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1.  Enzyme replacement therapy for mucopolysaccharidosis VI: long-term cardiac effects of galsulfase (Naglazyme®) therapy 
Characteristic cardiac valve abnormalities and left ventricular hypertrophy are present in untreated patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI). Cardiac ultrasound was performed to investigate these findings in subjects during long-term enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with recombinant human arylsulfatase B (rhASB, rhN-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase, galsulfase, Naglazyme®). Studies were conducted in 54 subjects before ERT was begun and at specific intervals for up to 96 weeks of weekly infusions of rhASB at 1 mg/kg during phase 1/2, phase 2, and phase 3 trials of rhASB. At baseline, mitral and aortic valve obstruction was present and was significantly greater in those ≥12 years of age. Mild mitral and trace aortic regurgitation were present, the former being significantly greater in those <12 years. Left ventricular hypertrophy, with averaged z-scores ranging from 1.6–1.9 SD greater than normal, was present for ages both <12 and ≥12 years. After 96 weeks of ERT, ventricular septal hypertrophy regressed in those <12 years. For those ≥12 years, septal hypertrophy was unchanged, and aortic regurgitation increased statistically but not physiologically. Obstructive gradients across mitral and aortic valves remained unchanged. The results suggest that long-term ERT is effective in reducing intraventricular septal hypertrophy and preventing progression of cardiac valve abnormalities when administered to those <12 years of age.
PMCID: PMC3590402  PMID: 22669363
2.  Female Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA Mice Exhibit Hyperactivity and a Reduced Sense of Danger in the Open Field Test 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(10):e25717.
Reliable behavioural tests in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases allow us to study the natural history of disease and evaluate the efficacy of novel therapies. Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA (MPS IIIA or Sanfilippo A), is a severe, neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency in the heparan sulphate catabolising enzyme, sulfamidase. Undegraded heparan sulphate accumulates, resulting in lysosomal enlargement and cellular dysfunction. Patients suffer a progressive loss of motor and cognitive function with severe behavioural manifestations and premature death. There is currently no treatment. A spontaneously occurring mouse model of the disease has been described, that has approximately 3% of normal enzyme activity levels. Behavioural phenotyping of the MPS IIIA mouse has been previously reported, but the results are conflicting and variable, even after full backcrossing to the C57BL/6 background. Therefore we have independently backcrossed the MPS IIIA model onto the C57BL/6J background and evaluated the behaviour of male and female MPS IIIA mice at 4, 6 and 8 months of age using the open field test, elevated plus maze, inverted screen and horizontal bar crossing at the same circadian time point. Using a 60 minute open field, we have demonstrated that female MPS IIIA mice are hyperactive, have a longer path length, display rapid exploratory behaviour and spend less time immobile than WT mice. Female MPS IIIA mice also display a reduced sense of danger and spend more time in the centre of the open field. There were no significant differences found between male WT and MPS IIIA mice and no differences in neuromuscular strength were seen with either sex. The altered natural history of behaviour that we observe in the MPS IIIA mouse will allow more accurate evaluation of novel therapeutics for MPS IIIA and potentially other neurodegenerative disorders.
PMCID: PMC3196509  PMID: 22028789
3.  Effects of enzyme replacement therapy on growth in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type II 
Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II; Hunter syndrome) is an X-linked, recessive, lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of iduronate-2-sulfatase. It has multisystemic involvement, with manifestations in the brain, upper respiratory tract, heart, abdomen, joints and bones. Bone involvement leads to decreased growth velocity and short stature in nearly all patients. A therapeutic option for patients with MPS II is enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with idursulfase (Elaprase®). We compared annual growth rates before and during ERT in 18 patients from Mainz, Germany, and Manchester, UK. Group 1 included nine patients who started ERT before 10 years of age; group 2 contained nine patients aged more than 10 years at the start of ERT. All patients had received weekly or biweekly ERT or placebo for 1 year, followed by ERT for more than 3 years. For patients in group 1, the mean (± SD) height increase was 14.6 ± 5.5 cm during 3 years of ERT. Only one patient in this group (who was below the 3rd percentile when starting ERT) deviated from the normal growth curve over this time. Patients in group 2 had a mean height increase of 8.1 ± 1.7 cm after 3 years of ERT compared with an increase of 1 cm in the year before ERT. ERT seems to have a positive influence on growth in patients with MPS II. Most benefit is seen in patients beginning ERT before the age of 10 years. This supports the recommendation that ERT should be started as early as possible in patients with MPS II.
PMCID: PMC3026660  PMID: 20978944
4.  A terminal deletion of 11q. 
Journal of Medical Genetics  1992;29(7):511-512.
PMCID: PMC1016034  PMID: 1640436
5.  Carpal tunnel syndrome in the mucopolysaccharidoses and related disorders. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1990;65(9):962-963.
Eighteen patients with various mucopolysaccharidoses or mucolipidosis III were studied electrophysiologically to determine the presence or absence of carpal tunnel syndrome. In 17 patients this was clearly demonstrated, the only exception being a boy with mucopolysaccharidosis II, age 6 months at testing. All patients had a remarkable lack of symptoms. Carpal tunnel syndrome is a very common complication of the mucopolysaccharidoses and mucolipidosis III and should be actively looked for in affected patients. Early diagnosis and treatment offer the best chance of a good response to surgery.
PMCID: PMC1792093  PMID: 2121106
6.  Absence of acidosis in the initial presentation of propionic acidaemia. 
The clinical presentation and results of the initial biochemical and haematological investigations in 11 newborn term infants with propionic acidaemia are described. All patients had neurological symptoms. Only four had clinically important acidosis, but all had a raised blood ammonia. A diagnosis of propionic acidaemia should be considered in all newborn infants with unexplained neurological deterioration even in the absence of a metabolic acidosis.
PMCID: PMC2528453  PMID: 7796239
8.  Histidinaemia: a benign metabolic disorder. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1996;74(4):343-346.
Histidinaemia is a relatively common inherited metabolic disorder with an incidence similar to phenylketonuria. This paper reports the long term outcome of patients diagnosed by newborn screening in the north west of England. Between 1966 and 1990, 108 infants were diagnosed as having histidinaemia by a regional neonatal screening programme (incidence 1:11,083). A further five children were detected following diagnosis in a sibling. Of the 113, nine were lost to follow up. Infants diagnosed before 1981 (n = 47) were placed on a low histidine diet (225 mg/kg/d) for an average period of 21 months (SD 4.5). All patients were reviewed regularly, Griffiths developmental quotients (DQ) were assessed at 2 and 4 years, and WISC-R intelligence quotients (IQ) at 8, 12, and 18 years. IQ data were converted to standard deviation scores (IQ SDS) to account for increasing IQ norms with time. Neither DQ nor IQ correlated with plasma histidine at diagnosis or with the mean plasma histidine throughout life. Growth was normal in all patients. There was no apparent benefit from a low histidine diet in early childhood. In contrast to other studies, there was no excess of clinical symptoms. On the basis of these findings, histidinaemia is a benign metabolic disorder that does not require treatment.
PMCID: PMC1511463  PMID: 8669938
9.  Investigation of developmental delay. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1995;72(5):460-465.
PMCID: PMC1511114  PMID: 7542440
10.  The Inherited Metabolic Diseases 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1994;71(4):388-389.
PMCID: PMC1030035  PMID: 21032835
11.  Management of mucopolysaccharidosis type III. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1993;69(3):403-406.
PMCID: PMC1029535  PMID: 8215557
14.  No sensory neuropathy during pyridoxine treatment in homocystinuria. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1991;66(9):1081-1082.
Seventeen patients with cystathionine synthase deficiency homocystinuria were examined clinically and neurophysiologically for evidence of sensory neuropathy. All had received high dose pyridoxine (vitamin B-6) for many years. Absence of neurological disturbance in all cases suggests long term treatment with pyridoxine in the dosages used in homocystinuric patients is not harmful.
PMCID: PMC1793039  PMID: 1929522
15.  Antenatal diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1991;66(7 Spec No):816-822.
PMCID: PMC1590222  PMID: 1863132
21.  Diagnosis and management of inborn errors of metabolism. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1989;64(10 Spec No):1410-1415.
PMCID: PMC1590098  PMID: 2686556

Results 1-21 (21)