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2.  Fully Integrated Artificial Pancreas in Type 1 Diabetes 
Diabetes  2012;61(9):2230-2237.
Integrated closed-loop control (CLC), combining continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) with insulin pump (continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion [CSII]), known as artificial pancreas, can help optimize glycemic control in diabetes. We present a fundamental modular concept for CLC design, illustrated by clinical studies involving 11 adolescents and 27 adults at the Universities of Virginia, Padova, and Montpellier. We tested two modular CLC constructs: standard control to range (sCTR), designed to augment pump plus CGM by preventing extreme glucose excursions; and enhanced control to range (eCTR), designed to truly optimize control within near normoglycemia of 3.9–10 mmol/L. The CLC system was fully integrated using automated data transfer CGM→algorithm→CSII. All studies used randomized crossover design comparing CSII versus CLC during identical 22-h hospitalizations including meals, overnight rest, and 30-min exercise. sCTR increased significantly the time in near normoglycemia from 61 to 74%, simultaneously reducing hypoglycemia 2.7-fold. eCTR improved mean blood glucose from 7.73 to 6.68 mmol/L without increasing hypoglycemia, achieved 97% in near normoglycemia and 77% in tight glycemic control, and reduced variability overnight. In conclusion, sCTR and eCTR represent sequential steps toward automated CLC, preventing extremes (sCTR) and further optimizing control (eCTR). This approach inspires compelling new concepts: modular assembly, sequential deployment, testing, and clinical acceptance of custom-built CLC systems tailored to individual patient needs.
doi:10.2337/db11-1445
PMCID: PMC3425406  PMID: 22688340
3.  Assessment of Patient-Led or Physician-Driven Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Patients With Poorly Controlled Type 1 Diabetes Using Basal-Bolus Insulin Regimens 
Diabetes Care  2012;35(5):965-971.
OBJECTIVE
The benefits of real-time continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) have been demonstrated in patients with type 1 diabetes. Our aim was to compare the effect of two modes of use of CGM, patient led or physician driven, for 1 year in subjects with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Patients with type 1 diabetes aged 8–60 years with HbA1c ≥8% were randomly assigned to three groups (1:1:1). Outcomes for glucose control were assessed at 1 year for two modes of CGM (group 1: patient led; group 2: physician driven) versus conventional self-monitoring of blood glucose (group 3: control).
RESULTS
A total of 257 subjects with type 1 diabetes underwent screening. Of these, 197 were randomized, with 178 patients completing the study (age: 36 ± 14 years; HbA1c: 8.9 ± 0.9%). HbA1c improved similarly in both CGM groups and was reduced compared with the control group (group 1 vs. group 3: −0.52%, P = 0.0006; group 2 vs. group 3: −0.47%, P = 0.0008; groups 1 + 2 vs. group 3: −0.50%, P < 0.0001). The incidence of hypoglycemia was similar in the three groups. Patient SF-36 questionnaire physical health score improved in both experimental CGM groups (P = 0.004). Sensor consumption was 34% lower in group 2 than in group 1 (median [Q1–Q3] consumption: group 1: 3.42/month [2.20–3.91] vs. group 2: 2.25/month [1.27–2.99], P = 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS
Both patient-led and physician-driven CGM provide similar long-term improvement in glucose control in patients with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes, but the physician-driven CGM mode used fewer sensors.
doi:10.2337/dc11-2021
PMCID: PMC3329830  PMID: 22456864
4.  Clinical Requirements for Closed-Loop Control Systems 
Closed-loop (CL) therapy systems should be safe, efficacious, and easily manageable for type 1 diabetes mellitus patient use. For the first two clinical requirements, noninferiority and superiority criteria must be determined based on current conventional and intensive therapy outcomes. Current frequencies of hypoglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis are reviewed and safety expectations for CL therapy systems are proposed. Glycosylated hemoglobin levels lower than current American Diabetes Association recommendations for different age groups are proposed as superiority criteria. Measures of glycemic variability are described and the recording of blood glucose levels as percentages within, above, and below a target range are suggested as reasonable alternatives to sophisticated statistical analyses. It is also suggested that Diabetes Quality of Life and Fear of Hypoglycemia surveys should be used to track psychobehavioral outcomes.
Manageability requirements for safe and effective clinical management of CL systems are worth being underscored. The weakest part of the infusion system remains the catheter, which is exposed to variable and under-delivery incidents. Detection methods are needed to warn both the system and the patient about altered insulin delivery, including internal pressure and flow alarms. Glucose monitor sensor accuracy is another requirement; it includes the definition of conditions that lead to capillary glucose measurement, eventually followed by sensor recalibration or replacement. The crucial clinical requirement will be a thorough definition of the situations when the patient needs to move from CL to manual management of insulin delivery, or inversely can switch back to CL after a requested interruption. Instructions about these actions will constitute a major part of the education process of the patients before using CL systems and contribute to the manageability of these systems.
PMCID: PMC3380791  PMID: 22538159
closed-loop control; diabetic ketoacidosis; diabetes quality of life; efficacy; fear of hypoglycemia; glucose monitoring; glycemic variability; glycosylated hemoglobin; hypoglycemia; insulin delivery; management of insulin infusion; noninferiority; safety; superiority
5.  Artificial Pancreas: Past, Present, Future 
Diabetes  2011;60(11):2672-2682.
doi:10.2337/db11-0654
PMCID: PMC3198099  PMID: 22025773
6.  Multinational Study of Subcutaneous Model-Predictive Closed-Loop Control in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Summary of the Results 
Background
In 2008–2009, the first multinational study was completed comparing closed-loop control (artificial pancreas) to state-of-the-art open-loop therapy in adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).
Methods
The design of the control algorithm was done entirely in silico, i.e., using computer simulation experiments with N = 300 synthetic “subjects” with T1DM instead of traditional animal trials. The clinical experiments recruited 20 adults with T1DM at the Universities of Virginia (11); Padova, Italy (6); and Montpellier, France (3). Open-loop and closed-loop admission was scheduled 3–4 weeks apart, continued for 22 h (14.5 h of which were in closed loop), and used a continuous glucose monitor and an insulin pump. The only difference between the two sessions was that insulin dosing was performed by the patient under a physician’s supervision during open loop, whereas insulin dosing was performed by a control algorithm during closed loop.
Results
In silico design resulted in rapid (less than 6 months compared to years of animal trials) and cost-effective system development, testing, and regulatory approvals in the United States, Italy, and France. In the clinic, compared to open-loop, closed-loop control reduced nocturnal hypoglycemia (blood glucose below 3.9 mmol/liter) from 23 to 5 episodes (p < .01) and increased the amount of time spent overnight within the target range (3.9 to 7.8 mmol/liter) from 64% to 78% (p = .03).
Conclusions
In silico experiments can be used as viable alternatives to animal trials for the preclinical testing of insulin treatment strategies. Compared to open-loop treatment under identical conditions, closed-loop control improves the overnight regulation of diabetes.
PMCID: PMC3005047  PMID: 21129332
closed-loop control; continuous glucose monitoring; type 1 diabetes mellitus
7.  Closed-Loop Insulin Delivery Using a Subcutaneous Glucose Sensor and Intraperitoneal Insulin Delivery 
Diabetes Care  2009;33(1):121-127.
OBJECTIVE
Attempts to build an artificial pancreas by using subcutaneous insulin delivery from a portable pump guided by an subcutaneous glucose sensor have encountered delays and variability of insulin absorption. We tested closed-loop intraperitoneal insulin infusion from an implanted pump driven by an subcutaneous glucose sensor via a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) algorithm.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Two-day closed-loop therapy (except for a 15-min premeal manual bolus) was compared with a 1-day control phase with intraperitoneal open-loop insulin delivery, according to randomized order, in a hospital setting in eight type 1 diabetic patients treated by implanted pumps. The percentage of time spent with blood glucose in the 4.4–6.6 mmol/l range was the primary end point.
RESULTS
During the closed-loop phases, the mean ± SEM percentage of time spent with blood glucose in the 4.4–6.6 mmol/l range was significantly higher (39.1 ± 4.5 vs. 27.7 ± 6.2%, P = 0.05), and overall dispersion of blood glucose values was reduced among patients. Better closed-loop glucose control came from the time periods excluding the two early postprandial hours with a higher percentage of time in the 4.4–6.6 mmol/l range (46.3 ± 5.3 vs. 28.6 ± 7.4, P = 0.025) and lower mean blood glucose levels (6.9 ± 0.3 vs. 7.9 ± 0.6 mmol/l, P = 0.036). Time spent with blood glucose <3.3 mmol/l was low and similar for both investigational phases.
CONCLUSIONS
Our results demonstrate the feasibility of intraperitoneal insulin delivery for an artificial β-cell and support the need for further study. Moreover, according to a semiautomated mode, the features of the premeal bolus in terms of timing and amount warrant further research.
doi:10.2337/dc09-1080
PMCID: PMC2797956  PMID: 19846796
8.  Incremental Value of Continuous Glucose Monitoring When Starting Pump Therapy in Patients With Poorly Controlled Type 1 Diabetes 
Diabetes Care  2009;32(12):2245-2250.
OBJECTIVE
To compare the improvements in glycemic control associated with transitioning to insulin pump therapy in patients using continuous glucose monitoring versus standard blood glucose self-monitoring.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
The RealTrend study was a 6-month, randomized, parallel-group, two-arm, open-label study of 132 adults and children with uncontrolled type 1 diabetes (A1C ≥8%) being treated with multiple daily injections. One group was fitted with the Medtronic MiniMed Paradigm REAL-Time system (PRT group), an insulin pump with integrated continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring (CGM) capability, with instructions to wear CGM sensors at least 70% of the time. Conventional insulin pump therapy was initiated in the other group (continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion [CSII] group). Outcome measures included A1C and glycemic variability.
RESULTS
A total of 115 patients completed the study. Between baseline and trial end, A1C improved significantly in both groups (PRT group −0.81 ± 1.09%, P < 0.001; CSII group −0.57 ± 0.94%, P < 0.001), with no significant difference between groups. When the 91 patients who were fully protocol-compliant (including CGM sensor wear ≥70% of the time) were considered, A1C improvement was significantly greater in the PRT group (P = 0.004) (PRT group −0.96 ± 0.93%, P < 0.001; CSII group −0.55 ± 0.93%, P < 0.001). Hyperglycemia parameters decreased in line with improvements in A1C with no impact on hypoglycemia.
CONCLUSIONS
CGM-enabled insulin pump therapy improves glycemia more than conventional pump therapy during the first 6 months of pump use in patients who wear CGM sensors at least 70% of the time.
doi:10.2337/dc09-0750
PMCID: PMC2782985  PMID: 19767384
9.  Closed-Loop Artificial Pancreas Using Subcutaneous Glucose Sensing and Insulin Delivery and a Model Predictive Control Algorithm: Preliminary Studies in Padova and Montpellier 
New effort has been made to develop closed-loop glucose control, using subcutaneous (SC) glucose sensing and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) from a pump, and a control algorithm. An approach based on a model predictive control (MPC) algorithm has been utilized during closed-loop control in type 1 diabetes patients. Here we describe the preliminary clinical experience with this approach.
Six type 1 diabetes patients (three in each of two clinical investigation centers in Padova and Montpellier), using CSII, aged 36 ± 8 and 48 ± 6 years, duration of diabetes 12 ± 8 and 29 ± 4 years, hemoglobin A1c 7.4% ± 0.1% and 7.3% ± 0.3%, body mass index 23.2 ± 0.3 and 28.4 ± 2.2 kg/m2, respectively, were studied on two occasions during 22 h overnight hospital admissions 2–4 weeks apart. A Freestyle Navigator® continuous glucose monitor and an OmniPod® insulin pump were applied in each trial. Admission 1 used open-loop control, while admission 2 employed closed-loop control using our MPC algorithm.
In Padova, two out of three subjects showed better performance with the closed-loop system compared to open loop. Altogether, mean overnight plasma glucose (PG) levels were 134 versus 111 mg/dl during open loop versus closed loop, respectively. The percentage of time spent at PG > 140 mg/dl was 45% versus 12%, while postbreakfast mean PG was 165 versus 156 mg/dl during open loop versus closed loop, respectively. Also, in Montpellier, two patients out of three showed a better glucose control during closed-loop trials. Avoidance of nocturnal hypoglycemic excursions was a clear benefit during algorithm-guided insulin delivery in all cases.
This preliminary set of studies demonstrates that closed-loop control based entirely on SC glucose sensing and insulin delivery is feasible and can be applied to improve glucose control in patients with type 1 diabetes, although the algorithm needs to be further improved to achieve better glycemic control.
PMCID: PMC2769890  PMID: 20144414
continuous glucose monitoring; control algorithm; glucose sensor; insulin pump; modeling; simulation; type 1 diabetes
10.  CXCL5 is an adipose tissue derived factor that links obesity to insulin resistance 
Cell metabolism  2009;9(4):339-349.
We show here high levels of expression and secretion of the chemokine CXCL5 in the macrophage fraction of white adipose tissue (WAT). Moreover, we find that CXCL5 is dramatically increased in serum of human obese compared to lean subjects. Conversely, CXCL5 concentration is decreased in obese subjects after a weight reduction program, or in obese non-insulin resistant, compared to insulin resistant obese subjects. Most importantly we demonstrate that treatment with recombinant CXCL5 blocks insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in muscle in mice. CXCL5 blocks insulin signaling by activating the Jak2/STAT5/SOCS2 pathway. Finally, by treating obese, insulin resistant mice with either anti-CXCL5 neutralizing antibodies or antagonists of CXCR2, which is the CXCL5 receptor we demonstrate that CXCL5 mediates insulin resistance. Furthermore CXCR2−/− mice are protected against obesity-induced insulin resistance. Taken together, these results show that secretion of CXCL5 by WAT resident macrophages represents a link between obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance.
doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2009.03.002
PMCID: PMC2804846  PMID: 19356715
11.  Consensus Report of the Coalition for Clinical Research—Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose 
The Coalition for Clinical Research—Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose Scientific Board, a group of nine academic clinicians and scientists from the United States and Europe, convened in San Francisco, California, on June 11–12, 2008, to discuss the appropriate uses of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and the measures necessary to accurately assess the potential benefit of this practice in noninsulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Thirteen consultants from the United States, Europe, and Canada from academia, practice, and government also participated and contributed based on their fields of expertise. These experts represent a range of disciplines that include adult endocrinology, pediatric endocrinology, health education, mathematics, statistics, psychology, nutrition, exercise physiology, and nursing. This coalition was organized by Diabetes Technology Management, Inc. Among the participants, there was consensus that: protocols assessing the performance of SMBG in noninsulin treated T2DM must provide the SMBG intervention subjects with blood glucose (BG) goals and instructions on how to respond to BG data in randomized controlled trials (RCTs);intervention subjects in clinical trials of SMBG-driven interventions must aggressively titrate their therapeutic responses or lifestyle changes in response to hyperglycemia;control subjects in clinical trials of SMBG must be isolated from SMBG-driven interventions and not be contaminated by physician experience with study subjects receiving a SMBG intervention;the best endpoints to measure in a clinical trial of SMBG in T2DM include delta Hemoglobin A1c levels, hyperglycemic events, hypoglycemic events, time to titrate noninsulin therapy to a maximum necessary dosage, and quality of life indices;either individual randomization or cluster randomization may be appropriate methods for separating control subjects from SMBG intervention subjects, provided that precautions are taken to avoid bias and that the sample size is adequate;treatment algorithms for assessing SMBG in T2DM may include a dietary, exercise, and/or medication intervention, which are all titratable according to the SMBG values;the medical literature contains very little information about the performance of SMBG in T2DM from RCTs in which treatment algorithms were used for dysglycemic values; andresearch on the performance of SMBG in T2DM based on sound scientific principles and clinical practices is needed at this time.
PMCID: PMC2769823  PMID: 19885292
consensus; diabetes; glucose; self monitoring; trial; type 2 diabetes
12.  Insulin Delivery Route for the Artificial Pancreas: Subcutaneous, Intraperitoneal, or Intravenous? Pros and Cons 
Insulin delivery is a crucial component of a closed-loop system aiming at the development of an artificial pancreas. The intravenous route, which has been used in the bedside artificial pancreas model for 30 years, has clear advantages in terms of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, but cannot be used in any ambulatory system so far. Subcutaneous (SC) insulin infusion benefits from the broad expansion of insulin pump therapy that promoted the availability of constantly improving technology and fast-acting insulin analog use. However, persistent delays of insulin absorption and action, variability and shortterm stability of insulin infusion from SC-inserted catheters generate effectiveness and safety issues in view of an ambulatory, automated, glucose-controlled, artificial beta cell. Intraperitoneal insulin delivery, although still marginally used in diabetes care, may offer an interesting alternative because of its more-physiological plasma insulin profiles and sustained stability and reliability of insulin delivery.
PMCID: PMC2769765  PMID: 19885254
artificial pancreas; closed-loop control; insulin delivery

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