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1.  Utility of a Monoclonal ERG/FLI1 Antibody for Immunohistochemical Discrimination of Ewing’s Family Tumors 
Ewing family tumors (EFTs) and prostate carcinomas (PCa) are characterized by rearrangement of ETS genes, most commonly FLI1 (EFTs) and ERG (PCa). Previously, we characterized an antibody against ERG (EPR3864) for detecting ERG-rearranged PCa. EPR3864 also cross reacts with FLI1, thus, here we evaluated the utility of EPR3864 for discriminating EFTs from other small round blue cell tumors (SRBCTs) by immunohistochemistry. Of 57 evaluable EFTs, 47 (82%) demonstrated at least moderate, diffuse, nuclear ERG/FLI1 staining (including 89% and 100% of cases with confirmed EWSR1:FLI1 and EWSR1:ERG fusions, respectively), of which 1, 3 and 43 showed negative, cytoplasmic or membranous CD99 staining, respectively. Amongst other SRBCTs (n=61 cases, 6 types), at least moderate, diffuse, nuclear EPR3864 staining was seen in all precursor-B-lymphoblastic lymphomas/leukemias and subsets of Burkitt’s lymphomas (10%) and synovial sarcomas (45%). In summary, EPR3864 may have utility for detecting EWSR1:FLI1 and EWSR1:ERG rearranged EFTs, in addition to PCa.
doi:10.1309/AJCPN4L1BMRQPEIT
PMCID: PMC3662488  PMID: 23690120
EPR3864; EWSR1:FLI1; EWSR1:ERG; Ewing’s tumor
3.  Trop-2 promotes prostate cancer metastasis by modulating β1 integrin functions 
Cancer research  2013;73(10):3155-3167.
The molecular mechanisms underlying metastatic dissemination are still not completely understood. We have recently shown that β1 integrin-dependent cell adhesion to fibronectin (FN) and signaling are affected by a transmembrane molecule, Trop-2, which is frequently upregulated in human carcinomas. Here we report that Trop-2 promotes metastatic dissemination of prostate cancer cells in vivo and is abundantly expressed in metastasis from human prostate cancer. We also show here that Trop-2 promotes prostate cancer cell migration on FN, a phenomenon dependent on β1 integrins. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that Trop-2 and the α5β1 integrin associate through their extracellular domains, causing relocalization of α5β1 and the β1-associated molecule talin from focal adhesions to the leading edges. Trop-2 effect is specific since this molecule does not modulate migration on vitronectin (VN), does not associate with the major VN receptor, αvβ3 integrin, and does not affect localization of αvβ3 integrin as well as vinculin in focal adhesions. We show that Trop-2 enhances directional prostate cancer cell migration, through modulation of Rac1 GTPase activity. Finally, we demonstrate that Trop-2 induces activation of PAK4, a kinase that has been reported to mediate cancer cell migration. In conclusion, we provide the first evidence that β1 integrin-dependent migratory and metastatic competence of prostate cancer cells is enhanced by Trop-2.
doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-12-3266
PMCID: PMC3655712  PMID: 23536555
4.  CCL11 (Eotaxin-1): A New Diagnostic Serum Marker for Prostate Cancer 
The Prostate  2012;73(6):573-581.
Background
The recent recommendation of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force against PSA-based screening for prostate cancer was based, in part, on the lack of demonstrated diagnostic utility of serum PSA values in the low, but detectable range to successfully predict prostate cancer. Though controversial, this recommendation reinforced the critical need to develop, validate, and determine the utility of other serum and/or urine transcript and protein markers as diagnostic markers for PCa. The studies described here were intended to determine whether inflammatory cytokines might augment serum PSA as a diagnostic marker for prostate cancer.
Methods
Multiplex ELISA assays were performed to quantify CCL1, CCL2, CCL5, CCL8, CCL11, CCL17, CXCL1, CXCL5, CXCL8, CXCL10, CXCL12, and IL-6 protein levels in the serum of 272 men demonstrating serum PSA values of < 10 ng/ml and undergoing a 12 core diagnostic needle biopsy for detection of prostate cancer. Logistic regression was used to identify the associations between specific chemokines and prostate cancer status adjusted for prostate volume, and baseline PSA.
Results
Serum levels for CCL1 (I-309) were significantly elevated among all men with enlarged prostates (p<.04). Serum levels for CCL11 (Eotaxin-1) were significantly elevated among men with prostate cancer regardless of prostate size (p<.01). The remaining 10 cytokines examined in this study did not exhibit significant correlations with either prostate volume or cancer status.
Conclusions
Serum CCL11 values may provide a useful diagnostic tool to help distinguish between prostatic enlargement and prostate cancer among men demonstrating low, but detectable, serum PSA values.
doi:10.1002/pros.22597
PMCID: PMC3594486  PMID: 23059958
prostate; cancer; serum; CCL11; Eotaxin-1; serum; biomarker
6.  Circulating fibroblast-like cells in men with metastatic prostate cancer 
The Prostate  2012;73(2):176-181.
Background
Metastatic prostate cancer is an incurable disease. During the development of this disease, prostate cancer cells enter the bloodstream as single cells or clusters of cells. Prostate fibroblasts, a cancer-promoting cell type in the prostate cancer microenvironment, could in theory incorporate into these migrating cell clusters or follow cancer cells into the bloodstream through holes in the tumor vasculature. Based on this idea, we hypothesized that fibroblast-like cells, defined here as cytokeratin 8/18/19−/DAPI+/CD45−/vimentin+ cells, are present in the blood of men with metastatic prostate cancer.
Methods
Veridex’s CellSearch® System was used to immunomagnetically capture EpCAM+ cells and clusters of cells heterogeneous for EpCAM expression from the blood of men with metastatic prostate cancer, localized cancer, and no known cancer, and immunostain them for the presence of cytokeratins 8/18/19, a nucleus, CD45, and vimentin. Fibroblast-like cells were then quantified.
Results
Fibroblast-like cells were present in 58.3% of men with metastatic prostate cancer but not in any men with localized prostate cancer or no known cancer. The presence of these cells correlated with certain known indicators of poor prognosis: ≥5 circulating tumor cells, defined here as cytokeratin 8/18/19+/DAPI+/CD45− cells, per 7.5 mL of blood, and a relatively high serum prostate-specific antigen level of ≥20 ng/mL.
Conclusions
The presence of fibroblast-like cells in the blood may provide prognostic information as well as information about the biology of metastatic prostate cancer.
doi:10.1002/pros.22553
PMCID: PMC3482413  PMID: 22718300
metastasis; blood; vimentin
7.  Identification of Targetable FGFR Gene Fusions in Diverse Cancers 
Cancer discovery  2013;3(6):636-647.
Through a prospective clinical sequencing program for advanced cancers, four index cases were identified which harbor gene rearrangements of FGFR2 including patients with cholangiocarcinoma, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. After extending our assessment of FGFR rearrangements across multiple tumor cohorts, we identified additional FGFR gene fusions with intact kinase domains in lung squamous cell cancer, bladder cancer, thyroid cancer, oral cancer, glioblastoma, and head and neck squamous cell cancer. All FGFR fusion partners tested exhibit oligomerization capability, suggesting a shared mode of kinase activation. Overexpression of FGFR fusion proteins induced cell proliferation. Two bladder cancer cell lines that harbor FGFR3 fusion proteins exhibited enhanced susceptibility to pharmacologic inhibition in vitro and in vivo. Due to the combinatorial possibilities of FGFR family fusion to a variety of oligomerization partners, clinical sequencing efforts which incorporate transcriptome analysis for gene fusions are poised to identify rare, targetable FGFR fusions across diverse cancer types.
doi:10.1158/2159-8290.CD-13-0050
PMCID: PMC3694764  PMID: 23558953
MI-ONCOSEQ; integrative clinical sequencing; FGFR fusions; driver mutations; therapeutic targets
8.  Novel Dual Color Immunohistochemical methods for detecting ERG-PTEN and ERG-SPINK1 status in prostate carcinoma 
Identification of new molecular markers has led to the molecular classification of prostate cancer based on driving genetic lesions. The translation of these discoveries for clinical use necessitates the development of simple, reliable and rapid detection systems to screen patients for specific molecular aberrations. We developed two dual color immunohistochemistry-based assays for the simultaneous assessment of ERG-PTEN and ERG-SPINK1 in prostate cancer. A total of 232 cases from 184 localized and 48 metastatic prostate cancers were evaluated for ERG-PTEN and 284 cases from 228 localized and 56 metastatic prostate cancers were evaluated for ERG-SPINK1. Of the 232 cases evaluated for ERG-PTEN, 81 (35%) ERG positive and 77 (33%) PTEN deleted cases were identified. Of the 81 ERG positive cases, PTEN loss was confirmed in 35 (15%) cases by fluorescence in situ hybridization. PTEN status was concordant in 203 cases (Sensitivity 90%; Specificity 87% (p<0.0001) by both immunohistochemisty and FISH, however, immunohistochemisty could not distinguish between heterozygous and homozygous deletion status of PTEN. Of the 284 cases evaluated for ERG-SPINK1, 111 (39%) cases were positive for ERG. In the remaining 173 ERG negative cases; SPINK1 was positive in 26 (9 %) cases. SPINK1 expression was found to be mutually exclusive with ERG expression; however, we identified two cases, of which, one showed concomitant expression of ERG and SPINK1 in the same tumor foci and in the second case ERG and SPINK1 was seen in two independent foci of the same tumor nodule. Unlike the homogenous ERG staining in cancer tissues, heterogeneous SPINK1 staining was observed in the majority of the cases. Further studies are required to understand the molecular heterogeneity of cases with concomitant ERG-SPINK1 expression. Automated dual ERG-PTEN and ERG-SPINK1 immunohistochemisty assays are simple, reliable and portable across study sites for the simultaneous assessment of these proteins in prostate cancer.
doi:10.1038/modpathol.2012.234
PMCID: PMC3672354  PMID: 23348902
Prostate cancers; Immunohistochemistry; Fluorescent in situ hybridization; Tissue Microarray
9.  Correlation of Urine TMPRSS2:ERG and PCA3 to ERG+ and Total Prostate Cancer Burden 
ERG rearrangements, (most commonly TMPRSS2: ERG [T2:ERG] gene fusions), have been identified in approximately 50% of prostate cancers (PCa). Quantification of T2:ERG in post-DRE urine, in combination with PCA3, improves the performance of serum PSA for PCa prediction on biopsy Here we compared urine T2:ERG and PCA3 scores to ERG+ (determined by immunohistochemistry) and total prostate cancer burden in 41 mapped prostatectomies. Prostatectomies had a median of 3 tumor foci (range: 1–15) and 2.6 cm of summed linear tumor dimension (range: 0.6–7.1 cm). Urine T2:ERG score most correlated with summed linear ERG+ tumor dimension and number of ERG+ foci (rs=0.68 and 0.67, respectively, both p<0.001). Urine PCA3 score showed weaker correlation with both number of tumor foci (rs=0.34, p=0.03) and summed linear tumor dimension (rs=0.26, p=0.10). In summary, we demonstrate a strong correlation between urine T2:ERG score and total ERG+ PCa burden at prostatectomy, consistent with high tumor specificity.
doi:10.1309/AJCPU7PPWUPYG8OH
PMCID: PMC3597433  PMID: 23086769
TMPRSS2:ERG; prostate cancer; PCA3; urine
10.  Identification of Recurrent NAB2-STAT6 Gene Fusions in Solitary Fibrous Tumor by Integrative Sequencing 
Nature genetics  2013;45(2):180-185.
A 44-year old woman with recurrent solitary fibrous tumor (SFT)/hemangiopericytoma was enrolled in a clinical sequencing program including whole exome and transcriptome sequencing. A gene fusion of the transcriptional repressor NAB2 with the transcriptional activator STAT6 was detected. Transcriptome sequencing of 27 additional SFTs all revealed the presence of a NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion. Using RT-PCR and sequencing, we detected this fusion in 51 of 51 SFTs, indicating high levels of recurrence. Expression of NAB2-STAT6 fusion proteins was confirmed in SFT, and the predicted fusion products harbor the early growth response (EGR)-binding domain of NAB2 fused to the activation domain of STAT6. Overexpression of the NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion induced proliferation in cultured cells and activated EGR-responsive genes. These studies establish NAB2-STAT6 as the defining driver mutation of SFT and provide an example of how neoplasia can be initiated by converting a transcriptional repressor of mitogenic pathways into a transcriptional activator.
doi:10.1038/ng.2509
PMCID: PMC3654808  PMID: 23313952
11.  Antibody Based Detection of ERG Rearrangements in Prostate Core Biopsies, Including Diagnostically Challenging Cases 
Context
Fusions of androgen-regulated genes and v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (avian) (ERG) occur in ~50% of prostate cancers, encoding a truncated ERG product. In prostatectomy specimens, ERG-rearrangements are >99% specific for prostate cancer or high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) adjacent to ERG-rearranged prostate cancer by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC).
Objective
To evaluate ERG staining by IHC on needle biopsies, including diagnostically challenging cases.
Design
Biopsies from a retrospective cohort (n=111) enriched in cores requiring diagnostic IHC and a prospective cohort from all cases over 3 months (n=311) were stained with an anti-ERG antibody (clone EPR3864).
Results
Amongst evaluable cores (n=418), ERG staining was confined to cancerous epithelium (71/160 cores, 44%), HGPIN (12/68 cores, 18%) and atypical foci (3/28 cores, 11%), with staining in only 2/162 (1%) cores diagnosed as benign. ERG was expressed in ~5 morphologically benign glands across 418 cores, and was uniformly expressed by all cancerous glands in 70/71 cores.
Conclusions
ERG staining is more prostate cancer-specific than alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR), and staining in an atypical focus supports a diagnosis of cancer if HGPIN can be excluded. Thus, ERG staining shows utility in diagnostically challenging biopsies and may be useful in molecularly subtyping prostate cancer and risk stratifying isolated HGPIN.
doi:10.5858/arpa.2011-0424-OA
PMCID: PMC3667408  PMID: 22849743
12.  Circulating microRNA Profiling Identifies a Subset of Metastatic Prostate Cancer Patients with Evidence of Cancer-Associated Hypoxia 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e69239.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (∼22 nucleotide) non-coding RNAs that regulate a myriad of biological processes and are frequently dysregulated in cancer. Cancer-associated microRNAs have been detected in serum and plasma and hold promise as minimally invasive cancer biomarkers, potentially for assessing disease characteristics in patients with metastatic disease that is difficult to biopsy. Here we used miRNA profiling to identify cancer-associated miRNAs that are differentially expressed in sera from patients with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) as compared to healthy controls. Of 365 miRNAs profiled, we identified five serum miRNAs (miR-141, miR-200a, miR-200c, miR-210 and miR-375) that were elevated in cases compared to controls across two independent cohorts. One of these, miR-210, is a known transcriptional target of the hypoxia-responsive HIF-1α signaling pathway. Exposure of cultured prostate cancer cells to hypoxia led to induction of miR-210 and its release into the extracellular environment. Moreover, we found that serum miR-210 levels varied widely amongst mCRPC patients undergoing therapy, and correlated with treatment response as assessed by change in PSA. Our results suggest that (i) cancer-associated hypoxia is a frequent, previously under-appreciated characteristic of mCRPC, and (ii) serum miR-210 may be further developed as a predictive biomarker in patients with this distinct disease biology.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069239
PMCID: PMC3728349  PMID: 23935962
13.  Characterization of the EZH2-MMSET Histone Methyltransferase Regulatory Axis in Cancer 
Molecular cell  2012;49(1):80-93.
Summary
Histone methyltransferases (HMTases), as chromatin modifiers, regulate the transcriptomic landscape in normal development as well in diseases such as cancer. Here, we molecularly order two HMTases, EZH2 and MMSET that have established genetic links to oncogenesis. EZH2, which mediates histone H3K27 trimethylation and is associated with gene silencing, was shown to be coordinately expressed and function upstream of MMSET, which mediates H3K36 dimethylation and is associated with active transcription. We found that the EZH2-MMSET HMTase axis is coordinated by a microRNA network and that the oncogenic functions of EZH2 require MMSET activity. Together, these results suggest that the EZH2-MMSET HMTase axis coordinately functions as a master regulator of transcriptional repression, activation, and oncogenesis and may represent an attractive therapeutic target in cancer.
doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2012.10.008
PMCID: PMC3547524  PMID: 23159737
14.  Variable Reference Alignment: an improved peak alignment protocol for NMR spectral data with large inter-sample variation 
Analytical Chemistry  2012;84(12):5372-5379.
In an effort to address the variable correspondence problem across large sample cohorts common in metabolomic/metabonomic studies, we have developed a pre-alignment protocol that aims to generate spectral segments sharing a common target spectrum. Under the assumption that a single reference spectrum will not correctly represent all spectra of a data set, the goal of this approach is to perform local alignment corrections on spectral regions which share a common ‘most similar’ spectrum. A natural beneficial outcome of this procedure is the automatic definition of spectral segments, a feature that is not common to all alignment methods. This protocol is shown to specifically improve the quality of alignment in 1H NMR data sets exhibiting large inter-sample compositional variation (e.g. pH, ionic strength). As a proof-of-principle demonstration, we have utilized two recently developed alignment algorithms specific to NMR data, recursive segment-wise peak alignment and interval correlated shifting and applied them to two data sets comprised of 15 aqueous cell line extract and 20 human urine 1H NMR profiles. Application of this protocol represents a fundamental shift from current alignment methodologies that seek to correct misalignments utilizing a single representative spectrum, with the added benefit that it can be appended to any alignment algorithm.
doi:10.1021/ac301327k
PMCID: PMC3381959  PMID: 22616856
Metabolomic; alignment; NMR; urine
15.  The Mutational Landscape of Lethal Castrate Resistant Prostate Cancer 
Nature  2012;487(7406):239-243.
Characterization of the prostate cancer transcriptome and genome has identified chromosomal rearrangements and copy number gains/losses, including ETS gene fusions, PTEN loss and androgen receptor (AR) amplification, that drive prostate cancer development and progression to lethal, metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC)1. As less is known about the role of mutations2–4, here we sequenced the exomes of 50 lethal, heavily-pretreated metastatic CRPCs obtained at rapid autopsy (including three different foci from the same patient) and 11 treatment naïve, high-grade localized prostate cancers. We identified low overall mutation rates even in heavily treated CRPC (2.00/Mb) and confirmed the monoclonal origin of lethal CRPC. Integrating exome copy number analysis identified disruptions of CHD1, which define a subtype of ETS fusionnegative prostate cancer. Similarly, we demonstrate that ETS2, which is deleted in ~1/3 of CRPCs (commonly through TMPRSS2:ERG fusions), is also deregulated through mutation. Further, we identified recurrent mutations in multiple chromatin/histone modifying genes, including MLL2 (mutated in 8.6% of prostate cancers), and demonstrate interaction of the MLL complex with AR, which is required for AR-mediated signaling. We also identified novel recurrent mutations in the AR collaborating factor FOXA1, which is mutated in 5 of 147 (3.4%) prostate cancers (both untreated localized prostate cancer and CRPC), and showed that mutated FOXA1 represses androgen signaling and increases tumour growth. Proteins that physically interact with AR, such as the ERG gene fusion product, FOXA1, MLL2, UTX, and ASXL1 were found to be mutated in CRPC. In summary, we describe the mutational landscape of a heavily treated metastatic cancer, identify novel mechanisms of AR signaling deregulated in prostate cancer, and prioritize candidates for future study.
doi:10.1038/nature11125
PMCID: PMC3396711  PMID: 22722839
16.  Combining Urinary Detection of TMPRSS2:ERG and PCA3 with Serum PSA to Predict Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer 
Urologic oncology  2011;null.
Objectives
We sought to develop a clinical algorithm combining serum PSA with detection of TMPRSS2:ERG fusion and PCA3 in urine collected after digital rectal exam (post-DRE urine) to predict prostate cancer on subsequent biopsy.
Materials and Methods
Post-DRE urine was collected in 48 consecutive patients before prostate biopsy at two centers; qRT-PCR was used to detect PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG fusion transcript expression. Serum PSA was measured by clinical assay. The performance of TMPRSS2:ERG fusion, PCA3, and serum PSA as biomarkers predicting prostate cancer at biopsy was measured; a clinically practical algorithm combining serum PSA with TMPRSS2:ERG and PCA3 in post-DRE urine to predict prostate cancer was developed.
Results
Post-DRE urine sediment provided informative RNA in 45 patients; prostate cancer was present on subsequent biopsy in 15. TMPRSS2:ERG in post-DRE urine was associated with prostate cancer (OR = 12.02; p< 0.001). PCA3 had the highest sensitivity in predicting prostate cancer diagnosis (93%), whereas TMPRSS2:ERG had the highest specificity (87%). TMPRSS2:ERG had the greatest discriminatory value in predicting prostate cancer (AUC = 0.77 compared to 0.65 for PCA3 and 0.72 for serum PSA alone). Combining serum PSA, PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG in a multivariable algorithm optimized for clinical utility improved cancer prediction (AUC = 0.88; specificity = 90% at 80% sensitivity).
Conclusions
A clinical algorithm specifying biopsy for all patients with PSA ≥10ng/ml, while restricting biopsy among those with PSA <10ng/ml to only those with detectable PCA3 or TMPRSS2:ERG in post-DRE urine, performed better than the individual biomarkers alone in predicting prostate cancer.
doi:10.1016/j.urolonc.2011.04.001
PMCID: PMC3210917  PMID: 21600800
Screening; DRE; Biomarkers; Cancer Detection; Gene Fusion
17.  Personalized Oncology Through Integrative High-Throughput Sequencing: A Pilot Study 
Science translational medicine  2011;3(111):111ra121.
Individual cancers harbor a set of genetic aberrations that can be informative for identifying rational therapies currently available or in clinical trials. We implemented a pilot study to explore the practical challenges of applying high-throughput sequencing in clinical oncology. We enrolled patients with advanced or refractory cancer who were eligible for clinical trials. For each patient, we performed whole-genome sequencing of the tumor, targeted whole-exome sequencing of tumor and normal DNA, and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) of the tumor to identify potentially informative mutations in a clinically relevant time frame of 3 to 4 weeks. With this approach, we detected several classes of cancer mutations including structural rearrangements, copy number alterations, point mutations, and gene expression alterations. A multidisciplinary Sequencing Tumor Board (STB) deliberated on the clinical interpretation of the sequencing results obtained. We tested our sequencing strategy on human prostate cancer xenografts. Next, we enrolled two patients into the clinical protocol and were able to review the results at our STB within 24 days of biopsy. The first patient had metastatic colorectal cancer in which we identified somatic point mutations in NRAS, TP53, AURKA, FAS, and MYH11, plus amplification and overexpression of cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8). The second patient had malignant melanoma, in which we identified a somatic point mutation in HRAS and a structural rearrangement affecting CDKN2C. The STB identified the CDK8 amplification and Ras mutation as providing a rationale for clinical trials with CDK inhibitors or MEK (mitogenactivated or extracellular signal–regulated protein kinase kinase) and PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase) inhibitors, respectively. Integrative high-throughput sequencing of patients with advanced cancer generates a comprehensive, individual mutational landscape to facilitate biomarker-driven clinical trials in oncology.
doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.3003161
PMCID: PMC3476478  PMID: 22133722
18.  Role of Transcriptional Corepressor CtBP1 in Prostate Cancer Progression12 
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)  2012;14(10):905-914.
Transcriptional repressors and corepressors play a critical role in cellular homeostasis and are frequently altered in cancer. C-terminal binding protein 1 (CtBP1), a transcriptional corepressor that regulates the expression of tumor suppressors and genes involved in cell death, is known to play a role in multiple cancers. In this study, we observed the overexpression and mislocalization of CtBP1 in metastatic prostate cancer and demonstrated the functional significance of CtBP1 in prostate cancer progression. Transient and stable knockdown of CtBP1 in prostate cancer cells inhibited their proliferation and invasion. Expression profiling studies of prostate cancer cell lines revealed that multiple tumor suppressor genes are repressed by CtBP1. Furthermore, our studies indicate a role for CtBP1 in conferring radiation resistance to prostate cancer cell lines. In vivo studies using chicken chorioallantoic membrane assay, xenograft studies, and murine metastasis models suggested a role for CtBP1 in prostate tumor growth and metastasis. Taken together, our studies demonstrated that dysregulated expression of CtBP1 plays an important role in prostate cancer progression and may serve as a viable therapeutic target.
PMCID: PMC3479836  PMID: 23097625
19.  Characterization of bone metastases from rapid autopsies of prostate cancer patients 
Purpose
Bone is the most common metastatic site for prostate cancer, and osseous metastases are the leading cause of morbidity from this disease. Recent autopsy studies prove that 100% of men who die of prostate cancer have bone involvement. Understanding the biology of prostate cancer and its evolution to an incurable androgen independent phenotype requires an understanding of the genetic and cellular alterations that lead to the seeding and proliferation of tumor foci in bone, as well as the microenvironment in which these metastases arise. No intensive studies, however, have been conducted on osseous metastatic tissues from patients with metastatic prostate cancer due to lack of access to such tissues for profiling and other research.
Experimental Design
We demonstrate, for the first time, a reproducible methodology to obtain high quality clinical tumor tissues metastatic to the bone. This technique allowed the procurement of viable metastatic tumor tissue from involved bones in 13 recent autopsies conducted at the University of Michigan, and analyzed the gene expression of these tissues using real time PCR and microarrays.
Results
We present here the discovery of non-ossified bone metastases from multiple patients with advanced prostate cancer and their subsequent characterization and comparison to non-osseous metastases from the same patients
Conclusion
This represents a versatile and practical approach that may be employed to characterize the steps in metastasis and the phenotypic characteristics of osseous metastasis of prostate cancer and to profile RNA, DNA and cDNA from tumor samples metastatic to the bone.
doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-10-3120
PMCID: PMC3117947  PMID: 21555375
Bone marrow; tumor; metastatic prostate cancer
20.  Functionally Recurrent Rearrangements of the MAST Kinase and Notch Gene Families in Breast Cancer 
Nature Medicine  2011;17(12):1646-1651.
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, exhibiting a wide range of molecular aberrations and clinical outcomes. Here we employed paired-end transcriptome sequencing to explore the landscape of gene fusions in a panel of breast cancer cell lines and tissues. We observed that individual breast cancers harbor an array of expressed gene fusions. We identified two classes of recurrent gene rearrangements involving microtubule associated serine-threonine kinase (MAST) and Notch family genes. Both MAST and Notch family gene fusions exerted significant phenotypic effects in breast epithelial cells. Breast cancer lines harboring Notch gene rearrangements are uniquely sensitive to inhibition of Notch signaling, and over-expression of MAST1 or MAST2 gene fusions had a proliferative effect both in vitro and in vivo. These findings illustrate that recurrent gene rearrangements play significant roles in subsets of carcinomas and suggest that transcriptome sequencing may serve to identify patients with rare, actionable gene fusions.
doi:10.1038/nm.2580
PMCID: PMC3233654  PMID: 22101766
21.  Mechanistic Rationale for Inhibition of Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase in ETS Gene Fusion-Positive Prostate Cancer 
Cancer cell  2011;19(5):664-678.
Summary
Recurrent fusions of ETS genes are considered driving mutations in a diverse array of cancers, including Ewing’s sarcoma, acute myeloid leukemia, and prostate cancer. We investigate the mechanisms by which ETS fusions mediate their effects, and find that the product of the predominant ETS gene fusion, TMPRSS2:ERG, interacts in a DNA-independent manner with the enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) and the catalytic subunit of DNA protein kinase (DNA-PKcs). ETS gene-mediated transcription and cell invasion require PARP1 and DNA-PKcs expression and activity. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of PARP1 inhibits ETS positive, but not ETS negative, prostate cancer xenograft growth. Finally, overexpression of the TMPRSS2:ERG fusion induces DNA damage, which is potentiated by PARP1 inhibition in a manner similar to that of BRCA1/2-deficiency.
doi:10.1016/j.ccr.2011.04.010
PMCID: PMC3113473  PMID: 21575865
Prostate; Rearrangement; Gene Fusion; TMPRSS2; ERG; DNA-PKcs; PARP1
22.  Activation of NF-kB by TMPRSS2/ERG fusion isoforms through Toll-like receptor-4 
Cancer research  2010;71(4):1325-1333.
The TMPRSS2/ERG (T/E) fusion gene is present and thought to be an oncogenic driver of approximately half of all prostate cancers. Fusion of the androgen regulated TMPRSS2 promoter to the ERG oncogene results in constitutive high level expression of ERG which promotes prostate cancer invasion and proliferation. Here we report the characterization of multiple alternatively spliced T/E fusion gene isoforms which have differential affects on invasion and proliferation. We found that T/E fusion gene isoforms differentially increase NF-κB mediated transcription, which may explain in part the differences in biological activities of the T/E fusion isoforms. This increased activity is due to phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 on Ser536. Tissue microarray immunochemistry revealed that p65 phospho-Ser536 is present in the majority of prostate cancers where it is associated with ERG protein expression. The T/E fusion gene isoforms differentially increase expression of a number of NF-κB associated genes including PAR1, CCL2, FOS, TLR3 and TLR4 (Toll-like receptor 4). TLR4 activation is known to promote p65 Ser536 phosphorylation and knockdown of TLR4 with ShRNA decreases Ser536 phosphorylation in T/E fusion gene expressing cells. TLR4 can be activated by proteins in the tumor microenvironment and lipopolysacharide from Gram (−) bacteria. Our findings suggest that bacterial infection of the prostate and/or endogenous microenvironment proteins may promote progression of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and/or prostate cancers that express the T/E fusion gene, where the NF-κB pathway might be targeted as a rational therapeutic approach.
doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-2210
PMCID: PMC3041849  PMID: 21169414
prostate cancer; NF-κB; ERG; fusion gene
23.  Urine TMPRSS2:ERG fusion transcript stratifies prostate cancer risk in men with elevated serum PSA 
Science translational medicine  2011;3(94):94ra72.
More than 1,000,000 men undergo prostate biopsy each year in the United States, most for “elevated” serum prostate specific antigen (PSA). Given the lack of specificity and unclear mortality benefit of PSA testing, methods to individualize management of elevated PSA are needed. Greater than 50% of PSA-screened prostate cancers harbor fusions between the transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (avian) (ERG) genes. Here, we report a clinical-grade, transcription-mediated amplification assay to risk stratify and detect prostate cancer noninvasively in urine. The TMPRSS2:ERG fusion transcript was quantitatively measured in prospectively collected whole urine from 1312 men at multiple centers. Urine TMPRSS2:ERG was associated with indicators of clinically significant cancer at biopsy and prostatectomy, including tumor size, high Gleason score at prostatectomy, and upgrading of Gleason grade at prostatectomy. TMPRSS2:ERG, in combination with urine prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3), improved the performance of the multivariate Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial risk calculator in predicting cancer on biopsy. In the biopsy cohorts, men in the highest and lowest of three TMPRSS2:ERG+PCA3 score groups had markedly different rates of cancer, clinically significant cancer by Epstein criteria, and high-grade cancer on biopsy. Our results demonstrate that urine TMPRSS2:ERG, in combination with urine PCA3, enhances the utility of serum PSA for predicting prostate cancer risk and clinically relevant cancer on biopsy.
doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.3001970
PMCID: PMC3245713  PMID: 21813756
24.  Transcriptome Sequencing Identifies PCAT-1, a Novel lincRNA Implicated in Prostate Cancer Progression 
Nature biotechnology  2011;29(8):742-749.
High-throughput sequencing of polyA+ RNA (RNA-Seq) in human cancer shows remarkable potential to identify both novel markers of disease and uncharacterized aspects of tumor biology, particularly non-coding RNA (ncRNA) species. We employed RNA-Seq on a cohort of 102 prostate tissues and cells lines and performed ab initio transcriptome assembly to discover unannotated ncRNAs. We nominated 121 such Prostate Cancer Associated Transcripts (PCATs) with cancer-specific expression patterns. Among these, we characterized PCAT-1 as a novel prostate-specific regulator of cell proliferation and target of the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2). We further found that high PCAT-1 and PRC2 expression stratified patient tissues into molecular subtypes distinguished by expression signatures of PCAT-1-repressed target genes. Taken together, the findings presented herein identify PCAT-1 as a novel transcriptional repressor implicated in subset of prostate cancer patients. These findings establish the utility of RNA-Seq to identify disease-associated ncRNAs that may improve the stratification of cancer subtypes.
doi:10.1038/nbt.1914
PMCID: PMC3152676  PMID: 21804560
prostate cancer; transcriptome; next generation sequencing; non-coding RNA; EZH2
25.  Investigation on Tumor Hypoxia in Resectable Primary Prostate Cancer as Demonstrated by 18F-FAZA PET/CT Utilizing Multi-Modality Fusion Techniques 
Purpose
As hypoxia is believed to play an important role in the development and progression of prostate cancer, we evaluated whether 18F-labelled Fluoroazomycin Arabinoside (18F-FAZA) would be useful to identify tumor hypoxia in resectable prostate cancer.
Methods
PET/CT was performed on 14 patients with untreated localized primary prostate cancer 3 hours post injection of approximately 390 MBq of 18F-FAZA using forced diuresis to decrease radioactivity in the urinary bladder. Anatomical transpelvic coil and pre- and post-contrast 1.5 T MRI with endorectal coil were performed on the same day. Patients underwent radical prostatectomy and ex-vivo 3T MRI of the prostatectomy specimen within 14 days following in-vivo imaging. Imaging results were verified by whole mount histopathology plus tissue microarray (TMA) immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis for carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) and HIF-1α. Registration of in-vivo imaging with histology was achieved using mutual information software and performing ex-vivo MRI of the prostatectomy specimen and whole mount sectioning with block face photography as intermediate steps.
Results
Whole mount histology identified 43 tumor nodules, 19 of them larger than 1 ml as determined on coregistered volumes featuring 18F-FAZA, MRI and histological 3D image information. None of these lesions was found to be positive for CAIX or visualized by 18F-FAZA PET/CT while IHC for HIF-1α showed variable staining of tumor tissues. Accordingly, no correlation was found between 18F-FAZA uptake and Gleason scores.
Conclusion
Our data based on 18F-FAZA PET/CT and CAIX IHC do not support the presence of clinically relevant hypoxia in localized primary prostate cancer including high-grade disease. Activation of HIF-1α may be independent on tissue hypoxia in primary prostate cancer.
doi:10.1007/s00259-011-1876-z
PMCID: PMC3259612  PMID: 21833840
Hypoxia; Fluoroazomycin Arabinoside; 18F-FAZA; PET/CT; PET/MRI fusion; HIF-1α; CAIX; MIB-1/Ki67; Immunohistochemistry; Prostate cancer

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