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1.  Independent and epistatic effects of variants in VPS10-d receptors on Alzheimer disease risk and processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) 
Translational Psychiatry  2013;3(5):e256-.
Genetic variants in the sortilin-related receptor (SORL1) and the sortilin-related vacuolar protein sorting 10 (VPS10) domain-containing receptor 1 (SORCS1) are associated with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD), declining cognitive function and altered amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing. We explored whether other members of the (VPS10) domain-containing receptor protein family (the sortilin-related VPS10 domain-containing receptors 2 and 3 (SORCS2 and SORCS3) and sortilin (SORT1)) would have similar effects either independently or together. We conducted the analyses in a large Caucasian case control data set (n=11 840 cases, 10 931 controls) to determine the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in all the five homologous genes and AD risk. Evidence for interactions between SNPs in the five VPS10 domain receptor family genes was determined in epistatic statistical models. We also compared expression levels of SORCS2, SORCS3 and SORT1 in AD and control brains using microarray gene expression analyses and assessed the effects of these genes on γ-secretase processing of APP. Several SNPs in SORL1, SORCS1, SORCS2 and SORCS3 were associated with AD. In addition, four specific linkage disequilibrium blocks in SORCS1, SORCS2 and SORCS3 showed additive epistatic effects on the risk of AD (P⩽0.0006). SORCS3, but not SORCS2 or SORT1, showed reduced expression in AD compared with control brains, but knockdown of all the three genes using short hairpin RNAs in HEK293 cells caused a significant threefold increase in APP processing (from P<0.001 to P<0.05). These findings indicate that in addition to SORL1 and SORCS1, variants in other members of the VPS10 domain receptor family (that is, SORCS1, SORCS2, SORCS3) are associated with AD risk and alter APP processing. More importantly, the results indicate that variants within these genes have epistatic effects on AD risk.
PMCID: PMC3669917  PMID: 23673467
Alzheimer's disease; SORCS2; SORCS3; SORT1
2.  Mutations in the TSGA14 gene in families with autism spectrum disorders 
Linkage to 7q has been the most robust genetic finding in familial autism. A previous scan of multiplex families with autism spectrum disorders found a linkage signal of genome-wide significance at D7S530 on 7q32. We searched a candidate imprinted region at this location for genetic variants in families with positive linkage scores. Using exon resequencing, we identified three rare potentially pathogenic variants in the TSGA14 gene, which encodes a centrosomal protein. Two variants were missense mutations (c.664C>G; p.P206A and c.766T>G; p.C240G) that changed conserved residues in the same protein domain; the third variant (c.192+5G>A) altered splicing, which resulted in a protein with an internal deletion of 16 residues and a G33D substitution. These rare TSGA14 variants are enriched in the affected subjects (6/348 patients versus 2/670 controls, Fisher's exact two tailed p= 0.022). This is the first report of a possible link of a gene with a centrosomal function with familial autism.
PMCID: PMC3552624  PMID: 21438139
autism spectrum disorders; chromosome 7q; TSGA14 gene; RNA splicing; centrosome
3.  Follow-up of loci from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Disease Project identifies TRIP4 as a novel susceptibility gene 
Translational Psychiatry  2014;4(2):e358-.
To follow-up loci discovered by the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Disease Project, we attempted independent replication of 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a large Spanish sample (Fundació ACE data set; 1808 patients and 2564 controls). Our results corroborate association with four SNPs located in the genes INPP5D, MEF2C, ZCWPW1 and FERMT2, respectively. Of these, ZCWPW1 was the only SNP to withstand correction for multiple testing (P=0.000655). Furthermore, we identify TRIP4 (rs74615166) as a novel genome-wide significant locus for Alzheimer's disease risk (odds ratio=1.31; confidence interval 95% (1.19–1.44); P=9.74 × 10−9).
PMCID: PMC3944635  PMID: 24495969
dementia risk; DNA; GWAS; molecular epidemiology; SNP; thyroid receptor
4.  ABCB1 Genotype and CSF β-Amyloid in Alzheimer Disease 
The ABCB1 gene, coding for the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (PGP), is a candidate gene for Alzheimer disease (AD). P-glycoprotein is heavily expressed at the blood–brain barrier, where it mediates the efflux of β-amyloid (Aβ) from the brain. In this study, we investigated a possible association between 2 common ABCB1 polymorphisms, G2677T/A (Ala893Ser/Thr) and C3435T, AD, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of Aβ. No strong evidence for association was found.
PMCID: PMC3293495  PMID: 21478475
Alzheimer disease; dementia; P-glycoprotein; MDR1; ABCB1; association study
5.  APP Processing Genes and Cerebrospinal Fluid APP Cleavage Product Levels in Alzheimer’s Disease 
Neurobiology of aging  2010;32(3):556.e13-556.e23.
The aim of this exploratory investigation was to determine if genetic variation within APP or its processing enzymes correlates with APP cleavage product levels: APPα, APPβ or Aβ42, in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of cognitively normal subjects or Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients. Cognitively normal control subjects (n=170) and AD patients (n=92) were genotyped for 19 putative regulatory tagging SNPs within nine genes (APP, ADAM10, BACE1, BACE2, PSEN1, PSEN2, PEN2, NCSTN and APH1B) involved in the APP processing pathway. SNP genotypes were tested for their association with CSF APPα, APPβ, and Aβ42, AD risk and age-at-onset while taking into account age, gender, race and APOE ε4. After adjusting for multiple comparisons a significant association was found between ADAM10 SNP rs514049 and APPα levels. In controls, the rs514049 CC genotype had higher APPα levels than the CA,AA collapsed genotype, whereas the opposite effect was seen in AD patients. These results suggest that genetic variationwithin ADAM10, an APP processing gene, influences CSF APPα levels in an AD specific manner.
PMCID: PMC3065534  PMID: 21196064
APP; ADAM10; BACE1; BACE2; PSEN1; PSEN2; PEN2; NCSTN; APH1B; Alzheimer’s; Cerebrospinal Fluid
6.  Intranasal Insulin Administration Dose-Dependently Modulates Verbal Memory and Plasma β-Amyloid in Memory-Impaired Older Adults 
Intranasal insulin administration raises central nervous system (CNS) insulin levels in humans and acutely facilitates verbal memory in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), an effect that may differ by APOE genotype. The purpose of this study was to examine the cognitive dose response curves for intranasal insulin administration, and determine whether the effects of insulin differ between participants with (ε4+) and without (ε4−) the APOE- ε4 allele. On separate mornings, 33 memory-impaired adults with AD or amnestic mild cognitive impairment and 59 normal adults each underwent five intranasal treatment conditions consisting of insulin (10, 20, 40, or 60 IU) or placebo. Cognition was tested 15-minutes post-treatment, and blood was acquired at baseline and 45-minutes post-treatment. Plasma insulin and glucose levels were unaffected by treatment. Insulin administration facilitated recall on two measures of verbal memory in memory-impaired ε4− adults, with performance generally peaking at 20 IU. In contrast, memory-impaired ε4+ subjects demonstrated a relative decline in verbal memory. Insulin also differentially modulated plasma β-amyloid for memory-impaired subjects and normal controls, effects that again differed by APOE genotype. These findings suggest that groups with different genetic risks for AD may show differential dose-response curves following intranasal insulin administration.
PMCID: PMC2804944  PMID: 18430999
Intranasal administration; insulin; memory; β-amyloid; Alzheimer’s disease; mild cognitive impairment
7.  Impaired dopaminergic neurotransmission and microtubule-associated protein tau alterations in human LRRK2 transgenic mice 
Neurobiology of disease  2010;40(3):503-517.
Mutations in the Leucine Rich Repeat Kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene, first described in 2004 have now emerged as the most important genetic finding in both autosomal dominant and sporadic Parkinson’s Disease (PD). While a formidable research effort has ensued since the initial gene discovery, little is known of either the normal or the pathological role of LRRK2. We have created lines of mice that express human mutant wild-type (hWT) or G2019S Lrrk2 via bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenesis. In vivo analysis of the dopaminergic system revealed abnormal dopamine neurotransmission in both hWT and G2019S transgenic mice evidenced by a decrease in extra-cellular dopamine levels, which was detected without pharmacological manipulation. Immunopathological analysis revealed changes in localization and increased phosphorylation of microtubule binding protein tau in G2019S mice. Quantitative biochemical analysis confirmed the presence of differential phospho-tau species in G2019S mice but surprisingly, upon dephosphorylation the tau isoform banding pattern in G2019S mice remained altered. This suggests that other post-translational modifications of tau occur in G2019S mice. We hypothesize that Lrrk2 may impact on tau processing which subsequently leads to increased phosphorylation. Our models will be useful for further understanding of the mechanistic actions of LRRK2 and future therapeutic screening.
PMCID: PMC2955774  PMID: 20659558
Parkinson’s Disease; Transgenic; Dopamine; Microdialysis; Neuropathology; Anxiety
8.  A comprehensive analysis of deletions, multiplications, and copy number variations in PARK2 
Neurology  2010;75(13):1189-1194.
To perform a comprehensive population genetic study of PARK2. PARK2 mutations are associated with juvenile parkinsonism, Alzheimer disease, cancer, leprosy, and diabetes mellitus, yet ironically, there has been no comprehensive study of PARK2 in control subjects; and to resolve controversial association of PARK2 heterozygous mutations with Parkinson disease (PD) in a well-powered study.
We studied 1,686 control subjects (mean age 66.1 ± 13.1 years) and 2,091 patients with PD (mean onset age 58.3 ± 12.1 years). We tested for PARK2 deletions/multiplications/copy number variations (CNV) using semiquantitative PCR and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, and validated the mutations by real-time quantitative PCR. Subjects were tested for point mutations previously. Association with PD was tested as PARK2 main effect, and in combination with known PD risk factors: SNCA, MAPT, APOE, smoking, and coffee intake.
A total of 0.95% of control subjects and 0.86% of patients carried a heterozygous CNV mutation. CNV mutations found in 16 control subjects were all in exons 1–4, sparing exons that encode functionally critical protein domains. Thirteen patients had 2 CNV mutations, 5 had 1 CNV and 1 point mutation, and 18 had 1 CNV mutation. Mutations found in patients spanned exons 2–9. In whites, having 1 CNV was not associated with increased risk (odds ratio 1.05, p = 0.89) or earlier onset of PD (64.7 ± 8.6 heterozygous vs 58.5 ± 11.8 normal).
This comprehensive population genetic study in control subjects fills the void for a PARK2 reference dataset. There is no compelling evidence for association of heterozygous PARK2 mutations, by themselves or in combination with known risk factors, with PD.
= autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism;
= confidence interval;
= copy number variation;
= moving average plots;
= multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification;
= NeuroGenetics Research Consortium;
= odds ratio;
= Parkinson disease.
PMCID: PMC3013490  PMID: 20876472
9.  High-density SNP association study and copy number variation analysis of the AUTS1 and AUTS5 loci implicate the IMMP2L–DOCK4 gene region in autism susceptibility 
Molecular Psychiatry  2009;15(9):954-968.
Autism spectrum disorders are a group of highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders with a complex genetic etiology. The International Molecular Genetic Study of Autism Consortium previously identified linkage loci on chromosomes 7 and 2, termed AUTS1 and AUTS5, respectively. In this study, we performed a high-density association analysis in AUTS1 and AUTS5, testing more than 3000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in all known genes in each region, as well as SNPs in non-genic highly conserved sequences. SNP genotype data were also used to investigate copy number variation within these regions. The study sample consisted of 127 and 126 families, showing linkage to the AUTS1 and AUTS5 regions, respectively, and 188 gender-matched controls. Further investigation of the strongest association results was conducted in an independent European family sample containing 390 affected individuals. Association and copy number variant analysis highlighted several genes that warrant further investigation, including IMMP2L and DOCK4 on chromosome 7. Evidence for the involvement of DOCK4 in autism susceptibility was supported by independent replication of association at rs2217262 and the finding of a deletion segregating in a sib-pair family.
PMCID: PMC2934739  PMID: 19401682
autistic disorder; disease susceptibility; single nucleotide polymorphisms; linkage disequilibrium; chromosome 7; chromosome 2

Results 1-9 (9)