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1.  Differences Between African American and White Research Volunteers in Their Attitudes, Beliefs and Knowledge Regarding Genetic Testing for Alzheimer’s Disease 
Journal of genetic counseling  2011;20(6):650-659.
Genetic susceptibility testing for common diseases is expanding, but little is known about race group differences in test perceptions. The purpose of this study was to examine differences between African Americans and Whites in knowledge, attitudes, and motivations regarding genetic susceptibility testing for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Before enrolling in an AD genetic testing research trial, 313 first-degree relatives of AD patients (20% African American; 71% female; mean age = 58 years) were surveyed regarding: (1) knowledge about genetics and AD risk; (2) concerns about developing AD; and (3) reasons for seeking testing. In comparison to Whites, African Americans were less knowledgeable about genetics and AD risk (p<.01) and less concerned about developing AD (p<.05), with lower levels of perceived disease risk (p=.04). The results suggest that African Americans and Whites differ notably in their knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes regarding genetic testing for AD. Additional research with more representative samples is needed to better understand these differences.
PMCID: PMC3223287  PMID: 21656311
Genetic testing; African Americans; Alzheimer’s disease; APOE; Risk assessment; Susceptibility testing; Health beliefs; Health literacy; Health disparities
3.  Evaluation findings from genetics and family health history community-based workshops for African Americans 
The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation and effectiveness of community education workshops to change genetics and health-related knowledge, intentions, and behavior of urban African Americans. Eight workshops were held and 183 participants consented to participate in the study. A majority of the participants were African American (97%) and female (84%) and just over half were 65 years and older (60%), and had some high school or were high school graduates (52%). The community-based workshops were standardized and comprised a 45-min PowerPoint presentation that included group discussions and interactive activities. The evaluation used a pre–post design with a 2-month follow-up. The group as a whole (and the subgroups by age and education level) significantly improved their knowledge of race and genetics from pretest to posttest as measured by their scores on the “Race”, Genetics, and Health knowledge questions. Findings around intentions showed that the largest number of participants pledged to collect family health history information from family members. Findings around behavior changes showed that, along the stages of change continuum, there were more participants at maintenance (stage 5) at the 2-month follow-up than at the pre-workshop for three health-related activities. Feedback was positive as participants indicated they appreciated the information they received and audience involvement. The article discusses local and global implications for practice and research among community health educators.
PMCID: PMC3266965  PMID: 22109910
Genetics education; Family health history; Community-based workshops; African Americans; Program evaluation
4.  Report on the 6th African Society of Human Genetics (AfSHG) Meeting, March 12–15, 2009, Yaoundé, Cameroon 
The African Society of Human Genetics (AfSHG), founded in 2003 with its inaugural meeting in Accra, Ghana,1 has the stated missions of (1) disseminating information about human genetics research in Africa, (2) establishing a mentorship network providing educational resources, including the development of appropriate technology transfer, (3) providing advocacy for human genetic research in Africa, and (4) encouraging collaborative research. Despite its young age, the AfSHG has developed a strong cadre of active researchers, both within and outside of Africa, with more than 400 members (from 16 countries across Africa as well as 8 other countries), and has held six successful meetings, five in Africa and one in the United States.
PMCID: PMC2911163  PMID: 20682860
5.  Social Ecology, Genomics, and African American Health: A Nonlinear Dynamical Perspective 
The Journal of black psychology  2009;35(2):154-179.
This article offers a model that clarifies the degree of interdependence between social ecology and genomic processes. Drawing on principles from nonlinear dynamics, the model delineates major lines of bifurcation involving people's habitat, their family health history, and collective catastrophes experienced by their community. It shows how mechanisms of resource acquisition, depletion, and preservation can lead to disruptions in basic metabolism and in the activity of cytokines, neurotransmitters, and protein kinases, thus giving impetus to epigenetic changes. The hypotheses generated from the model are discussed throughout the article for their relevance to health problems among African Americans. Where appropriate, they are examined in light of data from the National Vital Statistics System. Multiple health outcomes are considered. For any one of them, the model makes clear the unique and converging contributions of multiple antecedent factors.
PMCID: PMC2723851  PMID: 19672481
health; social-ecological factors; genome; African Americans
6.  Incorporating ethnicity into genetic risk assessment for Alzheimer disease: the REVEAL study experience 
To describe how investigators in a multisite randomized clinical trial addressed scientific and ethical issues involved in creating risk models based on genetic testing for African American participants.
The following informed our decision whether to stratify risk assessment by ethnicity: evaluation of epidemiological data, appraisal of benefits and risks of incorporating ethnicity into calculations, and feasibility of creating ethnicity-specific risk curves. Once the decision was made, risk curves were created based on data from a large, diverse study of first-degree relatives of patients with Alzheimer disease.
Review of epidemiological data suggested notable differences in risk between African Americans and whites and that Apolipoprotein E genotype predicts risk in both groups. Discussions about the benefits and risks of stratified risk assessments reached consensus that estimates based on data from whites should not preclude enrolling African Americans, but population-specific risk curves should be created if feasible. Risk models specific to ethnicity, gender, and Apolipoprotein E genotype were subsequently developed for the randomized clinical trial that oversampled African Americans.
The Risk Evaluation and Education for Alzheimer Disease study provides an instructive example of a process to develop risk assessment protocols that are sensitive to the implications of genetic testing for multiple ethnic groups with differing levels of risk.
PMCID: PMC2483343  PMID: 18344711
Alzheimer; ethnicity; genetics; risk; APOE

Results 1-6 (6)