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author:("lotka, juzen")
1.  Disparities in fatal and non-fatal injuries between Irish travellers and the Irish general population are similar to those of other indigenous minorities: a cross-sectional population-based comparative study 
BMJ Open  2013;3(1):e002296.
To assess recent disparities in fatal and non-fatal injury between travellers and the general population in Ireland.
A cross-sectional population-based comparative study.
Republic of Ireland.
Population census and retrospective mortality data were collected from 7042 traveller families, travellers being those identified by themselves and others as members of the traveller community. Retrospective injury incidence was estimated from a survey of a random sample of travellers in private households, aged 15 years or over (702 men and 961 women). Comparable general population data were obtained from official statistical reports, while retrospective incidence was estimated from the Survey of Lifestyle, Attitude and Nutrition 2002, a random sample of 5992 adults in private households aged 18 years or over.
Outcome measures
Potential Years of Life Lost (PYLL), Standardised Mortality Ratios (SMR), Standardised Incidence Ratios (SIR) and Case Fatality Ratios (CFR).
Injury accounted for 36% of PYLL among travellers, compared with 13% in the general population. travellers were more likely to die of unintentional injury than the general population (SMR=454 (95% CI 279 to 690) in men and 460 (95% CI 177 to 905) in women), with a similar pattern for intentional injury (SMR=637 (95% CI 367 to 993) in men and 464 (95% CI 107 to 1204 in women). They had a lower incidence of unintentional injury but those aged 65 years or over were about twice as likely to report an injury. Travellers had a higher incidence of intentional injuries (SIR=181 (95% CI 116 to 269) in men and 268 (95% CI 187 to 373) in women). Injury CFR were consistently higher among travellers.
Irish travellers continue to bear a disproportionate burden of injury, which calls for scaling up injury prevention efforts in this group. Prevention and further research should focus on suicide, alcohol misuse and elderly injury among Irish travellers.
PMCID: PMC3563128  PMID: 23358563
Health and safety; Health Status; Epidemiology; Public Health
2.  The role of IREB2 and transforming growth factor beta-1 genetic variants in COPD: a replication case-control study 
BMC Medical Genetics  2011;12:24.
Genetic factors are known to contribute to COPD susceptibility and these factors are not fully understood. Conflicting results have been reported for many genetic studies of candidate genes based on their role in the disease. Genome-wide association studies in combination with expression profiling have identified a number of new candidates including IREB2. A meta-analysis has implicated transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFbeta1) as a contributor to disease susceptibility.
We have examined previously reported associations in both genes in a collection of 1017 white COPD patients and 912 non-diseased smoking controls. Genotype information was obtained for seven SNPs in the IREB2 gene, and for four SNPs in the TGFbeta1 gene. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared between COPD cases and controls, and odds ratios were calculated. The analysis was adjusted for age, sex, smoking and centre, including interactions of age, sex and smoking with centre.
Our data replicate the association of IREB2 SNPs in association with COPD for SNP rs2568494, rs2656069 and rs12593229 with respective adjusted p-values of 0.0018, 0.0039 and 0.0053. No significant associations were identified for TGFbeta1.
These studies have therefore confirmed that the IREB2 locus is a contributor to COPD susceptibility and suggests a new pathway in COPD pathogenesis invoking iron homeostasis.
PMCID: PMC3047296  PMID: 21320324
3.  Association of MMP - 12 polymorphisms with severe and very severe COPD: A case control study of MMPs - 1, 9 and 12 in a European population 
BMC Medical Genetics  2010;11:7.
Genetic factors play a role in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but are poorly understood. A number of candidate genes have been proposed on the basis of the pathogenesis of COPD. These include the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) genes which play a role in tissue remodelling and fit in with the protease - antiprotease imbalance theory for the cause of COPD. Previous genetic studies of MMPs in COPD have had inadequate coverage of the genes, and have reported conflicting associations of both single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and SNP haplotypes, plausibly due to under-powered studies.
To address these issues we genotyped 26 SNPs, providing comprehensive coverage of reported SNP variation, in MMPs- 1, 9 and 12 from 977 COPD patients and 876 non-diseased smokers of European descent and evaluated their association with disease singly and in haplotype combinations. We used logistic regression to adjust for age, gender, centre and smoking history.
Haplotypes of two SNPs in MMP-12 (rs652438 and rs2276109), showed an association with severe/very severe disease, corresponding to GOLD Stages III and IV.
Those with the common A-A haplotype for these two SNPs were at greater risk of developing severe/very severe disease (p = 0.0039) while possession of the minor G variants at either SNP locus had a protective effect (adjusted odds ratio of 0.76; 95% CI 0.61 - 0.94). The A-A haplotype was also associated with significantly lower predicted FEV1 (42.62% versus 44.79%; p = 0.0129). This implicates haplotypes of MMP-12 as modifiers of disease severity.
PMCID: PMC2820470  PMID: 20078883

Results 1-3 (3)