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1.  Lrrk2 R1441C parkinsonism is clinically similar to sporadic Parkinson disease 
Neurology  2008;70(16 0 2):1456-1460.
Objective
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutations are the most common cause of Parkinson disease (PD). Several dominantly inherited pathogenic substitutions have been identified in different domains of the Lrrk2 protein. Herein, we characterize the clinical and genetic features associated with Lrrk2 p.R1441C.
Methods
We identified 33 affected and 15 unaffected LRRK2 c.4321C>T (p.R1441C) mutation carriers through an international consortium originating from three continents. The age-specific cumulative incidence of PD was calculated by Kaplan-Meier analysis.
Results
The clinical presentation of Lrrk2 p.R1441C carriers was similar to sporadic PD and Lrrk2 p.G2019S parkinsonism. The mean age at onset for parkinsonism was 60 years, range 30 –79 years; fewer than 20% of the patients had symptoms before the age 50 years, while by 75 years >90% of them had developed symptoms. Haplotype analysis suggests four independent founders for the p.R1441C mutation.
Conclusions
The distribution in age at onset and clinical features in Lrrk2 p.R1441C patients are similar to idiopathic and Lrrk2 p.G2019S parkinsonism. Several independent founders of the p.R1441C substitution suggest this site is prone to recurrent mutagenesis.
doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000304044.22253.03
PMCID: PMC3906630  PMID: 18337586
2.  Cerebrospinal fluid amyloid β and tau in LRRK2 mutation carriers 
Neurology  2012;78(1):55-61.
Objective:
The goal of the current investigation was to examine a cohort of symptomatic and asymptomatic LRRK2 mutation carriers, in order to address whether the reported alterations in amyloid β (Aβ) and tau species in the CSF of patients with sporadic Parkinson disease (PD) are a part of PD pathogenesis, the aging process, or a comorbid disease in patients with PD, and to explore the possibility of Aβ and tau as markers of early or presymptomatic PD.
Methods:
CSF Aβ42, total tau, and phosphorylated tau were measured with Luminex assays in 26 LRRK2 mutation carriers, who were either asymptomatic (n = 18) or had a phenotype resembling sporadic PD (n = 8). All patients also underwent PET scans with 18F-6-fluoro-l-dopa (FD), 11C-(±)-α-dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ), and 11C-d-threo-methylphenidate (MP) to measure dopaminergic function in the striatum. The levels of CSF markers were then compared to each PET measurement.
Results:
Reduced CSF Aβ42 and tau levels correlated with lower striatal dopaminergic function as determined by all 3 PET tracers, with a significant association between Aβ42 and FD uptake. When cases were restricted to carriers of the G2019S mutation, the most common LRRK2 variant in our cohort, significant correlations were also observed for tau.
Conclusions:
The disposition of Aβ and tau is likely important in both LRRK2-related and sporadic PD, even during early phases of the disease. A better understanding of their production, aggregation, and degradation, including changes in their CSF levels, may provide insights into the pathogenesis of PD and the potential utility of these proteins as biomarkers.
doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e31823ed101
PMCID: PMC3466497  PMID: 22170881
3.  A comprehensive analysis of deletions, multiplications, and copy number variations in PARK2 
Neurology  2010;75(13):1189-1194.
Objectives:
To perform a comprehensive population genetic study of PARK2. PARK2 mutations are associated with juvenile parkinsonism, Alzheimer disease, cancer, leprosy, and diabetes mellitus, yet ironically, there has been no comprehensive study of PARK2 in control subjects; and to resolve controversial association of PARK2 heterozygous mutations with Parkinson disease (PD) in a well-powered study.
Methods:
We studied 1,686 control subjects (mean age 66.1 ± 13.1 years) and 2,091 patients with PD (mean onset age 58.3 ± 12.1 years). We tested for PARK2 deletions/multiplications/copy number variations (CNV) using semiquantitative PCR and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, and validated the mutations by real-time quantitative PCR. Subjects were tested for point mutations previously. Association with PD was tested as PARK2 main effect, and in combination with known PD risk factors: SNCA, MAPT, APOE, smoking, and coffee intake.
Results:
A total of 0.95% of control subjects and 0.86% of patients carried a heterozygous CNV mutation. CNV mutations found in 16 control subjects were all in exons 1–4, sparing exons that encode functionally critical protein domains. Thirteen patients had 2 CNV mutations, 5 had 1 CNV and 1 point mutation, and 18 had 1 CNV mutation. Mutations found in patients spanned exons 2–9. In whites, having 1 CNV was not associated with increased risk (odds ratio 1.05, p = 0.89) or earlier onset of PD (64.7 ± 8.6 heterozygous vs 58.5 ± 11.8 normal).
Conclusions:
This comprehensive population genetic study in control subjects fills the void for a PARK2 reference dataset. There is no compelling evidence for association of heterozygous PARK2 mutations, by themselves or in combination with known risk factors, with PD.
GLOSSARY
= autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism;
= confidence interval;
= copy number variation;
= moving average plots;
= multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification;
= NeuroGenetics Research Consortium;
= odds ratio;
= Parkinson disease.
doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181f4d832
PMCID: PMC3013490  PMID: 20876472
4.  A Novel X-linked 4-Repeat Tauopathy with Parkinsonism and Spasticity 
The parkinsonian syndromes comprise a highly heterogeneous group of disorders. Although 15 loci are linked to predominantly familial Parkinson’s disease (PD), additional PD loci are likely to exist. We recently identified a multi-generational family of Danish and German descent in which five males in three generations presented with a unique syndrome characterized by parkinsonian features and variably penetrant spasticity for which X-linked disease transmission was strongly suggested (XPDS). Autopsy in one individual failed to reveal synucleinopathy; however, there was a significant 4-repeat tauopathy in the striatum. Our objective was to identify the locus responsible for this unique parkinsonian disorder. Members of the XPDS family were genotyped for markers spanning the X chromosome. Two-point and multipoint linkage analyses were performed and the candidate region refined by analyzing additional markers. A multipoint LODmax score of 2.068 was obtained between markers DXS991 and DXS993. Haplotype examination revealed an approximately 20 cM region bounded by markers DXS8042 and DXS1216 that segregated with disease in all affected males and obligate carrier females and was not carried by unaffected at-risk males. To reduce the possibility of a false positive linkage result, multiple loci and genes associated with other parkinsonian or spasticity syndromes were excluded. In conclusion, we have identified a unique X-linked parkinsonian syndrome with variable spasticity and 4-repeat tau pathology, and defined a novel candidate gene locus spanning approximately 28 Mb from Xp11.2-Xq13.3.
doi:10.1002/mds.23085
PMCID: PMC3123999  PMID: 20629132
Genetic linkage; Parkinson’s disease/parkinsonism; X-linked parkinsonism; X-linked spastic paraparesis; tauopathy

Results 1-4 (4)