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author:("talpa, Moshe")
1.  NCCN Task Force Report: Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Therapy Selection in the Management of Patients With Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia 
The advent of imatinib has dramatically improved outcomes in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). It has become the standard of care for all patients with newly diagnosed chronic-phase CML based on its successful induction of durable responses in most patients. However, its use is complicated by the development of resistance in some patients. Dose escalation might overcome this resistance if detected early. The second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) dasatinib and nilotinib provide effective therapeutic options for managing patients resistant or intolerant to imatinib. Recent studies have shown that dasatinib and nilotinib provide quicker and potentially better responses than standard-dose imatinib when used as a first-line treatment. The goal of therapy for patients with CML is the achievement of a complete cytogenetic response, and eventually a major molecular response, to prevent disease progression to accelerated or blast phase. Selecting the appropriate TKI depends on many factors, including disease phase, primary or secondary resistance to TKI, the agent’s side effect profile and its relative effectiveness against BCR-ABL mutations, and the patient’s tolerance to therapy. In October 2010, NCCN organized a task force consisting of a panel of experts from NCCN Member Institutions with expertise in the management of patients with CML to discuss these issues. This report provides recommendations regarding the selection of TKI therapy for the management of patients with CML based on the evaluation of available published clinical data and expert opinion among the task force members.
PMCID: PMC4234100  PMID: 21335443
Chronic myelogenous leukemia; CML; BCR-ABL; tyrosine kinase inhibitor; TKI; imatinib; high-dose imatinib; dasatinib; nilotinib; mutations; suboptimal response; disease progression; accelerated phase; blast phase; allogeneic HSCT
2.  Degrasyn-like Symmetrical Compounds: Possible Therapeutic Agents for Multiple Myeloma (MM-I) 
Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry  2014;22(4):1450-1458.
A series of degrasyn-like symmetrical compounds have been designed, synthesized, and screened against B cell malignancy (multiple myeloma, mantle cell lymphoma) cell lines. The lead compounds T5165804 and CP2005 showed higher nanomolar potency against these tumor cells in comparison to degrasyn and inhibited Usp9x activity in vitro and in intact cells. These observations suggest that this new class of compounds holds promise as cancer therapeutic agents
PMCID: PMC4158738  PMID: 24457091
3.  Ponatinib in patients with refractory acute myeloid leukaemia: findings from a phase 1 study 
British journal of haematology  2013;162(4):10.1111/bjh.12382.
PMCID: PMC3866040  PMID: 23691988
ponatinib; tyrosine kinase inhibitor; acute myeloid leukaemia; FLT3-ITD; FLT3
4.  Usp5 links suppression of p53 and FAS levels in melanoma to the BRAF pathway 
Oncotarget  2014;5(14):5559-5569.
Usp5 is a deubiquitinase (DUB) previously shown to regulate unanchored polyubiquitin (Ub) chains, p53 transcriptional activity and double-strand DNA repair. In BRAF mutant melanoma cells, Usp5 activity was suppressed by BRAF inhibitor (vemurafenib) in sensitive but not in acquired or intrinsically resistant cells. Usp5 knockdown overcame acquired vemurafenib resistance and sensitized BRAF and NRAS mutant melanoma cells to apoptosis initiated by MEK inhibitor, cytokines or DNA-damaging agents. Knockdown and overexpression studies demonstrated that Usp5 regulates p53 (and p73) levels and alters cell growth and cell cycle distribution associated with p21 induction. Usp5 also regulates the intrinsic apoptotic pathway by modulating p53-dependent FAS expression. A small molecule DUB inhibitor (EOAI3402143) phenocopied the FAS induction and apoptotic sensitization of Usp5 knockdown and fully blocked melanoma tumor growth in mice. Overall, our results demonstrate that BRAF activates Usp5 to suppress cell cycle checkpoint control and apoptosis by blocking p53 and FAS induction; all of which can be restored by small molecule-mediated Usp5 inhibition. These results suggest that Usp5 inhibition can provide an alternate approach in recovery of diminished p53 (or p73) function in melanoma and can add to the targeted therapies already used in the treatment of melanoma.
PMCID: PMC4170643  PMID: 24980819
Usp5; ubiquitination; BRAF; p53; FAS; melanoma
5.  The clinical benefit of ruxolitinib across patient subgroups: analysis of a placebo-controlled, Phase III study in patients with myelofibrosis 
British journal of haematology  2013;161(4):508-516.
Myelofibrosis (MF) patients can present with a wide spectrum of disease characteristics. We analysed the consistency of ruxolitinib efficacy across patient subgroups in the COntrolled MyeloFibrosis Study With ORal JAK Inhibitor Treatment (COMFORT-I,) a double-blind trial, where patients with intermediate-2 or high-risk MF were randomized to twice-daily oral ruxolitinib (n = 155) or placebo (n = 154). Subgroups analysed included MF subtype (primary, post-polycythaemia vera, post-essential thrombocythaemia), age (≤65, > 65 years), International Prognostic Scoring System risk group, baseline Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (0, 1, ≥2), JAK2 V617F mutation (positive, negative), baseline haemoglobin level (≥100, <100 g/l), baseline platelet count (100–200 × 109/l, >200 × 109/l), baseline palpable spleen size (≤10, >10 cm), and baseline quartile of spleen volume and Total Symptom Score (TSS; Q1 = lowest, Q4 = highest). Mean percentage change from baseline to week 24 in spleen volume and TSS were calculated for ruxolitinib and placebo in each subgroup. Overall survival was estimated by Kaplan–Meier method according to original randomization group. In ruxolitinib-treated patients, reductions in spleen volume and TSS and evidence of improved survival relative to placebo across subgroups were consistent with those seen in the COMFORT-I population, confirming that ruxolitinib is an effective therapy for the spectrum of MF patients studied in COMFORT-I.
PMCID: PMC4055021  PMID: 23480528
Myelofibrosis; ruxolitinib; subgroups; spleen volume; symptoms
7.  A Novel Mechanism of Alternative Promoter and Splicing Regulates the Epitope Generation of Tumor Antigen CML66-L1 
This report describes the difference in the epitope generation of two isoforms of self-tumor Ag CML66 and the regulation mechanism. We identified a new CML66 short isoform, termed CML66-S. The previously identified long CML66 is referred to as CML66-L. CML66-S shares the C terminus with CML66-L but has its unique N terminus. CML66-S is predominantly expressed in testis, but is also expressed in very low levels in tumor cells, whereas CML66-L is expressed in tumor cells and testis. Differential expression of CML66-L and CML66-S in tumor cells resulted from regulation at transcription, although alternative splicing also participated in the generation of the isoforms. In addition, Ab titers to a CML66-L peptide were significantly higher than that to CML66-S peptide in the sera from patients with tumors. Finally, the Abs to full-length CML66-L in the sera from patients with tumors were correlated with the Abs in the sera from these patients to CML66-L-38, which is a fusion protein with a CML66-L-specific N terminus. This suggests that the CML66-L isoform is mainly responsible for the epitope generation. Our studies have identified the alternative promoter in combination with alternative splicing as a novel mechanism for regulation of the epitope generation of a self-tumor Ag.
PMCID: PMC3901998  PMID: 14688378
8.  Identification of Targetable FGFR Gene Fusions in Diverse Cancers 
Cancer discovery  2013;3(6):636-647.
Through a prospective clinical sequencing program for advanced cancers, four index cases were identified which harbor gene rearrangements of FGFR2 including patients with cholangiocarcinoma, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. After extending our assessment of FGFR rearrangements across multiple tumor cohorts, we identified additional FGFR gene fusions with intact kinase domains in lung squamous cell cancer, bladder cancer, thyroid cancer, oral cancer, glioblastoma, and head and neck squamous cell cancer. All FGFR fusion partners tested exhibit oligomerization capability, suggesting a shared mode of kinase activation. Overexpression of FGFR fusion proteins induced cell proliferation. Two bladder cancer cell lines that harbor FGFR3 fusion proteins exhibited enhanced susceptibility to pharmacologic inhibition in vitro and in vivo. Due to the combinatorial possibilities of FGFR family fusion to a variety of oligomerization partners, clinical sequencing efforts which incorporate transcriptome analysis for gene fusions are poised to identify rare, targetable FGFR fusions across diverse cancer types.
PMCID: PMC3694764  PMID: 23558953
MI-ONCOSEQ; integrative clinical sequencing; FGFR fusions; driver mutations; therapeutic targets
9.  Interim analysis of safety and efficacy of ruxolitinib in patients with myelofibrosis and low platelet counts 
Ruxolitinib, a Janus kinase 1 and 2 inhibitor, demonstrated improvements in spleen volume, symptoms, and survival over placebo and best available therapy in intermediate-2 or high-risk myelofibrosis patients with baseline platelet counts ≥100 × 109/L in phase III studies. The most common adverse events were dose-dependent anemia and thrombocytopenia, which were anticipated because thrombopoietin and erythropoietin signal through JAK2. These events were manageable, rarely leading to treatment discontinuation. Because approximately one-quarter of MF patients have platelet counts <100 × 109/L consequent to their disease, ruxolitinib was evaluated in this subset of patients using lower initial doses. Interim results of a phase II study of ruxolitinib in myelofibrosis patients with baseline platelet counts of 50-100 × 109/L are reported.
Ruxolitinib was initiated at a dose of 5 mg twice daily (BID), and doses could be increased by 5 mg once daily every 4 weeks to 10 mg BID if platelet counts remained adequate. Additional dosage increases required evidence of suboptimal efficacy. Assessments included measurement of spleen volume by MRI, MF symptoms by MF Symptom Assessment Form v2.0 Total Symptom Score [TSS]), Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC); EORTC QLQ-C30, and safety/tolerability.
By week 24, 62% of patients achieved stable doses ≥10 mg BID. Median reductions in spleen volume and TSS were 24.2% and 43.8%, respectively. Thrombocytopenia necessitating dose reductions and dose interruptions occurred in 12 and 8 patients, respectively, and occurred mainly in patients with baseline platelet counts ≤75 × 109/L. Seven patients experienced platelet count increases ≥15 × 109/L. Mean hemoglobin levels remained stable over the treatment period. Two patients discontinued for adverse events: 1 for grade 4 retroperitoneal hemorrhage secondary to multiple and suspected pre-existing renal artery aneurysms and 1 for grade 4 thrombocytopenia.
Results suggest that a low starting dose of ruxolitinib with escalation to 10 mg BID may be appropriate in myelofibrosis patients with low platelet counts.
Trial registration NCT01348490.
PMCID: PMC4176265  PMID: 24283202
Janus kinase inhibitor; Myelofibrosis; Phase II; Platelet count; Ruxolitinib; Spleen volume; Total symptom score
10.  Ponatinib in Refractory Philadelphia Chromosome–Positive Leukemias 
The New England journal of medicine  2012;367(22):2075-2088.
Resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and Philadelphia chromosome–positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph-positive ALL) is frequently caused by mutations in the BCR-ABL kinase domain. Ponatinib (AP24534) is a potent oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor that blocks native and mutated BCR-ABL, including the gatekeeper mutant T315I, which is uniformly resistant to tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
In this phase 1 dose-escalation study, we enrolled 81 patients with resistant hematologic cancers, including 60 with CML and 5 with Ph-positive ALL. Ponatinib was administered once daily at doses ranging from 2 to 60 mg. Median follow-up was 56 weeks (range, 2 to 140).
Dose-limiting toxic effects included elevated lipase or amylase levels and pancreatitis. Common adverse events were rash, myelosuppression, and constitutional symptoms. Among Ph-positive patients, 91% had received two or more approved tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and 51% had received all three approved tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Of 43 patients with chronic-phase CML, 98% had a complete hematologic response, 72% had a major cytogenetic response, and 44% had a major molecular response. Of 12 patients who had chronic-phase CML with the T315I mutation, 100% had a complete hematologic response and 92% had a major cytogenetic response. Of 13 patients with chronic-phase CML without detectable mutations, 100% had a complete hematologic response and 62% had a major cytogenetic response. Responses among patients with chronic-phase CML were durable. Of 22 patients with accelerated-phase or blast-phase CML or Ph-positive ALL, 36% had a major hematologic response and 32% had a major cytogenetic response.
Ponatinib was highly active in heavily pretreated patients with Ph-positive leukemias with resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors, including patients with the BCR-ABL T315I mutation, other mutations, or no mutations. (Funded by Ariad Pharmaceuticals and others; number, NCT00660920.)
PMCID: PMC3777383  PMID: 23190221
11.  Identification of Recurrent NAB2-STAT6 Gene Fusions in Solitary Fibrous Tumor by Integrative Sequencing 
Nature genetics  2013;45(2):180-185.
A 44-year old woman with recurrent solitary fibrous tumor (SFT)/hemangiopericytoma was enrolled in a clinical sequencing program including whole exome and transcriptome sequencing. A gene fusion of the transcriptional repressor NAB2 with the transcriptional activator STAT6 was detected. Transcriptome sequencing of 27 additional SFTs all revealed the presence of a NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion. Using RT-PCR and sequencing, we detected this fusion in 51 of 51 SFTs, indicating high levels of recurrence. Expression of NAB2-STAT6 fusion proteins was confirmed in SFT, and the predicted fusion products harbor the early growth response (EGR)-binding domain of NAB2 fused to the activation domain of STAT6. Overexpression of the NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion induced proliferation in cultured cells and activated EGR-responsive genes. These studies establish NAB2-STAT6 as the defining driver mutation of SFT and provide an example of how neoplasia can be initiated by converting a transcriptional repressor of mitogenic pathways into a transcriptional activator.
PMCID: PMC3654808  PMID: 23313952
12.  Analysis of the potential effect of ponatinib on the QTc interval in patients with refractory hematological malignancies 
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology  2013;71(6):1599-1607.
Cardiac dysfunction, particularly QT interval prolongation, has been observed with tyrosine kinase inhibitors approved to treat chronic myeloid leukemia. This study examines the effects of ponatinib on cardiac repolarization in patients with refractory hematological malignancies enrolled in a phase 1 trial.
Electrocardiograms (ECGs) were collected at 3 dose levels (30, 45, and 60 mg) at 6 time points. Electrocardiographic parameters, including QTc interval, were measured, and 11 morphological analyses were conducted. Central tendency analyses of ECG parameters were performed using time-point and time-averaged approaches. All patients with at least 2 baseline ECGs and 1 on-treatment ECG were included in the analyses. Patients with paired ECGs and plasma samples were included in the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis to examine the relationship between ponatinib plasma concentration and change from baseline in QT intervals.
Thirty-nine patients at the 30-, 45-, and 60-mg dose levels were included in the central tendency and morphological analyses. There was no significant effect on cardiac repolarization, as evidenced by non-clinically significant mean QTcF changes from baseline of −10.9, −3.6, and −5.0 ms for the 30-, 45-, and 60-mg dose levels, respectively. The morphological analysis revealed 2 patients with atrial fibrillation and 2 with T wave inversion. Seventy-five patients were included in the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis across all dose levels. The slope of the relationship for QTcF versus plasma ponatinib concentration was not positive (−0.0171), indicating no exposure–effect relationship.
Ponatinib is associated with a low risk of QTc prolongation in patients with refractory hematological malignancies.
PMCID: PMC3668123  PMID: 23609479
Ponatinib; BCR-ABL; Chronic myeloid leukemia; Philadelphia chromosome; Drug safety; Electrocardiography
13.  Personalized Oncology Through Integrative High-Throughput Sequencing: A Pilot Study 
Science translational medicine  2011;3(111):111ra121.
Individual cancers harbor a set of genetic aberrations that can be informative for identifying rational therapies currently available or in clinical trials. We implemented a pilot study to explore the practical challenges of applying high-throughput sequencing in clinical oncology. We enrolled patients with advanced or refractory cancer who were eligible for clinical trials. For each patient, we performed whole-genome sequencing of the tumor, targeted whole-exome sequencing of tumor and normal DNA, and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) of the tumor to identify potentially informative mutations in a clinically relevant time frame of 3 to 4 weeks. With this approach, we detected several classes of cancer mutations including structural rearrangements, copy number alterations, point mutations, and gene expression alterations. A multidisciplinary Sequencing Tumor Board (STB) deliberated on the clinical interpretation of the sequencing results obtained. We tested our sequencing strategy on human prostate cancer xenografts. Next, we enrolled two patients into the clinical protocol and were able to review the results at our STB within 24 days of biopsy. The first patient had metastatic colorectal cancer in which we identified somatic point mutations in NRAS, TP53, AURKA, FAS, and MYH11, plus amplification and overexpression of cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8). The second patient had malignant melanoma, in which we identified a somatic point mutation in HRAS and a structural rearrangement affecting CDKN2C. The STB identified the CDK8 amplification and Ras mutation as providing a rationale for clinical trials with CDK inhibitors or MEK (mitogenactivated or extracellular signal–regulated protein kinase kinase) and PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase) inhibitors, respectively. Integrative high-throughput sequencing of patients with advanced cancer generates a comprehensive, individual mutational landscape to facilitate biomarker-driven clinical trials in oncology.
PMCID: PMC3476478  PMID: 22133722
14.  Quality of Reporting of Serious Adverse Drug Events to an Institutional Review Board 
Clinical Cancer Research  2009;15(11):3850-3855.
Serious adverse drug event (sADE) reporting to Institutional Review Boards (IRB) is essential to ensure pharmaceutical safety. However, the quality of these reports has not been studied. Safety reports are especially important for cancer drugs that receive accelerated Food and Drug Administration approval, like imatinib, as preapproval experience with these drugs is limited. We evaluated the quality, accuracy, and completeness of sADE reports submitted to an IRB.
Experimental Design
sADE reports submitted to an IRB from 14 clinical trials with imatinib were reviewed. Structured case report forms, containing detailed clinical data fields and a validated causality assessment instrument, were developed. Two forms were generated for each ADE, the first populated with data abstracted from the IRB reports, and the second populated with data from the corresponding clinical record. Completeness and causality assessments were evaluated for each of the two sources, and then compared. Accuracy (concordance between sources) was also assessed.
Of 115 sADEs reported for 177 cancer patients to the IRB, overall completeness of adverse event descriptions was 2.4-fold greater for structured case report forms populated with information from the clinical record versus the corresponding forms from IRB reports (95.0% versus 40.3%, P < 0.05). Information supporting causality assessments was recorded 3.5-fold more often in primary data sources versus IRB adverse event descriptions (93% versus 26%, P < 0.05). Some key clinical information was discrepant between the two sources.
The use of structured syndrome-specific case report forms could enhance the quality of reporting to IRBs, thereby improving the safety of pharmaceuticals administered to cancer patients.
PMCID: PMC3296235  PMID: 19458059
This study was conducted to identify novel genes with importance to the biology of adult acute myelogenous leukemia (AML).
Experimental design
We analyzed DNA from highly purified AML blasts and paired buccal cells from 95 patients for recurrent genomic microdeletions using ultra-high density Affymetrix SNP 6.0 array-based genomic profiling.
Through fine mapping of microdeletions on 17q, we derived a minimal deleted region of ~0.9Mb length that harbors 11 known genes; this region includes Neurofibromin 1 (NF1). Sequence analysis of all NF1 coding exons in the 11 AML cases with NF1 copy number changes identified acquired truncating frameshift mutations in 2 patients. These NF1 mutations were already present in the hematopoetic stem cell compartment. Subsequent expression analysis of NF1 mRNA in the entire AML cohort using FACS sorted blasts as a source of RNA identified 6 patients (one with a NF1 mutation) with absent NF1 expression. The NF1 null states were associated with increased Ras-bound GTP, and shRNA-mediated NF1 suppression in primary AML blasts with wild type NF1 facilitated colony formation in methylcellulose. Primary AML blasts without functional NF1, unlike blasts with functional NF1, displayed sensitivity to rapamycin-induced apoptosis, thus identifying a dependence on mTOR signaling for survival. Finally, colony formation in methylcellulose ex vivo of NF1 null CD34+/CD38− cells sorted from AML bone marrow samples was inhibited by low dose rapamycin.
NF1 null states are present in 7/95=7% of adult AML and delineate a disease subset that could be preferentially targeted by Ras or mTOR-directed therapeutics.
PMCID: PMC2921448  PMID: 20505189
AML; genomic microdeletions; NF1 mutations
16.  PR1-Specific T Cells Are Associated with Unmaintained Cytogenetic Remission of Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia After Interferon Withdrawal 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(7):e11770.
Interferon-α (IFN) induces complete cytogenetic remission (CCR) in 20–25% CML patients and in a small minority of patients; CCR persists after IFN is stopped. IFN induces CCR in part by increasing cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) specific for PR1, the HLA-A2-restricted 9-mer peptide from proteinase 3 and neutrophil elastase, but it is unknown how CCR persists after IFN is stopped.
Principal Findings
We reasoned that PR1-CTL persist and mediate CML-specific immunity in patients that maintain CCR after IFN withdrawal. We found that PR1-CTL were increased in peripheral blood of 7/7 HLA-A2+ patients during unmaintained CCR from 3 to 88 months after IFN withdrawal, as compared to no detectable PR1-CTL in 2/2 IFN-treated CML patients not in CCR. Unprimed PR1-CTL secreted IFNγ and were predominantly CD45RA±CD28+CCR7+CD57-, consistent with functional naïve and central memory (CM) T cells. Similarly, following stimulation, proliferation occurred predominantly in CM PR1-CTL, consistent with long-term immunity sustained by self-renewing CM T cells. PR1-CTL were functionally anergic in one patient 6 months prior to cytogenetic relapse at 26 months after IFN withdrawal, and in three relapsed patients PR1-CTL were undetectable but re-emerged 3–6 months after starting imatinib.
These data support the hypothesis that IFN elicits CML-specific CM CTL that may contribute to continuous CCR after IFN withdrawal and suggest a role for T cell immune therapy with or without tyrosine kinase inhibitors as a strategy to prolong CR in CML.
PMCID: PMC2909896  PMID: 20668669
17.  Association Between Imatinib-Resistant BCR-ABL Mutation-Negative Leukemia and Persistent Activation of LYN Kinase 
Imatinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that is used to treat chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). BCR-ABL mutations are associated with failure of imatinib treatment in many CML patients. LYN kinase regulates survival and responsiveness of CML cells to inhibition of BCR-ABL kinase, and differences in LYN regulation have been found between imatinib-sensitive and -resistant CML cell lines.
We evaluated cells from 12 imatinib-resistant CML patients with mutation-negative BCR-ABL and from six imatinib-sensitive patients who discontinued therapy because of imatinib intolerance. Phosphorylation of BCR-ABL and LYN was assessed in patient cells and cell lines by immunoblotting with activation state–specific antibodies, co-immunoprecipitation studies, and mass spectroscopy analysis of phosphopeptides. Cell viability, caspase activation, and apoptosis were also measured. Mutations were analyzed by sequencing. The effect of silencing LYN with short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) or reducing activation by treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors was evaluated in cell lines and patient cells.
Imatinib treatment suppressed LYN phosphorylation in cells from imatinib-sensitive CML patients and imatinib-sensitive cell lines. Imatinib treatment blocked BCR-ABL signaling but did not suppress LYN phosphorylation in cells from imatinib-resistant patients, and persistent activation of LYN kinase was not associated with mutations in LYN kinase or its carboxyl-terminal regulatory domains. Unique LYN phosphorylation sites (tyrosine-193 and tyrosine-459) and associated proteins (c-Cbl and p80) were identified in cells from imatinib-resistant patients. Reducing LYN expression (siRNA) or activation (dasatinib) was associated with loss of cell survival and cytogenetic or complete hematologic responses in imatinib-resistant disease.
LYN activation was independent of BCR-ABL in cells from imatinib-resistant patients. Thus, LYN kinase may be involved in imatinib resistance in CML patients with mutation-negative BCR-ABL and its direct inhibition is consistent with clinical responses in these patients.
PMCID: PMC2902818  PMID: 18577747

Results 1-17 (17)