduates. The paired t test showed the significant differences between different aspects of quality of life before and after aquatic exercise.
The findings of this research revealed that aquatic exercise has enhanced the aspects of multiple sclerosis patients’ quality of life; therefore the program of this exercise is suggested to be used for the patients with multiple sclerosis along with other methods of treatment for improvement in quality of their lives.
PMCID: PMC3093029  PMID: 21589749
Multiple sclerosis; exercise; quality of life

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